Constructing the Black Masculine Identity

Abdel-Shehid,Gamal. Who Da Man? Black Masculinities and Sporting Cultures. Toronto; Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2005.

Adu-Poku, Samuel. Envisioning (Black) Male Feminism: a Cross-Cultural Perspective. In Murphy, Peter F., ed. Feminism and Masculinities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Alexander, Bryant Keith. “Passing, Cultural Performance, and Individual Agency: Performative Reflections on Black Masculine Identity.” Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies 3 (August 2004): 377-404.

Baker-Kimmons, Leslie and Pancho McFarland. “The Rap on Chicano and Black Masculinity: A Content Analysis of Gender Images in Rap Lyrics.” Race, Gender and Class 2011 18(1/2): 331-344.

Beavers, Herman. “‘The Cool Pose’: Intersectionality, Masculinity, and Quiescence in the Comedy and Films of Richard Pryor and Eddie Murphy.” In Stecopoulos, Harry and Michael Uebel, eds. Race and the Subject of Masculinities. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Belton, Don, ed. Speak My Name: Black Men on Masculinity and the American Dream. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1995.

Berry, Venise T. and Harold Looney. “Rap Music, Black Men, and the Police.” In Berry, Venise T. and Carmen L. Manning-Miller, eds. Mediated Messages and African-American Culture: Contemporary Issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Blount, Marcellus and George P. Cunningham. Representing Black Men. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Booker, Christopher B. I Will Wear No Chain!: a Social History of African-American Males. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.

Boyd, Todd. “The Day the Niggaz Took Over: Basketball, Commodity Culture, and Black Masculinity.” In Baker, Aaron and Todd Boyd, eds. Out of Bounds: Sports, Media, and the Politics of Identity. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997.

_____. “A Small Introduction to the ‘G’ Funk Era: Gangsta Rap and Black Masculinity in Contemporary Los Angeles.” In Dear, Michael J., H. Eric Schockman and Greg Hise, eds. Rethinking Los Angeles. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Brown, Jeffrey A. “Comic Book Masculinity and the New Black Superhero.” African American Review 33 (Spring 1999): 25-42.

Butters, Gerald R., Jr. “Portrayals of Black Masculinity in Oscar Micheaux’s The Homesteader.” Literature Film Quarterly 28 (January 2000): 54-59.

Carrington, Ben. “Sport, Masculinity, and Black Cultural Resistance.” Journal of Sport & Social Issues 22 (August 1998): 275-298.

Chan, Kenneth. “The Construction of Black Male Identity in Black Action Films of the Nineties.” Cinema Journal 37 (Winter 1998): 35-48.

Clark, Keith Spencer. “Reforming the Black Male Self: a Study of Subject Formation in Selected Works by James Baldwin, Ernest Gaines, and August Wilson.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1993.

Collins, Patricia Hill. “Booty call: Sex, Violence, and Images of Black Masculinity.” In Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Connor, Marlene K. What is Cool?: Understanding Black Manhood in America. New York: Crown Publishers, 1995.

Cooper, Frank Rudy. “Against Bipolar Black Masculinity: Intersectionality, Assimilation, Identity Performance, and Hierarchy,” U.C. Davis Law Review 39 (2006): 853-906.

Crosby, Nandi S. “Re/constructing Black Masculinity in Prison.” Journal of Men’s Studies 11 (Fall 2002): 91-107.

Dines, Gail. “King Kong and the White Woman: Hustler Magazine and the Demonization of Black Masculinity.” Violence Against Women 4 (June 1998): 291-307.

Duneier, Mitchell. Slim’s Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Dyson, Michael Eric. “The Politics of Black Masculinity and the Ghetto in Black Film.” In Becker, Carol, ed. The Subversive Imagination: Artists, Society, and Responsibility. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Estes, Steve. “I am a Man!”: Race, Masculinity, and the 1968 Memphis Sanitation Strike.” Labor History 41 (May 2000): 153-170.

Ferguson, Ann Arnett. “Bad Boys: School and the Social Construction of Black Masculinity.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California at Berkeley, 1995.

Gabbard, Krin. “Borrowing Black Masculinity: Dirty Harry finds his Gentle Side.” In Gabbard, Krin. Black Magic: White Hollywood and African American Culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Gates, Philippa. “Always a Partner in Crime: Black Masculinity in the Hollywood Detective Film.” Journal of Popular Film and Television 32 (Spring 2004): 20-29.

