Guide to Reference and Information Sources in Plant Biology (book) Web Resources 

This Web page contains the URLs and annotations for the Web-accessible resources listed in Guide to Reference and Information Sources in Plant Biology, published by Libraries Unlimited in December 2005.


Chapter 10:  Systematics and Identification

Bibliographies and Guides to the Literature


Culberson, W. L., R. S. Egan, and T. L. Esslinger. 2004. Recent Literature on Lichens.


Recent Literature on Lichens is a series published in The Bryologist, a journal of The American Bryological and Lichenological Society.  The series aims at listing all recently published papers in lichenology, with a complete bibliographic reference, keywords, and abstract - including mention of all new scientific names and combinations.”  The database can be searched by words from the citation or by scientific name, and results can be sorted and downloaded in several formats.



Farr, Ellen R., Jan H. Leussink, and Frans A. Stafleu, eds. Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Utrecht, The Netherlands: International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, 1979. 3 vol. ISBN 9031303272  (set). (Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 100, 102, 103). Supplementum I, 1986. (Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 113).


This is a list of valid published scientific plant names of all genera, recent and fossil, and includes citations to authors, reference to the place and time of publication, homonymy, indications of taxonomic placement, and additional information on names.  The index is now searchable from the Smithsonian Institute’s Web site.



Index of Mosses. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, 1989-  . Triennial. (Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden).


The Index is a guide to newly published nomenclature for mosses, and supersedes Index Muscorum.  The index is also available online as the Index of Mosses (W³MOST) and includes information on the name of the bryophyte, its place of publication, type, specimen lists and distribution where available.



Kirk, P. M. et al. IndexFungorum. Wallingford, England: CAB International.


This database contains over 345,000 names of fungi (including yeast, lichens, chromistan fungi, protozoan fungi and fossil forms) at the species level and below.  It is comprised of data taken from Saccardo’s Sylloge Fungorum, Petrak’s Lists, Saccardo’s Omissions, Lamb’s Index, Zahlbruckner’s Catalogue of Lichens (not reviewed), and the Index of Fungi.



Reveal, James T. Systematic Botany Resources for Reference Librarians.


Librarians aren’t the only people who can find helpful information at this site, which includes Web sites and standard print resources on systematic botany and the history of botany.



Saccardo, Pier A. Sylloge Fungorum Omnium Hoc Usque Cognitorum. New York: Johnson, 1966. 25 vol. Volume 26, New York: Johnson, 1972. ISBN 0384528317 (set), 0384528309 (paper/set).


This catalog of names with Latin descriptions of fungi predates Petrak's List and is included in the online IndexFungorum.  Both data sets can also be searched at the USDA’s Systematic Botany and Mycology site.  Reprint of the 1931 edition.



World Checklist and Bibliography Series. Richmond, Surrey, England: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2000-  . Rev ed. Multi-volume. 


This series presents global checklists of selected families of seed plants.  To date, publications include Araceae, Magnoliaceae, Fagales, Conifers, Euphorbiaceae, and Sapotaceae with several other volumes planned.  The families are chosen because of their interest to researchers at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, in particular families covered in the garden’s database Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands.  At the time of viewing in late 2004, only the data for the Fagales were available at the Web site.


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Databases, Abstracts & Indexes


Bibliography of Systematic Mycology. Vol. l‑ . Wallingford, England: CAB International, 1947‑ . Semiannual. $340.00. ISSN 0006‑1573.


The bibliography covers the literature of the taxonomy, classification, nomenclature and phylogeny of the fungi.  Citations are arranged by systematic group and there is an author index in each issue; books and book reviews are also included.  A partial database covering citations beginning with 1986 but excluding the most recent five years is available for free at



Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers. 1956-  . Various locations: various publishers. Biennial. Price varies.


The Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers has variously been published as part of the Regnum Vegetabile series (Volumes 50, 55, 59, 68, 77, 84, 90, 91, 96, and 108) and the Missouri Botanical Garden’s Monographs in Systematic Botany series (Volumes 5, 8, 13, 23, and 30).  Entries are arranged alphabetically by family within these groupings:  algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and spermatophytes to provide references to the literature of plant chromosome number information for the period covered.  These compilations provide a useful service for botanists and should be included in any botanical library; between compilations, chromosome number information is updated in the periodical, Taxon.  The most recent print compilation was published in 2000; data from 1984 to date can be viewed at



The International Plant Names Index. Plant Names Project, 1999-  .


