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Newspaper Chains

Introduction

Newspaper chains began to form towards the end of the nineteenth-century, and became a major part of the newspaper publishing landscape in the twentieth. For researchers using newspapers as primary sources, the owner of a publication is of course an important piece of information, but ownership–especially in the case of ownership by a chain–can be surprisingly difficult to determine. At the start of the nineteenth-century, the owner of a newspaper was usually also its publisher, editor, reporter, and printer. By the end of the century, newspapers were heavily capitalized, complex organizations, and roles like owner, publisher, editor, reporter, and printer had increasingly divergent interests. For the owner, the newspaper was usually a business first and foremost, and newspapers were bought and sold with considerable frequency. Sometimes a newspaper owner would purchase a competing newspaper for the sole purpose of closing it and eliminating competition. The pace of ownership change increased rapidly towards the end of the twentieth-century. In the case of the chains, the owner was rarely identical with the publisher. If a chain bought a newspaper, it would often keep the existing publisher in place. As chains grew, they split into regional divisions–often these divisions had originally been smaller chains that the larger chain subsequently purchased, or else the chain formed divisions out of multiple, geographically contiguous newspapers. These divisions would be given their own names, and sometimes these names were substituted for the name of the publisher. Chains also sometimes spun these divisions off as completely separate companies. In short, the name of the publisher will commonly obscure the identity of the true owner. And, because newspapers were frequently bought and sold, it can be especially difficult to know who owned which newspapers, and when. This guide lists the major newspaper chains, and the newspapers they owned (along with dates of ownership).

Difference Between a Chain and a Syndicate

A newspaper chain is a group of newspapers that share a common owner. A chain can be privately held, and owned by a single person or group of people (often a family), or it can be a publicly held corporation.

A newspaper syndicate is a business that supplies news and other editorial matter like features, photographs, and cartoons to newspapers. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, newspaper syndicates could supply as much as half a newspaper’s total content, including advertising matter.

Role of Associated Press Membership

Prior to 1950, Associated Press (AP) memberships were a driving force behind the selling and purchasing of newspapers. For almost a century, AP bylaws effectively restricted memberships to a single newspaper within any given geographic market by giving member newspapers the de facto power to block membership applications from competing papers. This technicality made AP memberships extremely valuable. A member newspaper, even if it was failing, could be purchased for the value of its AP membership alone, and this practice was fairly common prior to a 1945 Supreme Court ruling (United States v. Associated Press 326 U.S. 1) that found this AP bylaw to be in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (26 Stat. 206).

These obstacles to obtaining AP wire service helped drive the formation of chains, because chains created economies of scale that made possible the kind of cooperative news sharing enjoyed by AP members. In 1907, Scripps created his own news syndicate, the United Press to supply news wire service to his own newspapers.

How to Use this Guide

Under each chain, the newspapers are organized geographically by state and city. Title words that indicate place of publication (e.g. “Los Angeles”), frequency of publication (e.g. “daily”), or time of publication (e.g. “morning”) are not included. Also, title changes are only recorded when the change resulted from a change in the chain’s ownership profile (usually a merger of a recently purchased newspaper with a newspaper already owned by the chain), and these title changes are indented beneath the names of the antecedent papers.

An (m) indicates a morning newspaper. An (e) indicates an evening newspaper. A (w) indicates a weekly newspaper. An (m-e) indicates an “all-day newspaper”. “All-day” newspapers became popular in the 1950s, and usually issued at least one edition in the  morning, and one in the evening.

An asterisk (*) next to the name of the newspaper indicates a newspaper that was established by the chain (as opposed to a newspaper the chain came to own through a purchase). A dagger (†) next to the name of the newspaper indicates a newspaper that ceased under the chain’s ownership. No dagger means the newspaper continued to be published, either under a different name (see above) or under different ownership (i.e. the newspaper was sold).

Scripps / Scripps-McRae / Scripps-Howard

Edward W. Scripps is generally considered the founder of the modern newspaper chain. His first newspaper was the Cleveland Penny Press, which he began in 1878 with a cousin and two half-brothers. Scripps tended to establish or purchase evening newspapers in mid-sized cities, with a few forays into major metropolitan markets. His papers were inexpensive, and characterized by a large number of short articles (as opposed to a smaller number of long articles) per issue. Scripps was a progressive, and so were his newspapers. He severely limited advertising space, for example, so as to curb the influence of big money on his newspapers, and he was generally pro-labor. From 1890 to 1921, the chain was officially called Scripps-McRae. In 1921, the name was changed to Scripps-Howard to reflect the contributions of Roy Howard. The chain became more editorially conservative in the 1930s. After a merger with Journal Communications (owner of Milwaukee Journal) in 2014, all Scripps and Journal newspapers were spun off into a separate, publicly traded company called Journal Media Group. Journal Media Group was acquired by Gannett in 2015.