Gayles, Jonathan. Stepping Off Stage: Towards a More Reflexive Blackness. Journal of African American Studies 12 (June 2008): 180-192.

Gerstner, David A. Manly Arts: Masculinity and Nation in Early American Cinema. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006. Chapters include “African American Realism: Oscar Micheaux, Autobiography, and the Ambiguity of Black Male Desire” and “The Queer Frontier: Vincente Minnelli’s Cabin in the Sky.”

Gerstner, David A. “‘Other and Different Scenes’: Oscar Micheaux’s Bodies and the Cinematic Cut.” Wide Angle 21 (October 1999): 6-19.

Golden, Thelma. “Black Masculinity: a Long, Hard Look behind the Fierce Cool.” Essence 26 (November 1995): 96-98+

_____, ed. Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1994.

Goodey, Jo. “Understanding Racism and Masculinity: Drawing on Research with Boys Aged Eight to Sixteen.” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 26 (December 1998): 393-418.

Grant, Nathan. Masculinist Impulses: Toomer, Hurston, Black writing, and modernity Columbia : University of Missouri Press, 2004.

Green, Herb. “Turning the Myths of Black Masculinity Inside/out.” In Thompson, Becky and Sangeeta Tyagi, eds. Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Halberstam, Judith. “Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race, and Masculinity in the Drag Queen Scene.” Social Text 52/53 (Fall 1997): 104-131.

Hall, Mary Allen. “Images of African-American Males in Realistic Fiction Picture Books, 1971-1990.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida, 1996.

Hall, Ronald E. “Clowns, Buffoons, and Gladiators: Media Portrayals of African-American Men.” Journal of Men’s Studies 1 (February 1993): 239-251.

_____. “Dark Skin and the Cultural Ideal of Masculinity.” Journal of African American Men 1 (Winter 1995/96): 37-61.

Hall, Ronald E. and Jesenia M. Pizarro. “Cool Pose: Black Male Homicide and the Social Implications of Manhood.” Journal of Social Service Research 37 (Jan/Feb 2011): 86-98.

Hampton, Gregory J. “Black Men Fenced in and a Plausible Black Masculinity.” CLA Journal 46 (December 2002): 194-206.

Hare, Nathan. “The Frustrated Masculinity of the Negro Male.” In Staples, Robert, ed. The Black Family: Essays and Studies. New York: Wadsworth, 1971.

Harper, Phillip Brian. Are We Not Men? Masculine Anxiety and the Problem of African-American Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Harris, Keith M. Boys, Boyz, Bois: an Ethics of Black Masculinity in Film and Popular Media. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Harris, Shanette M. “Psychosocial Development and Black Male Masculinity: Implications for Counseling Economically Disadvantaged African American Male Adolescents.” Journal of Counseling and Development 73 (January-February 1995): 279-288.

Henry, Matthew. “He Is a ‘Bad Mother *$%@!#’: Shaft and Contemporary Black Masculinity.” African American Review 38 (Spring 2004): 114-119.

Hernton, Calvin C. Sex and Racism in America. New York: Anchor, 1992.

Hine, Darlene Clark and Earnestine Jenkins, eds. A Question of Manhood: a Reader in U.S. Black Men’s History and Masculinity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Hoch, Paul. “White Hero Black Beast: Racism, Sexism and the Mask of Masculinity.” In Murphy, Peter, ed. Feminism and Masculinities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

hooks, bell. “Reconstructing Black Masculinity.” In Perchuk, Andrew and Helaine Posner, eds. The Masculine Masquerade: Masculinity and Representation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

_____. We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Hopkinson, Natalie. Deconstructing Tyrone: a New Look at Black Masculinity in the Hip-Hop Generation. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 2006.

Hunter, A.G. and J.E. Davis. “Constructing Gender: an Exploration of Afro-American Men’s Conceptualization of Manhood.” Gender and Society 6 (September 1992): 464-479.

Hurt, Byron and Andrew Jones. I am a man: Black masculinity in America. 1 DVD (60 min.). Central Islip, NY: God Bless The Child Productions, 2006.

Hutchinson, Earl Ofari. The Assassination of the Black Male Image. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Icard, Larry D. “Black Gay Men and Conflicting Social Identities: Sexual Orientation versus Racial Identity.” Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality 4 (1986): 83-93.

Jackson, Edward M. “Images of Black Males in Terry McMillan’s Waiting to Exhale.” MAWA Review 8 (June 1993): 20-26.