A database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of 1.3 million names of seed plants.  The database is a collaboration  among The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium.  Data comes from Index Kewensis (IK), the Gray Card Index (GCI), the Australian Plant Names Index (APNI), and Index Filicum.  It can be searched by scientific name, author, or publication.  Common names are not included.



Kew Record of Taxonomic Literature. 1971‑2001. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Quarterly. ISSN 0307-2835.


This publication reported worldwide taxonomic literature of the flowering plants, gymnosperms and ferns in a systematic arrangement.  It is comprehensive and includes all articles, books, and papers reporting new plant names with the exception of cultivars.  Entries are arranged by subject, including systematics, bibliography, botanical institutions, chromosome surveys, anatomy, floristics, etc.  There are also author and genus indexes.  The Kew Record was formerly an annual, but in 1987 it merged with the Current Awareness List and became a much more timely quarterly.  It is no longer being printed but is being updated and made available for free on the Web at


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Dictionaries and Encyclopedias


Hoen, Peter. Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology. 2nd rev. ed. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 1999-  .   


The glossary is based on the publication by the same name printed by the Laboratory for Palaeobotany and Palynology in 1994.  The terminology of palynology includes many esoteric terms for anatomical features of pollen and spores, so the fact that almost all definitions also include a diagrammatic illustration is a particularly nice feature of this highly hyperlinked glossary.  The full glossary can also be downloaded for personal use.


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Handbooks and Methods


Brickell, Christopher, et. al, eds. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants: (I. C. N. C. P. or Cultivated Plant Code): Incorporating the Rules and Recommendations for Naming Plants in Cultivation. 7th ed. Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science, 2004. 123 p. (Acta Horticulturae, no. 647; Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 144). $70.00. ISBN 9066055278. 


“As well as containing the international rules for naming plants in cultivation, the Code also contains much ancillary information such as lists of special denomination classes, International Cultivar Registration Authorities (ICRAs), statutory registration authorities, and herbaria maintaining specimens that act as nomenclatural standards, together with a comprehensive glossary of terms used in nomenclature generally.”  Largely follows the rules set out in Greuter’s International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, below, with the addition of allowing cultivar names for cultivated varieties.  The text of the code is available for free online.



Plants of the World According to Their Families, as Recognised in the Kew Herbarium, with an Analysis of Relationships of the Flowering Plant Families According to Eight Systems of Classification. Kew, England: Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, 1992. 804 p. $100.00. ISBN 0947643435.


The subtitle pretty much sums up the contents of this authoritative book.  It is divided into three parts, consisting of an alphabetical list of all 14,000 generic names accepted at the Kew Gardens, a list of genera listed alphabetically by family, and a comparison of eight classification systems.  The eight systems are Bentham and Hooker, De la Torre and Harms, Melchior, Thorne, Dahlgren, Young, Takhtadzhian (AKA Takhtajan), and Cronquist. For more comparisons, see Swift’s Botanical Classifications.  The contents of the book are also available as a searchable database at the Kew Gardens site.



Museum of Natural History, 2000-2003. 4 vol. (Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, vol. 39, 41, 46, 48).


This is an on-going project gathering together taxonomic and distributional information on North and South American grasses, including grasses from Greenland.  The Web site is still being updated and is to be considered the most authoritative version of the project.  On the Web, the species can be searched by scientific name or browsed using indexes to all taxa, accepted taxa, and suprageneric, generic and subgeneric taxa.



Earle, Christopher J. Gymnosperm Database. 1997-  .


The database provides basic information on each of the 1,000 species or higher taxa of gymnosperms.  Most of the accounts include taxonomic notes, description, range, largest and oldest specimens, economic use, dendrochronology, remarks, bibliography, and photographs.  Some obscure species have almost no information beyond the name and a citation.  Species can be located by browsing through a taxonomic tree, or searched by name.  The author also provides several topical essays, for instance on the gymnosperm flora of some regions or on dendrochronology.