  • Alabama
    • Birmingham
      • Post (*) (e) (1921-1950)
      • Age-Herald (m) (1950)
        • Post-Herald (m) (†) (1950-2005).
  • California
    • Berkeley
      • Independent (*) (†) (e) (1907-1913).
    • Cambria
      • Cambrian (w) (1986-????): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; eventually became part of Knight-Ridder/McClatchy chain, possibly as part of exchange (along with Monterey Herald and San Luis Obispo Telegram-Tribune) for Boulder Camera in 1997.
    • Felton
      • Valley Press (w) (1986-1989): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; sold to Jack Fraser.
    •  Fresno
      • Tribune (*) (†) (e) (1905-1912?).
    • Fullerton
      • News-Tribune (e) (1973-1987): sold to Community Media Enterprises.
    • Los Angeles
      •  Record (*) (e) (1895-1921): transferred to Scripps League.
    • Monterey
      • Herald (m) (1992-1997): given to Knight-Ridder (along with San Luis Obispo Telegram-Tribune) in exchange for Boulder Camera.
    • Morro Bay
      • Sun-Bulletin (w) (1986-1997?): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; sold to Knight-Ridder?
    •  Sacramento
      •  Star (*) (†) (e) (1904-1921) (1921-1925): transferred to Scripps League, and then almost immediately returned; purchased by McClatchy and absorbed by McClatchy’s Sacramento Bee.
    • San Diego
      •  San Diegan Sun (*) (e) (1892-1901).
    • San Francisco
      •  News (*) (†) (e) (1903-1921) (1921-1959): transferred to Scripps League, and then almost immediately returned; merged with Hearst’s Call-Bulletin to form a co-owned newspaper, News-Call-Bulletin.
      • Report (†) (e) (1899?-1900)
    • San Luis Obispo
      •  Telegram-Tribune (e) (1986-1997): acquired from John P. Scripps as part of 1986 merger; given to Knight-Ridder (along with Monterey Herald) in exchange for Boulder Camera.
    • Scotts Valley
      • Banner (w) (1986-1989): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; sold to Jack Fraser.
    • Thousand Oaks
      • News-Chronicle (e) (1986-1994): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group.
        • Star and News-Chronicle (e) (1994-1995)
          • Star (†) (e) (1995-2002).
    • Tulare
      • Advance-Register (e) (1986-2005): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; sold to Gannett.
    •  Ventura
      • Star-Free Press (e) (1986-2005): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; sold to Gannett.
    • Watsonville
      • Register-Pajaronion (e) (1986-1995): acquired in merger with John P. Scripps Newspaper Group; sold to News Media Corp.
  •  Colorado
    • Boulder
      • Camera (1997-2009): acquired from Knight-Ridder in exchange for San Luis Obispo Telegram-Tribune and Monterey Herald.
      • Colorado Daily (2005-2009?): sold to Media News Group.
    • Denver
      • Express (*) (e) (1906-1921) (1921-1926): transferred to Scripps League, and then almost immediately returned.
      • Times (e) (1926)
        • News (†) (e) (1926-1928): sold to evening Denver Post in exchange for Denver Morning Post, which was then terminated (as was the News).
      • Rocky Mountain News (†) (m) (1926-2009).
    • Pueblo
      • Sun (*) (†) (e) (1906-1910).
  • District of Columbia
    • Washington
      • News (*) (†) (e) (1921-1972).
  •  Florida
    • Destin
      • Log (w) (1983-2000): given to Freedom Communications (along with Walton Log) in exchange for the Fort Pierce Tribune.
    • Fort Pierce
      • Tribune (m) (2000-2015): acquired from Freedom Communications in exchange for Destin Log and Walton Log; sold to Gannett.
    • Hollywood
      • Sun-Tattler (m) (1965-1989): sold to DTH Media.
    • Marco Island
      •  Eagle (w) (2000-2015): purchased from New York Times; sold to Gannett.
    • Naples
      • News (m) (1986-2015): sold to Gannett.
    • Stuart
      • News (w) (1965-2015): purchased from Gordon Lockwood; sold to Gannett.
    • Vero Beach
      •  Press-Journal (m) (1996-2015): sold to Gannett.
    • Walton
      • Log (w) (1983-2000): given to Freedom Communications (along with Destin Log) in exchange for the Fort Pierce Tribune.
  •  Illinois
    • Chicago
      • Press (†) (e) (1900-1913): unverified.
      • Day Book (*) (†) (tab) (e) (1911-1917): one of Scripps’s two experiments in ad-free newspapers.
  • Indiana
    • Evansville
      • Press (*) (e) (1906-1986).