Jackson II, Ronald L. “Black ‘Manhood’ as Xenophobe: an Ontological Exploration of the Hegelian Dialectic.” Journal of Black Studies 27 (July 1997): 731-750.

_____. Scripting the Black Masculine Body: Identity, Discourse, and Racial Politics in Popular Media. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2006.

Johnson, E. Patrick. “The Specter of the Black Fag: Parody, Blackness, and Hetero/homosexual.” Journal of Homosexuality 45 (April-June 2003): 217-234.

Johnson, Michael K. Black Masculinity and the Frontier Myth in American Literature. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002.

Jones, S. “Reconstructing Manhood: Race, Masculinity, and Narrative Closure in Ernest Gaines’s ‘A Gathering of Old Men’ and ‘A Lesson before Dying’.” Masculinities 3 (Summer 1995): 43-66.

Kang, Nancy. “To Love and be Loved: Considering Black Masculinity and the Misandric Impulse in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Callaloo 26 (Summer 2003): 836-854.

Kelley, Robin D.G. “The Riddle of the Zoot: Malcolm Little and Black Cultural Politics during World War II.” In Stecopoulos, Harry and Michael Uebel, eds. Race and the Subject of Masculinities. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Leak, Jeffrey Bernard. “The Quality of Man: Twentieth-Century Literary Constructions of Black Masculinity.” Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University, 1997.

Lemelle, Jr., Anthony J. “Africana Studies and the Crisis of Black Masculinity.” In Conyers, James L., Jr., ed. Afrocentric Traditions. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005.

_____. “Killing the Author of Life, or Decimating ‘Bad Niggers’.” Journal of Black Studies 19 (December 1988): 216-231.

Lemelle, Jr., Anthony J. and Juan Battle. “Black Masculinity Matters in Attitudes toward Gay Males.” Journal of Homosexuality 47 (March 2004): 39-52.

Madhubuti, Haki R. Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? The Afrikan American Family in Transition: Essay in Discovery, Solution and Hope. Chicago, IL: Third World Press, 1990.

Majors, Richard and Janet Mancini Billson. Cool Pose: The Dilemmas of Black Manhood in America. New York: Lexington Books, 1992.

McDonough, Carla J. “August Wilson: Performing Black Masculinity.” In McDonough, Carla J. Staging Masculinity: Male Identity in Contemporary American Drama. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1997.

McBride, Dwight A. Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men’s Literature and Culture, 1775-1995. American Literature 4 (December 2005): 861-862

Melnick, Mimi Clar. “‘I Can Peep through Muddy Water and Spy Dry Land’: Boasts in the Blues.” In Dundes, Alan, ed. Mother Wit from the Laughing Barrel. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1990.

Mercer, Kobena and Isaac Julien. “Race, Sexual Politics and Black Masculinity: a Dossier.” In Chapman, Rowena and Jonathan Rutherford, eds. Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1988.

Murtadha-Watts, Khaula. “Theorizing Urban Black Masculinity Construction in an African-centered School.” In Lesko, Nancy, ed. Masculinities at School. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000.

Mutua, Athena D., ed. Progressive Black masculinities. Published: New York: Routledge, 2006.

Neal, Mark Anthony. “NIGGA: The 21st-Century Theoretical Superhero.” Cultural Anthropology 28, no. 3 (August 2013): 556-563.

Nowatzki, Robert. “Sublime Patriots: Black Masculinity in Three African-American Novels.” Journal of Men’s Studies 8 (Fall 1999): 59-72.

Oliver, William. “Black Males and Social Problems: Prevention through Afrocentric Socialization.” Journal of Black Studies 20 (September 1989): 15-39.

Ongir, Amy Abugo. “We are Family: Black Nationalism, Black Masculinity, and the Black Gay Cultural Imagination.” College Literature 24 (February 1997): 280-294.

Orbe, Mark P. “Constructions of Reality on MTV’s ‘The Real World’: an Analysis of the Restrictive Coding of Black Masculinity.” Southern Communication Journal 64 (Fall 1998): 32-47.

Pierre, Martin R., James R. Mahalik, and Malcolm H. Woodland. “The Effects of Racism, African Self-consciousness and Psychological Functioning on Black Masculinity: a Historical and Social Adaptation Framework.” Journal of African American Men 6 (Fall 2001): 19-39.

