Guide to Reference and Information Sources in the Zoological Sciences

This Web site contains the URLs and annotations for all Web-accessible resources listed in Guide to Reference and Information Sources in the Zoological Sciences, published by “Libraries Unlimited” in 2003.  The intent of this site is to keep the URLs for this select group of valuable sources up-to-date and available.  No new sites will be added to keep this site and the guide in sync.

Schmidt, Diane., & Bell, George H. (2003). Guide to reference and information sources in the zoological sciences. Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited.

Most of the resources contained in the guide and this site are designed for the use of graduate students, scientists, and the librarians that serve them, but other students and people interested in animal biology will also find something of interest.  The sites were chosen on the basis of their size (e.g., the equivalent of a book rather than an article), their reliability and authority, and the likelihood of their survival into the future.  Some sites were included if they offered the easiest or only access to information on obscure or hard-to-find taxa such as caecilians or the Mantophasmatodea.

I hope you find this site useful and I welcome comments.

Diane Schmidt
Biology Librarian (Retired), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Date of publication: 1/09/2004

Table of Contents

Introduction

Taxonomy

Many of the resources covered in this volume deal with animal taxonomy, so some definitions are in order.  Systematics is a broad field that attempts to identify patterns in organisms and covers both taxonomy and evolutionary biology. The term is sometimes used as a synonym for taxonomy.  Taxonomy is the theory and practice of classifying and naming organisms.  Classification is the process of ranking groups of organisms in a hierarchical arrangement.  Taxon (plural taxa) is a taxonomic group of any level, such as genus, order, family, or kingdom.  Nomenclature is the system which describes how species and other higher groups are to be named, including which names are valid and how to Latinize terms from other languages.  Animal taxonomists follow the rules laid out in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (see the General Reference Sources chapter), while botanists and microbiologists have their own codes.  All currently accepted scientific names and descriptions began with Linnaeus’ publication of the tenth edition of Systema Naturae.

Taxonomy is often divided into two areas, descriptive taxonomy and phylogenetic taxonomy.  Descriptive taxonomy, as its name suggests, identifies and describes species and other groups.  The literature of descriptive taxonomy is widely distributed.  Taxonomists must refer back to the original description of a species, which may have been published at any time since Linnaeus’ original work and in a wide range of books, journals, bulletins, monographs, and other often obscure sources.  Various experts in families or orders of animals have then compiled catalogs, handbooks, or checklists that attempt to sort out the classification and nomenclature of that group, but such works are invariably outdated soon after publication as new species are discovered and other revisions made, which are then published in the same types of articles and books and the cycle begins again.  Phylogenetic taxonomy (or phylogenetics) attempts to trace the evolutionary relationships of organisms.  Most modern phylogenetics is based on cladistics, in which taxonomists attempt to identify clades, which are groups of organisms that contain the set of all descendants of a particular ancestor and no other organisms.  The dinosaur clade, for instance, would include dinosaurs and birds but not turtles even though dinosaurs and turtles are both reptiles.  After all, birds are descended from dinosaurs but turtles and dinosaurs had different reptilian ancestors.  Phylogenies, then, are branching family trees showing the relationships of organisms.

Despite the obvious advantages of the Web for organizing and making vast quantities of data available, its use by taxonomists is only beginning to take off.  Many authors have created authoritative Web sites describing the classification of the group of organisms that they study, but most of these relate to small taxa.  There is no Zoological Record equivalent for Web sites, so the sites are difficult to locate. A number of authors have begun to call for the creation of a large scale Web taxonomy system and several projects are currently underway.  These projects will be discussed in the General References Sources chapter, and include initiatives such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Species 2000, the All Species Foundation (update: this resource is no longer available online), the Global Taxonomy Initiative, and others.  Their success should help revitalize the field of taxonomy and will certainly make the task of finding taxonomic information much easier.  At the time of writing, however, each project was in its infancy.  For the near future, the literature of zoology will continue to be primarily print-based.

About this book

While the above discussion has centered on the technical aspects of taxonomy or nomenclature, these works are not the only ones discussed in this volume.  Also included are encyclopedias and dictionaries, handbooks that survey the diversity of a particular taxon of animals or of the animals of a particular geographic area, identification guides, journals, associations, and other useful tools.  A very select group of works discussing the biology of various taxa, especially the “lower” animals, is also included, as well as a very few books covering other topics such as animal ecology or behavior.  Most of these are annotated in the General Reference Sources chapter.  Paleontological materials are generally not covered, nor are materials on applied fields such as veterinary medicine, agriculture, or pest control though they often include useful information on individual species.  It should also be noted that most of the major taxonomic revisions are published as journal articles and are thus excluded from the purview of this volume, but they should be identifiable by use of the other resources listed.

Resources included

The arrangement of the book covers the periodical literature first, followed by monographic works.  A final section covers relevant associations.

Indexes, Abstracts, and Bibliographies

This section includes article indexes, abstracts, databases, and book-length bibliographies.

Journals

Core journals and review publications are listed in this section.  The lists are extensive but are not intended to be comprehensive.