      • Courier (†) (m) (1986-1998).
      • News (1986- ): unverified.
    • Indianapolis
      • Times (†) (e) (1922-1965).
    • Terre Haute
      •  Post (*) (e) (1906-1929): sold to the Star.
  •  Iowa
    • Des Monies
      • News (e) (1902-1924): sold to Des Moines Tribune, and merged with that publication.
  • Kentucky
    • Covington
      • Kentucky Post (*) (e) (1890-1958): As part of Scripps’s purchase of the Cincinnati Post, the Kentucky Times-Star was merged with the Post.
        • Kentucky Post and Times-Star (e) (1958-1973): name change.
          • Kentucky Post (†) (e) (1973-2007): ceased.
    • Henderson
      • Gleaner (2000-2015): sold to Gannett.
  • Maryland
    • Baltimore
      • Post (*) (e) (1922-1934): sold to Hearst and merged with his News.
  •  Missouri
    • Kansas City
      • World (†) (e) (1896-1908).
    • Saint Louis
      •  Chronicle (*) (e) (1894-1905): owned by George Scripps from 1880-1894.
      • Star (e) (1905)
        • Star-Chronicle (e) (1905-1908).
  • Nebraska
    • Oakland
      • Mail (w) (1908-19??).
  • New Mexico
    • Albuquerque
      • State Tribune (*) (e) (1923-1933)
        • Tribune (†) (e) (1933-2008).
  • New York
    • Buffalo
      • Times (e) (1929-1938): ceased one year after it was sold.
    • New York City
      • Telegram (e) (1927-1931)
      • World (m, e) (1931): purchased from Pulitzer chain.
        • World-Telegram (e) (1931-1950)
        • Sun (e) (1950)
          • World-Telegram and the Sun (e) (1950-1966).
  •  Ohio
    • Akron
      • Press (*) (e) (1899?-1925)
      • Times (e) (1925)
        • Times-Press (†) (e) (1925-1938).
    • Cincinnati
      • Post (*) (e) (1883-1958): purchased from James Scripps.
      • Times-Star (e) (1958)
        • Post and Times-Star (e) (1958-1973)
          • Post (†) (e) (1974-2007).
      • Enquirer (m) (1956-1971): acquired through majority stock purchases; divested in response to anti-trust suit.
    • Cleveland
      • Press (*) (e) (1894-1960): owned by George Scripps from 1878-1894.
      • News (e) (1960)
        • Press and News (e) (1960-1963)
          • Press (e) (1963-1980).
    • Columbus
      • Citizen (e) (1904-1959)
      • Ohio State Journal (m) (1959)
        • Citizen-Journal (†) (m) (1959-1985).
    • Toledo
      • Times (m) (1903-1908): sold to Toledo Citizen, which sold it to the Toledo Blade in 1930.
      • News (e) (1903)
      • Bee (e) (1903)
        • News-Bee (†) (e) (1903-1938).
    • Youngstown
      • Telegram (e) (1922-1936): sold to Youngstown Vindicator.
  • Oklahoma
    • Oklahoma City
      • Oklahoman News (*) (†) (e) (1906-1939): also called Oklahoma News.
  • Oregon
    • Portland
      • East Side News (*) (e) (1906-1907)
        • News (e) (1908-1921): became part of Scripps League.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Philadelphia
      • News-Post (*) (1912-1914?):  one of Scripps’s two experiments in ad-free newspapers; non-extant; cited by Mott p. 554.
    • Pittsburgh
      • Press (e) (1923-1992): sold to Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  • Puerto Rico
    • San Juan
      • Star (tab) (m) (1970-1994).
  •  Tennessee
    • Knoxville
      • News (*) (e) (1921-1926)
      • Sentinel (e) (1926)
        • News-Sentinel (e) (1926-2015): sold to Gannett.
    • Memphis
      •  Commercial-Appeal (m) (1936-2015): sold to Gannett.
      • Press (*) (e) (1907-1926)
      • News-Scimitar (e) (1926)
        • Press-Scimitar (†) (e) (1926-1983).
    • Nashville
      • Times (*) (1906-1940?): unverified.
  •  Texas
    • Dallas
      • Dispatch (*) (†) (e) (1906-1921) (1921-1938): transferred to Scripps League, then almost immediately returned.
    • El Paso
      • Post (*) (e) (1922-1931)
      • Herald (e) (1931)
        • Herald-Post (†) (e) (1931-1997).
    • Fort Worth
      • Press (*) (†) (e) (1921-1975).
    • Houston
      • Press (*) (†)  (e)  (1911-1964).
  • Virginia
    • Norfolk
      • Post (*) (†) (e) (1921-1924).
  •  Washington
    • Bremerton
      • Sun (e) (1940-2005): purchased from Scripps League;
        • Kitsap Sun (e) (2005-2015): title change; sold to Gannett.
    • Seattle
      •  Star (*) (e) (1899-1921): transferred to Scripps League.
    • Spokane
      • Press (*) (e) (1902-1921): transferred to Scripps League.
    • Tacoma
      • Times (*) (e) (1903-1921): transferred to Scripps League.