Provides access to the published family, genera, and species accounts from Flora of China, Flora of Missouri, Flora of North America, Flora of Pakistan, Moss Flora of China, and Trees and Shrubs of the Andes of Ecuador. Users can search within each flora or across all of them, and there are links to other databases such as Solomon’s W3Tropicos (below) and The International Plant Names Index (above). The site also provides links to an English to Chinese botanical glossary and keys to plant families.



Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification. World Taxonomist Database. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: ETI, 1995- .  


This database was set up to expedite contact between taxonomists.  The database contained information on about 4,000 individuals at the time of viewing.  It can be searched by name, institution, country, or specialty.  Entries for each taxonomist include contact information and areas of interest.  The Plant Specialists Index offers similar information.



Flora Mesoamericana. Vol. 1- . St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, 1994- . Multi-volume. $85.00 (vol. 1), $85.00 (vol. 6). ISBN 9683647006 (vol. 1), 9683633102 (vol. 6).


A major new series covering the vascular plants from southern Mexico to Panama, this flora provides the basic information expected in a flora: scientific and common names, technical description, keys, and distribution.  The series will be published out of sequence, with seven volumes expected, all in Spanish.  As of late 2004, Volumes 1 and 6 had been published.  The flora’s Web site contains the data from the published volumes.



Flora of Australia. Vol. 1- . Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1981- . Multi-volume. Irregular. Price varies. ISSN 0726-3449.


The massive Flora of Australia will cover all vascular and non-vascular plants of Australia.  Volume 1 is an introduction with background information on the project, a key to flowering plant families, and a glossary.  Volumes 2-48 cover the 20,000 species of vascular plants, Volumes 49-50 will cover several islands, Volumes 51-53 the bryo­phytes, and Volumes 54-58 the lichens.  The algae and fungi are expected to require another 20-30 volumes.  The flora is also available online in three separate sections covering Australia proper (Volumes 2-48 and 51 and continue), Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands (Volume 49), and other Oceanic islands (Volume 50).



Flora of China. Vol. 1- . St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, 1994- . Multi-volume. Price varies.


Another of the Missouri Botanical Garden's flora projects, this will cover all of the vascular plants of China in a projected 25 volumes over a period of fifteen years.  Information will include brief descriptions, keys, synonymy, distribution, and indexes to Chinese and scientific names.  Flora of China is an English-language revision of the Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae.  The project’s home page contains information about the flora, the full text of published volumes, and more.



Flora of North America, North of Mexico. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993- . Multi-volume. Price varies.


This is the first comprehensive, modern flora discussing all of the vascular plants of North America.  It is intended to be published in 30 volumes covering 20,000 species.  Volume 1 contains the introduction, Volume 2 covers the ferns and gymnosperms, Volumes 3-26 will cover the vascular plants, Volumes 27-29 will cover the bryophytes, and Volume 30 will contain an index.  The project’s Web site provides information on the project, full text of published volumes, and other information.  As of late 2004, eight volumes had been published out of sequence.  For another project with similar aims, see the mono­graphic series North American Flora.



Greuter, Werner, et al, eds. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature: Saint Louis Code. Königstein , Germany : Koeltz Scientific Books, 2000. (Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 138). 474 p. ISBN 3904144227.


Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code as adopted by each International Botanical Congress held about every six years.  The Code aims at the provision of a stable method of naming taxonomic groups of plants (including fungi), avoiding and rejecting the use of  names that may cause error, ambiguity, or confusion.  Updates to the Code may be found in Taxon or Mycotaxon.  This code also governs the use of scientific or Latin names for plants whether they are cultivated or wild; see the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, which is revised after each new International Code of Botanical Nomenclature appears.  The full text of the St. Louis code is also available on the Web.  An attempt is being made to combine all five biological nomenclatural codes into a single code; the Draft Biocode was developed in 1997 and is available online.



Greuter, Werner, ed. Family Names in Current Use for Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Fungi. Königstein, Germany: Koeltz, 1993. 95 p. (NCU 1; Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 126). ISBN 1878762427 (paper).


An inventory of currently used family names (NCU) for all plants and fungi exclusive of algae and extinct families of plants.  The intent is simply to list names in use, not proscribe which are correct.  The author and original publication of each name is also included.  Similar inventories have been published for species names in select families and all accepted generic names. (see titles under Names in Current Use... below).  Updated and corrected on the Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature: Names in Current Use web page.