Pinar, William F. “Black Men: You Don’t Even Know Who I Am.” In Pinar, William F. The Gender of Racial Politics and Violence in America : Lynching, Prison Rape, & the Crisis of Masculinity. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

Powell, Kevin. “Rage and Revolution: a Nation of Hip-Hop Brothers.” Essence 30 (November 1999): 127+

Pressley, Arthur. “Rap Music by Black Male Artists: A Psychological Interpretation.” Western Journal of Black Studies 16 (Summer 1992): 92-97.

Price, Jeremy N. “Schooling and Racialized Masculinities: the Diploma, Teachers, and Peers in the Lives of Young, African American Men.” Youth & Society 31 (December 1999): 224-263.

Read, Andrew. “‘As if Word Magic Had Anything to do with the Courage it Took to be a Man’: Black Masculinity in Toni Morrison’s Paradise.” African American Review 39 (Winter 2005): 527-540.

Rebhorn, Matthew. “Flaying Dutchman.” Callaloo 26 (Summer 2003): p. 796-812.

Reddock, Rhoda E. Interrogating Caribbean Masculinities: Theoretical and Empirical Analyses. Kingston, Jamaica : University of the West Indies Press, 2004.

Reid-Pharr, Robert F. “Tearing the Goat’s Flesh: Crisis, Homosexuality, Abjection, and the Production of a Late-twentieth-century Black Masculinity.” In Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, ed. Novel Gazing: Queer Readings in Fiction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

Richardson, Riche. “Charles Fuller’s Southern Specter and the Geography of Black Masculinity.” American Literature 77 (March 2005): 7-32.

_______Black masculinity and the U.S. South: from Uncle Tom to Gangsta. Athens : University of Georgia Press, 2007.

Riggs, Marlon T. “Black Macho Revisited: Reflections of a Snap! Queen.” Black American Literature Forum 25 (Summer 1991): 389-394.

Roberts, G.W. “Brother to Brother: African-American Modes of Relating among Men.” Journal of Black Studies 24 (June 1994): 379-390.

Ross, Marlon B. “In Search of Black Men’s Masculinities.” Feminist Studies 24 (Fall 1998): 599-626.

_____. “Some Glances at the Black Fag: Race, Same-Sex Desire, and Cultural Belonging.” In Napier, Winston, ed. African American Literary Theory: A Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Saint-Aubin, Arthur F. “A Grammar of Black Masculinity: a Body of Science.” Journal of Men’s Studies 10 (Spring 2002): 247-270.

_____. “Testeria: the Dis-ease of Black Men in White Supremacist, Patriarchal Culture.” Callaloo 17 (Fall 1994): 1054-1073.

Segal, Lynne. “Black Masculinity and the White Man’s Black Man.” In Segal, Lynne. Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Shin, Andrew and Barbara Judson. “Beneath the Black Aesthetic: James Baldwin’s Primer of Black American Masculinity.” African American Review 32 (Summer 1998): 247-261.

Smith, Earl. African American Men and Intimate Partner Violence Journal of African American Studies 12 (June 2008): 156-179

Stade, George. “Womanist Fiction and Male Characters.” Partisan Review 52 (1985): 264-270.

Staples, Robert. Black Masculinity: the Black Male’s Role in American Society. San Francisco, CA: Black Scholar Press, 1982.

_____. “Masculinity and Race: the Dual Dilemma of Black Men.” Journal of Social Issues 34 (Winter 1978): 169-183.

Summers, Martin Anthony. Manliness and its Discontents: the Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900-1930. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

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Wade, J.C. “African American Men’s Gender Role Conflict: the Significance of Racial Identity.” Sex Roles 34 (January 1996): 17-33.

Wallace, Maurice O. Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men’s Literature and Culture, 1775-1995. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002.

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Westwood, Sallie. “Racism, Black Masculinity and the Politics of Space.” In Hearn, Jeff and David Morgan, eds. Men, Masculinities & Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Wiegman, Robyn. “Feminism, ‘The Boyz,’ and Other Matters Regarding the Male.” In Cohan, Steven and Rae Ina Hark, eds. Screening the Male: Exploring Masculinities in Hollywood Cinema. London: Routledge, 1993.

Wilcox, Paula. “Beauty and the Beast: Gendered and Raced Discourse in the News.” Social & Legal Studies 14 (December 2005): 515-532.

Wise, Sheila J. “Redefining Black Masculinity and Manhood: Successful Black Gay Men Speak Out.” Journal of African American Men 5 (Spring 2001): 3-22.

______. A Different Kind of Black Man: On Being Gay. 1 DVD (19 min.). San Francisco, CA: Frameline, 2001.