Hearst

William Randolph Hearst’s first newspaper was the San Francisco Examiner, which was technically owned by  his father. His second, and arguably most famous newspaper, was the New York Journal, which he bought in 1895. Hearst was politically conservative, and began by focusing on the major metropolitan news markets. He is perhaps best known for his feud with Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World, and for the “yellow journalism” that characterized his Progressive-era papers. The Hearst chain was especially important in developing and spreading photojournalism (Barnhurst and Nerone 142). From 1923 on, the Hearst chain newspapers featured Louella Parsons, often considered the inventor of the modern-day gossip column. (Although, ironically, she began her gossip column in 1914, with the Chicago Record-Herald, but lost that job when Hearst bought the newspaper in 1918.)

  • California
    • Los Angeles
      • Examiner (*) (m) (1903-1962)
      • Express (e) (1931)
      • Herald (e) (1922-1931)
        • Herald and Express (e) (1931-1962)
          • Herald-Examiner (†) (e) (1962-1989).
    • Oakland
      • Times (*) (†) (m) (1925-1928)
      • Enquirer (m) (1922): this attribution speculative.
      • Post (e) (1921): this attribution is speculative.
        • Post-Enquirer (†) (e) (1922-1950): officially Hearst purchased the already-formed Post-Enquirer from the Call Publishing Company.
    • San Francisco
      • Examiner (m) (1902-2000)
      • Call (m) (1913): was a morning paper; became an evening when Hearst purchased in 1913.
        • Call and Post (e) (1913-1929)
        • Bulletin (e) (1929)
          • Call-Bulletin (e) (1929-1959)
            • News-Call-Bulletin (e) (1959-1965): formed by the union of Scripps-Howard’s News, and Hearst’s Call-Bulletin. Scripps-Howard and Hearst co-owned the new paper.
      • Chronicle (m) (1999-<2019>).
  • Connecticut
    • Bridgeport
      • Post (m) (2008-<2019>).
    • Danbury
      • News-Times (m) (2007-<2019>).
    • Greenwich
      • Time (e) (2007-<2019>).
    • Middletown
      • Press (m) (2017-<2019>).
    • New Haven
      • Register (m) (2017-<2019>).
    • Norwalk
      • Hour (e) (2016-<2019>).
    • Stamford
      • Advocate (m) (2007-<2019>).
    • Torrington
      • Register-Citizen (m) (2017-<2019>).
  • District of Columbia
    • Washington
      • Herald (m) (1922-1939).
      • Times (e) (1917-1939): Herald and Times were purchased by Eleanor Patterson, and combined it into an all-day newspaper.
  •  Florida
    • Clearwater
      • Sun (†) (w) (1984-1989).
  •  Georgia
    • Atlanta
      • Georgian (e) (1912-1939).
  •  Illinois
    • Alton
      • Telegraph (m) (2017-<2019>).
    • Chicago
      • American (*) (e) (1900-1939)
      • Examiner (*) (m) (1900-1918)
      • Herald (m) (1918)
        • Herald and Examiner (m) (1918-1939)
          • Herald-American (e) (1939-1953)
            • American (e) (1953-1956).
      • Journal (1904- ): this attribution is doubtful.
    •  Edwardsville
      • Intelligencer (e) (1979-<2019>).
    • Jacksonville
      • Journal-Courier (m) (2017-<2019>).
  • Maryland
    • Baltimore
      • American (m) (1923-1964)
      • Post (e) (1934): purchased from Scripps-Howard.
      • News (e) (1923-1934)
        • News and Post (e) (1934-1964)
          • News-American (†) (e) (1964-1986).
  • Massachusetts
    • Boston
      • Advertiser (m) (1917-1921)
      • Record (e) (1921)
        • Advertiser Record (m) (1921-1925)
          • Advertiser (m) (1925-1929)
            • Record Advertiser (m) (1929)
              • Record (m) (1929-1961)
      • American (e) (1904-1961)
        • Record American (m-e) (1961-1972)