Greuter, Werner, et al., eds. Names in Current Use for Extant Plant Genera. Königstein, Germany: Koeltz, 1993. 1,464 p. $398.00. ISBN 1878762486. (NCU 3; Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 129).


Lists 28,041 generic names in current use for extant plants, including algae and fungi as well as the higher plants.  This list includes the original citation for the generic name and is intended to stabilize plant nomenclature.  The data is searchable on the Web at the NCU-3e. Names in Current Use for Extant Plant Genera web page.



Guiry, M. D. and E. Nic Dhonncha. AlgaeBase. version 2.1. Galway, Ireland: National University of Ireland, 2004.


A taxonomic database covering the algae of the world.  At the time of viewing, the amount of information on each species varied, with the marine species more complete.  Full records include photograph, synonymy, publication details, etymology, common names, references, GenBank link, and classification hierarchy.  The database can be searched by common name, genus, and species.



Hassler, Michael and Brian Swale. Checklist of World Ferns. 2001-  .


This site provides a browseable checklist of the ferns.  Most genera are listed with taxonomic hierarchy, synonymy, original publication, and distribution.



Hickman, James C., ed. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993. 1,400 p. $85.00. ISBN 0520082559.


An updated version of Willis Jepson’s Manual of Higher Plants of California, originally published in 1951.  Unusual among floras, this manual is intended  for use by both amateurs and professional botanists.  Therefore, while there are the usual dichotomous keys and technical descriptions, the manual also includes horticultural information, an illustrated glossary, and a chapter on the geological history of California.  There are line drawings of most of the over 4,000 taxa.  The checklist and distribution maps for the plants can be found online.



Hill, Ken. The Cycad Pages. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.


Based on the World List of Cycads originally published in Encephalartos, the journal of the Cycad Society of South Africa, in 1985 and subsequently updated, this site provides a searchable and browseable list of cycads with descriptions and taxonomic information for each species as well as several articles covering cycad ecology, physiology, and cultivation.



Holmgren, Patricia K., et al., eds. Index Herbariorum. Part I: The Herbaria of the World. 8th ed. Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden, 1990. 693 p. (Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 120) $35.00. ISBN 0893273589.

Detailed directory of the public herbaria of the world.  Herbaria are arranged alphabetically by country and alphabetically by city.  Data includes address, correspondent(s), telephone number, status, date established, names of herbarium, director and curators, staff names and specialties, associated gardens and institutions, publications, and remarks.  Appendixes include tables and lists of herbaria by size, age, importance, etc.  Both parts 1 and 2 (Plant Specialists Index, below) are also available on the Web.  The database can be searched by herbarium acronym, institution name and location, and personal name and research specialty.



International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). Provisional Global Plant Checklist


This database provides basic nomenclatural information (original reference, status, and synonyms).  At the time of viewing in July of 2004, the database contained 201,397 different plant names taken from six major databases.  The checklist is designed as a tool for authors working on the Species Plantarum project (see below).



Integrated Taxonomic Information System: ITIS. Washington, DC: U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1990s-  .


Provides authoritative information on plants, fungi, animals, and microbes of North America and the world.  The database includes the authority (author and date), taxonomic rank, associated synonyms and common names, and references.



Kartesz, John T., Hugh D. Wilson, and Erich Schneider. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Chapel Hill, NC: BONAP; College Station, TX: TAMU-BWG, 1998.


The data for this checklist came primarily from John Kartesz and the Biota of North America Program (BONAP).  The checklist includes nomenclature and geographical distribution maps for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands and can be browsed by family name, genus or common name.  The entries may include links to illustrations or information from other Web floras.



Liesner, R. Field Techniques Used by Missouri Botanical Garden. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, 1995.


This Web site outlines the best practices for collecting plant specimens as used by the Missouri Botanical Garden.  The techniques are recommended for use in other herbaria as well.  The site is available in English, French, and Spanish and includes a list of recommended readings.



Maddison, D. R. and W. P. Maddison.  The Tree of Life: A Multi-Authored, Distributed Internet Project Containing Information About Phylogeny and Biodiversity. 1998- .