        • Herald-Traveler (m) (1972)
          • Herald American (†) (m-e) (1972-1982).
  • Michigan
    • Bad Axe
      • Huron Tribune (e) (1979-<2019>).
    • Big Rapids
      • Pioneer (m) (2017-<2019>).
    • Detroit
      • Times (†) (e) (1921-1960).
    • Manistee
      • News-Advocate (e) (2017-<2019>).
    • Midland
      • News (e) (1979-<2019>).
  • Nebraska
    • Lincoln
      • Post (e) (1903-1905?).
    •  Omaha
      • Bee-News (†) (m, e) (1928-1937).
  • New York
    • Albany
      • Times-Union (e) (1924-current): switched to morning publication in 1937.
      • Knickerbocker News (e) (1960-1969)
      • Union-Star (e) (1969)
        • Knickerbocker News, Union-Star (e) (1969-1975)
          • Knickerbocker News (†) (e) (1975-1988).
    • New York City
      • American (m) (1902-1937)
      • Journal (e) (1895-1937)
        • Journal and American (†) (e) (1937-1966).
      • Morgen Journal (†) (m) (1890-1918).
      • Mirror (*) (†) (tab) (m) (1924-1963).
    • Rochester
      • Post-Express (e) (1923)
      • Journal (e) (1922?-1923)
        • Journal and Post-Express (e) (1923-193?)
          • Journal (†) (e) (193?-1937): discontinued as part of a deal with Gannett, giving Gannett a monopoly in Rochester, Hearst a morning monopoly in Albany, and Gannett an evening monopoly in Albany.
    • Syracuse
      • Telegram (*) (e) (1922-1925).
      • Journal (†) (e) (1925-1939).
  • Ohio
    • Dayton
      • Press (†) (e) (1904-1905).
  •  Pennsylvania
    • Pittsburgh
      • Sun (e) (1927)
      • Chronicle-Telegraph (e) (1927)
        • Sun-Telegraph (e) (1927-1960): sold to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, a morning paper.
  • Texas
    • Beaumont
      • Enterprise (m) (1984-<2019>).
    • Houston
      • Chronicle (m) (1987-<2019>).
    • Laredo
      • Times (m) (1984-<2019>).
    • Midland
      • Reporter-Telegram (m) (1979-<2019>).
    • Plainview
      • Herald (e) (1979-<2019>).
    • San Antonio
      • Light (†) (e) (1924-1993).
      • Express-News (m) (1993-<2019>).
  • Washington
    • Seattle
      • Post-Intelligencer (†) (m) (1921-2009).
  • Wisconsin
    • Milwaukee
      • Wisconsin News (e) (1919-1924)
      • Sentinel (e) (1924)
        • Wisconsin News and Sentinel (e) (1924)
          • Wisconsin News (e) (1924-1937)
            • News (†) (e) (1937-1939).
      • Sentinel (m) (1924-1962): purchased by Milwaukee Journal.

Scripps League / Scripps Canfield League

The Scripps League chain was formed when E.W. Scripps had a falling out with his son, James, who operated seven of Scripps’s evening newspapers on the West Coast. When James died a year later (1921), his widow turned these newspapers into the Scripps League chain. The seven original Scripps League papers were the Los Angeles Record, the San Francisco News, the Sacramento Star, the Seattle Star, the Portland Record, the Spokane Press, and the Tacoma Times. The San Francisco News and Sacramento Star were quickly returned to Scripps-Howard, and two last-minute additions  (Dallas Dispatch, and Denver Express) were also returned, leaving the chain with what are generally considered the five, original Scripps League papers: Los Angeles Record, the Seattle Star, the Portland Record, the Spokane Press, and the Tacoma Times. From 1931, the company was run by James Scripps’s son, Edward Wyllis Scripps, who rather confusingly had the same name as his grandfather, who founded the E.W. Scripps newspaper chain. In the 1950s, Scripps League began focusing on acquiring newspapers in smaller cities (with populations less than 100,000). The Scripps League remained in the newspaper business until it was purchased by a competitor (Pulitzer) in 1996.

  • Arizona
    • Flagstaff
      • Sun (e) (1957-1976) (1976-1996): from 1957-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
  • California
    • Al Tahoe
      • See: South Lake Tahoe.
    • Banning / Beaumont
      • Record (e) (1964-1966)
      • Gazette (e) (1964-1966)
        • Record-Gazette (e) (1966-1996): purchased by Pulitzer and then immediately sold to Century Group.
    •  Hanford
      • Sentinel (e) (1958-1976)(1976-1996): from 1958-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
    • Los Angeles
      • Record (e) (1921-1933): transferred from Scripps-Howard; purchased by Leroy Sanders.
    • Napa
      • Register (e) (1958-1996): purchased from George H. Francis.
    • Petaluma
      • Argus-Courier (e) (1965-1996): purchased from the Olmsted family.
    •  Sacramento
      • Star (e) (1921): transferred from Scripps, and then almost immediately returned.
    • San Francisco
      • News (e) (1921): transferred from Scripps, and then almost immediately returned.
    • San Luis Obispo
      • Telegram (e) (1926-1939): purchased from  R.C. Hoyt.
      • Tribune (m) (1926-1939): purchased from  R.C. Hoyt.
        • Telegram-Tribune (e) (1939-1940): sold to John P. Scripps.
    • Santa Maria
      • Times (e) (1958-1976) (1976-1996): from 1958-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
    • Santa Paula
      • Chronicle (†) (e) (1975-1992): purchased from C.E. Philips.
    • South Lake Tahoe
      • Tribune (e) (1963-1975): given to Philip E. Swift in exchange for his interest in Scripps League.
    •  Taft
      • Midway Driller (e) (1968-1996): purchased from George M. Dobry.
    • Wasco
      • News (w) (1968?-1976?).
  •  Colorado
    • Denver
      • Express (e) (1921): transferred from Scripps, and then almost immediately returned.
  •  Connecticut
    •  Manchester
      • Herald (†) (e) (1971-1976 )(1976-1991): from 1971-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
  • Hawaii
    • Kauai
      • Garden Island (w) (1966-1976)(1976-1996): from 1966-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
  •  Idaho
    • Boise
      • Capital News (e) (1926-1940): purchased from Dewey Brothers; sold to LeRoy Sanders.
    • Caldwell
      • News-Tribune (e) (1956-1975): transferred to Pioneer Newspapers.
    • Coeur d’Alene
      • Press (e) (1929?-1946)(1946-1976): purchase date unverified; from 1946-1976 was jointly operated with Hagadone Newspaper Co., and given to Hagadone Newspaper Co. in partnership breakup.
    • Nampa
      • Idaho Free Press (e) (1953-1975): transferred to Pioneer Newspapers.
    • Wallace
      • Press-Times (†) (e) (1952).
  •  Illinois
    • De Kalb
      • Chronicle (e) (1969-1976)(1976-1996): from 1967-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
  • Iowa
    • Sioux City
      • Journal (m) (1971-1976): jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.; given to Hagadone Newspaper Co. as part of partnership breakup.
  •  Massachusetts
    • Haverhill
      • Gazette (e) (1975-1976) (1976-1996): from 1975-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
  •  Montana
    • Bozeman
      • Chronicle (e) (1954-1975): originally a morning paper, but under Scripps League changed to evening; transferred to Pioneer.
    • Hamilton
      • Ravalli Republican (e) (1975-1977)
      • Western News (w) (1977)
        • Ravalli Republic and Daily Western News (e) (1977-1996).
    • Kalispell
      • Inter Lake (e) (1951-1976): jointly operated with Hagadone Newspaper Co., and given to Hagadone Newspaper Co. in partnership breakup.
    • Stevensville
      • Northwest Tribune (†) (w) (1975-1979).
  • New Jersey
    • Elizabeth
      • Journal (e) (1975-1976): from 1975-1976 was jointly operated with Hagadone Newspaper Co., and given to Hagadone Newspaper Co. in partnership breakup.
  • New Mexico
    • Carlsbad
      • Current-Argus (e) (1966-1971): sold to Philip F. Buckner.
    • Tucumcari
      • News (w) (196?-1973): sold to William A. Chrisley.
  •  Oregon
    • Coos Bay
      • World (e) (1973-1996): purchased from Sheldon F. Sackett Trust.
    • Dalles
      • Chronicle (?) (1949-1996): purchased by Pulitzer, and then immediately sold to Eagle Newspapers, Inc.
    • Klamath Falls
      • Herald and News (e) (1960-1975): transferred to Pioneer.
    • Oregon City
      • Enterprise-Courier (†) (e) (1961-1976)(1976-1992): from 1961-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
    •  Portland
      • News (e) (1921-1931): taken over from Scripps.
      • Telegram (e) (1931)
        • News-Telegram (†) (e) (1931-1939).
    • Roseburg
      • News-Review (e) (1960-1975): given to Philip E. Swift in exchange for his interest in Scripps League.
  • Texas
    • Dallas
      • Dispatch (e) (1921): transferred from Scripps, and then almost immediately returned.
  • Utah
    • Cache Valley
      • See: Logan.
    • Logan
      • Journal (e) (1931)
      • Herald (e) (1928-1931)
        • Herald-Journal (e) (1931-1975): transferred to Pioneer Newspapers.
    • Provo
      • Herald (e) (1926-1996).
    • Springville
      • Herald (w) (1926-1940): sold to Harrison Conover.
  •  Vermont
    • Newport
      • Express (e) (1977-1996).
  • Washington
    • Bremerton
      • Sun (*) (e) (1935-1940): sold to Scripps-Howard.
    • Moses Lake
      • Columbia Basin Herald (e) (1967-1976): jointly operated with Hagadone Newspaper Co., and given to Hagadone Newspaper Co. in partnership breakup.
    •  Pullman
      • Herald (†) (w) (1966-1976)(1976-1989): from 1966-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.
    •  Seattle
      • Star (e) (1921-1942): transferred from Scripps.
    •  Spokane
      • Press (e) (1921-1939): transferred from Scripps.
    • Tacoma
      • Times (†) (e) (1921-1949): transferred from Scripps.
  • Wisconsin
    • Beloit
      • News (e) (1969-1976): jointly operated with Hagadone Newspaper Co., and given to Hagadone Newspaper Co. in partnership breakup.
    •  Rhinelander
      • News (e) (1968-1976)(1976-1996): from 1968-1976 was jointly owned with Hagadone Newspaper Co.