While still a work in progress, The Tree of Life provides phylogenies for all groups of organisms, living and extinct and is designed for researchers and advanced students.  The treatments include extensive bibliographies dealing with the systematics of that group, and most also include photos or drawings of representative species, plus links to other Web sites dealing with the taxon.  Some groups are treated in more detail than others depending on the availability of volunteer authors.  See the University of California, Berkeley’s Phylogeny of Life site, below, for a similar Web survey of phylogenies.



Reveal, James L. Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, 1996- .


Reveal’s Web site provides a list of valid plant family names as well as links to a number of other plant nomenclature databases, an essay on nomenclature above the genus level, and more.



Solomon, Jim. W3Tropicos. Rev. 1.7. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, 2000-  .


This search engine provides access to the Missouri Botanical Garden's VAST (VAScular Tropicos) nomenclatural database and associated authority files for vascular plants and bryophytes.  The database includes information on the plant name and authors, original publication, synonymy and higher taxa, as well as references.



Species 2000. International Union of Biological Sciences, 2000- .


According to its Web site, “Species 2000 has the objective of enumerating all known species of organisms on Earth (animals, plants, fungi and microbes) as the baseline dataset for studies of global biodiversity”. The database consists of checklists and nomenclatural information taken from several other major databases and projects, including the Global Plant Checklist, International Plant Name Index, Plant Fossil Record, Moss/TROPICOS, Species Fungorum, and World Database of Legumes.  More names and databases are added continually.



Species Plantarum: Flora of the World. Canberra, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study, 1999-  . Irregular. ISSN 1441-1393.  Available electronically.


This flora has the rather optimistic (not to mention ambitious) goal of covering all species of vascular plants in the world.  The most recent attempt at a comprehensive flora prior to Species Plantarum was Engler’s Das Pflanzenreich.  The flora is issued in a number of small parts and as of late 2003 was up to 10 parts.  Nomenclatural and distributional data from the series will be available as part of the Global Plant Checklist.



Stevens, P. F. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 2001-  . Version 5, May 2004.


Designed as an angiosperm phylogeny teaching aid, this site describes all families and orders of angiosperms as well as some higher and lower clades.  The descriptions are quite technical, and the site includes phylogenetic trees, descriptions of the characters used to determine the phylogenies, references, glossary, and a search function.



Thorne, Robert F. and James L. Reveal. An Updated Classification of the Class Angiospermae. University of Maryland, 1999.


Thorne’s classification system is one of the standard alternatives.  It was originally published in 1992 as an article in the journal Botanical Review.  This Web site gives access to the system, along with some additional information provided by Reveal.



Tutin, T. G., et al., eds. Flora Europaea. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1964-1980. 5 vol. plus CD-ROM. $1,150.00 (set). ISBN 0521805708 (set). 2nd ed. Vol. 1, 1993 (ISBN 052141007X).


Flora Europaea presents a synthesis of all the national and regional floras of Europe, based on critical reviews of existing litera­ture and on studies in herbaria and in the field.  The first edition was published from 1964-1980; a second edition of Volume 1 was published in 1993 but no further volumes of the second edition have been completed. The CD-ROM and all individual volumes are available separately.  The data from Flora Europaea is also searchable on the Web.  The information available on the Web site includes family, genus, species, original citation, synonymy, and distribution within Europe.  Note: the search engine is case-sensitive!



University of California, Berkeley. Museum of Paleontology. Phylogeny of Life.


This Web site provides an introduction to almost all higher taxa of organisms, both extinct and living.  The information for most taxa include a brief introduction to the taxonomy, ecology, and life history of organisms in the group plus illustrations, short lists of Web sites for further research, information on the paleontology of the taxa, and links to an online glossary.  An excellent resource for information on even the most obscure group of plants.  See also Maddison’s Tree of Life Web site, above, for a similar guide to phylogeny on the Web.



Watson, L. and M. J. Dallwitz. The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. 1992-  . Version: 14th December 2000. 


All families of flowering plants are included in this Web site.  The descriptions are written in very technical language and include taxonomic information on both lower and higher taxa for each family.  Many families also include information on use, technical drawings, and even some poetry.  The same information was also published on CD-ROM by CSIRO in 1993-1994 under the same title. San Francisco, CA:, 2000- . 