Pioneer Newspapers / James G. Scripps Newspapers

Formed in 1975 when Scripps League treasurer, James G. Scripps (E.W. Scripps’s brother), spun off seven Scripps League newspapers into a new company. In 2017, the company sold all its media assets to Adams Publishing.

  • California
    • Grass Valley / Nevada City
      • Union (1975- ): transferred from Scripps League.
  •  Idaho
    • Caldwell
      • News-Tribune (1975-1980): transferred from Scripps League; merged with Nampa Free Press.
    • Driggs
      • Teton Valley News ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Emmett
      • Messenger-Index ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Kuna
      • News ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Melba
      • See: Kuna.
    • Meridian
      • Press ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Montpelier
      • News-Examiner ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    •  Nampa
      • Free Press (1975-1980): transferred from Scripps League; merged with Caldwell News-Tribune.
        • Press-Tribune (1980-2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Pocatello
      • State Journal (1975-2017): transferred from Scripps League; sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Preston
      • Citizen ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Rexburg
      • Standard-Journal ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
  • Iowa
    • Burlington
      • Argus ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
  •  Minnesota
    • Bemidji
      • Pioneer (1975- ): transferred from Scripps League.
  • Montana
    • Belgrade
      • News ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    •  Bozeman
      • Chronicle (1975-2017): transferred from Scripps League; sold to Adams Publishing.
    •  Havre
      • News (1975- ): transferred from Scripps League.
  • Nebraska
    • Trenton
      • Leader ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
  •  Oregon
    • Klamath Falls
      • Herald and News (1975-2017): transferred from Scripps League; sold to Adams Publishing.
      • Nickel ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Lakeview
      • Lake County Examiner ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
  •  Pennsylvania
    • Canonsburg
      • Notes (1975- ): transferred from Scripps League.
    • Monongahela
      • Herald (1975- ): transferred from Scripps League.
    • Waynesburg
      • Democrat-Messenger (1975- ): transferred from Scripps League.
  • Utah
    • Logan
      • Herald-Journal (e) (1975-2017): transferred from Scripps League; sold to Adams Publishing.
  • Washington
    • Anacortes
      • American ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Camano
      • See: Stanwood.
    • Elllensburg
      • Daily Record ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Mount Vernon
      • Skagit Valley Herald (1975-2017): transferred from Scripps League; sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Sedro-Woolley
      • Courier-Times ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.
    • Stanwood
      • News ( -2017): sold to Adams Publishing.

John P. Scripps

Begun in 1928 by the grandson of Edward W. Scripps. Merged with Scripps-Howard in 1986.