A Web guide to over 4,800 plants and animals of North America taken from the Audubon Society Field Guide series and includes pictures and descriptions taken from the books.  The plant section includes Audubon guides to trees and wildflowers as well as material taken from the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center’s Native Plant Guide.  Users can search by name or by region, leaf type, color, bloom period, habitat, and other characteristics.  The site is sponsored by the National Wildlife Federation.



Thonner, Franz. Thonner's Analytical Key to the Families of Flowering Plants. Boston, MA: Leiden University Press, 1981. 231 p. ISBN 9060214617, 906021479X (paper).


 A translation of the classic Anleitung zum Bestimmung der Familien der Blutenpflanzen (Phanerrogames), 2nd ed., 1917.  This is one of the few keys to all families of flowering plants, and can be substituted, in some respects, for Hutchinson and Newcomb.  It has been translated from the German and brought up to date so that it may be used with Willis' Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns, 8th edition and Hutchinson's Families of Flowering Plants 3rd edition.  Thonner self-published his key at the beginning of the Twentieth Century and it was ignored for a long time, but it has since been acknowledged as one of the best world-wide keys available.  The key is also available on the Web.


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American Society of Plant Taxonomists (ASPT). c/o Dept. of Botany 3165, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-3165. Phone: 307-766-2556. Fax: 307-766-2851. E-Mail:


Botanists and others interested in all phases of plant taxonomy. Publishes Systematic Botany, Systematic Botany Monographs, newsletter.



International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT). c/o Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria. Phone: 43 1 427754098. Fax: 43 1 427754099. E-Mail:


Coordinates work related to plant taxonomy and international codification of plant names.  Formerly: Commission on the Nomenclature of Plants.  Publishes Regnum Vegetabile and Taxon.



International Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). c/o Dr. C. D. Brickell, Chairman, The Camber, The Street, Nutbourne, Pulborough, West Sussex RH20 2HE, England, UK. E-mail:  


Cultivated plant taxonomists in 14 countries representing the fields of agriculture, forestry and horticulture.  Publishes International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.



International Organization of Plant Biosystematists (IOPB). c/o Peter C. Hoch, Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299. Phone: 314-577-5175. Fax: 314-577-0820. E-Mail:


Scientists in 35 countries interested in promoting international cooperation in the study of biosystematics.  Publishes IOPB Newsletter.



Missouri Botanical Garden. 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110. Phone: 314-577-9400 or 800-642-8842.


One of the world’s top research botanical gardens, and host to many of the taxonomic databases and floras mentioned in this chapter. Hosts annual systematics seminar.  Publishes Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, Novon, and many books on systematic botany.



New York Botanical Garden. 200th Street and Kazimiroff Boulevard. Bronx, NY 10458-5126. Phone: 718-817-8700.


One of the great research botanical gardens.  Hosts annual systematics symposium.  Publishes Botanical Review, Brittonia, and Economic Botany, as well as books on systematics, economic botany, and conservation.



Organization for Flora Neotropica (OFN). New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126. Phone: 718-817-8625. Fax: 718-220-6504. E-Mail:


Established by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.  Representatives from countries and organizations actively concerned with the taxonomy of neotropical flora, and interested individuals.  Conducts research on plants of the New World.  Publishes Flora Neotropica Monographs.



Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, UK. Phone: 44 020 8332 5655. Fax: 44 020 8332 5197. E-Mail:


One of the world’s great research botanical gardens.  Publishes Kew Bulletin, Kew Journal, Kew Scientist, and many bibliographies, catalogs, floras, databases, and reference works.



Willi Hennig Society. c/o Dr. William Presch, Treasurer, Department of Biological Science, California State University-Fullerton, Fullerton, California 92834. Phone: 714-278-3774-2215. Fax: 714-278-4289. E-mail:


An international association established to promote scientific exchange in the field of phylogeny.  The society publishes Cladistics and sponsors an annual meeting.  Their Web site contains educational material such as links to databases and explanations of cladistics, information on performing cladistic analyses, and society activities.


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References:  Bramwell, David. 2002. “How many plant species are there?Plant Talk 28: 32-34.



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