  • California
    • Alhambra
      • Post-Advocate (1934- )
    •  Cambria
      • Cambrian (w) ( -1986)
    • Felton
      • Valley Press (w) ( -1986)
    • Morro Bay
      • Sun-Bulletin (w) ( -1986)
    • Redding
      • Record-Searchlight ( -1986)
    • San Luis Obispo
      • Telegram-Tribune ( -1986)
    • Santa Paula
      • Chronicle (e + w) (1934-1942): sold to Morgan Coe.
    • Scotts Valley
      • Banner (w) ( -1986)
    • Thousand Oaks
      • News-Chronicle ( -1986)
    • Tulare
      • Advance-Register ( -1986)
    • San Luis Obispo
      • Telegram-Tribune (e) (1940-1986): purchased from Scripps League; transferred to Scripps-Howard with 1986 merger.
    • Ventura
      • Star (1934- )
    •  Watsonville
      • Register-Pajaronion ( -1986)
  •  Washington
    • Bremerton
      • Sun ( -1985)

McCormick

  • District of Columbia
    • Times-Herald (m-e) (1949-1954): sold to Washington Post.
  • Illinois
    • Tribune (m) (1910- ): co-owned with his cousin Joseph Patterson. McCormick had married the daughter of Joseph Medill.
  • New York
    • New York City
      • News (*) (m) (1919-): tabloid.

Gannett

Started by Frank Gannett with his first newspaper was the Elmira (N.Y.) Gazette. Incorporated in 1924. This chain should not be confused with another, but unrelated, newspaper chain begun by Guy Gannett.

  • Connecticut
    • Hartford
      • Times (1928- )
  • Illinois
    • Danville
      • Commercial-News (1934- )
  • New Jersey
    • Plainfield
      • Courier-News
  • New York
    • Albany
      • Knickerbocker Press (†) (m) ( -1937)
      • News (e) ( -1937)
        • Knickerbocker News (e) (1937-1960): sold to Hearst.
    • Brooklyn
      • Eagle
    •  Elmira
      • Advertiser
      • Gazette (1906-1907)
      • Star (1907)
        • Star-Gazette (1907- )
          • Star-Gazette and Advertiser
      • Sunday Telegram
    • Ithaca
      • Journal (1912- )
        • Journal-News
    • Malone
      • Telegram
    • Newburgh
      • Beacon-News
    • Olean
      • Herald
        • Times-Herald
    • Ogdensburg
      • Republican-Journal
    •  Rochester
      • Times (1918)
      • Union and Advertiser (1918)
        • Times-Union and Advertiser (1918-1923)
          • Times-Union (1923- )
      • Democrat and Chronicle
    • Saratoga Springs
      • Saratogian (1934- )
    • Utica
      • Herald-Dispatch (1922)
      • Observer (1922)
        • Observer-Dispatch (1922- )
      • Press (1935- )

Knight, Ridder

Knight and Ridder were originally two separate chains that merged in 1974. In 2006 the company was purchased by McClatchy, and all its assets folded into the McClatchy chain.

Knight

  • Florida
    • Miami
      • Herald (1937- )
  • Illinois
    • Chicago
      • News (1944- )
  • Michigan
    • Detroit
      • Free Press (1940- )
  • North Carolina
    • Charlotte
      • Observer (1954- )
  • Ohio
    • Akron
      • Beacon-Journal (1907-2006)
    • Massillon
      • Independent (1928- )

Ridder

  • California
    • Pasadena
      • Star News (1956- )
      • Independent (1956- )
  • Minnesota
    • Saint Paul
      • Pioneer Press and Dispatch (1927- )
  • New York
    • Jamaica
      • Long Island Press (1926-1932)
    • New York City
      • Journal of Commerce (1926- )
      • New Yorker Herold (1923?-1934)
      • Staats-Zeitung (1900-1934 )
        • New Yorker Staats-Zeitung und Herold (1934-1953)
  • North Dakota
    • Grand Forks
      • Herald (1929- )
  • South Dakota
    • Aberdeen
      • American and News (1928- )

Knight, Ridder

  • California
    • Monterey
      • Herald (1997- ): acquired from Scripps in exchange for Boulder Camera.
    • San Jose
      • Mercury News
    • San Luis Obispo
      • Telegram-Tribune (1997-2006): acquired from Scripps in exchange for Boulder Camera.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder
      • Camera ( -1997): given to Scripps in exchange for Monterey Herald and San Luis Obispo Telegram-Tribune.

McClatchy

  • California
    • Fresno
      • Bee
    • Modesto
      • Bee
    • Sacramento
      • Bee (*) (e) (1908- )
      • Star (e) (1925): purchased from Scripps and absorbed by the Bee.
    • San Luis Obispo
      • Telegram-Tribune (2006-current)