Guides to the Literature

Guides to the literature are books such as this one, that help readers identify major resources.  Several are listed in the General Reference Sources chapter, and other chapters where available.  This section also includes major Web directories with links to other pages of interest: see the page General Reference Sources.

Biographies and Histories

Only relatively comprehensive biographies covering multiple individuals and broad histories covering long periods of time are annotated in this volume.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

It is often difficult to distinguish between these two types of resources, so they are combined.  Dictionaries provide definitions of words and may discuss their derivation.  Encyclopedias generally have lengthier essays on topics and cover a broad range of topics.

Textbooks

Textbooks are of use not only as texts for a course, but also for general reference.  Core texts are listed in this section.

Checklists and Classification Schemes

There are two kinds of checklists, one that lists the valid and/or invalid scientific names for a particular taxon, and those that list all the species of a particular geographical region.  Both are included in this section, along with books that outline the classification of a taxon.

Handbooks

Handbooks are the largest category of items covered in this book.  The term means a number of things, but as treated here includes faunas (surveys of the animals of a particular region), overviews of a particular order, and general works that do not fit in any of the other categories used.  The term “handbook” often refers to an identification guide, but these are treated in the Identification Tools section (below).  For the most part, only handbooks covering an entire order are included, though family-level handbooks are included for major families or if there is no comparable work for the entire order.  The geographic handbooks are almost all continent-wide or at least cover multiple countries. The following biogeographic headings were used, rather than geopolitical terms:

  • North America (including Canada, Mexico, and the United States)
  • Africa (including Madagascar, the Seychelles, and other islands in the Indian Ocean)
  • Antarctica
  • Asia (with India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Borneo)
  • Australasia (Australia, New Zealand, the Celebes, and Papua/New Guinea)
  • Central and South America (including the Caribbean islands)
  • Europe (including the Middle East, northern Africa and Iceland)
  • Pacific Islands (including Hawaii)

Identification Tools

This includes field guides, manuals, and taxonomic keys.  All these resources are devised to help identify species or other taxa and range from the small, portable field guides designed for the use of non-specialists to detailed, technical manuals and keys for the use of professionals.

Associations

Associations, societies, and other organizations that work with a particular group of organisms are included in this section.  Only professional organizations are listed.

General Sources

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Associations














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Bibliographies

  • AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access). Washington, DC: National Agricultural Library, 1970-  . Updated daily.The online equivalent of Bibliography of Agriculture, produced by the Nation­al Agriculture Library (NAL). This database covers journal articles, book chapters, government documents, technical reports, and proceedings.  The material primarily comes from the holdings of NAL, though some other material is also included. AGRICOLA is a useful source of information on animals of economic importance, particularly insects.  You will also find information on interactions of wildlife with livestock and similar subjects.  Since AGRICOLA is produced by a government agency, it is inexpensive and available from a number of vendors in several formats such as online, on CD-ROM, and through the Web.  The database can be searched for free at the URL listed above.  However, this search engine is very clumsy so most users are better off checking to see what other access methods are available to them.  NAL also publishes an annual List of Journals Indexed in AGRICOLA.

  • Index Medicus. New series, Vol. 1-  . Washington, DC: National Library of Medicine, 1975-  .Index Medicusand its various electronic formats (AKA MEDLINE, PubMed, and formerly Grateful Med) is the best-known index for the biomedical sciences, including veterinary medicine.  For zoologists, it is useful for its coverage of pests of medical importance, for wildlife diseases, and medical entomology.Like AGRICOLA (above), it is available for free searching on the Web as PubMed (1966 to date). The PubMed database is designed for researchers and covers more journals than the regular MEDLINE database.  PubMed also offers links to protein and gene sequence databases such as GenBank, plus live links to electronic journals. You will be able to connect to most of these electronic journals only if your library or institution has subscribed to them, however. There are also a number of other features, such as the ability to set up Current Awareness searches through the “Cubby” feature.  In addition, there are useful services such as browseable databases for journal titles and medical subject headings, and citation matching services. The OldMEDLINE database offers free searching of articles from 1958-1965 at http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/.  MEDLINE is also available from numerous other online and CD-ROM vendors.

  • National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Washington, DC: National Technical Information Service, 1990s-  .This site lists over 750,000 technical reports available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), including research supported by federal grants and some state and local governments.  Some international agencies are also represented. It is avail­able online, on CD-ROM, and on the Web.  Material published after 1990 is freely searchable at NTIS’s Web site. The print version, Government Reports Announcements and Index (GRAI), is no longer being published.

  • Science.gov. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.This site is designed to permit scientists and interested laypeople to access the vast amount of scientific information developed by the U. S. government agencies.  It is similar to the FirstGov site listed above.  Users can search by agency, subject, or document type and can also limit their search to only general interest material (the “Citizen Search”).  Search results include a brief summary of each site’s content and type (e.g., Web portal or maps and charts) and a link to the actual site. Created by National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

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Checklists and Classification Schemes

  • Index to Organism Names. Thompson Reuters.This searchable index contains nomenclature taken from Thompson Reuters organization (publishers of Biological Abstracts and Zoological Record) and several other groups.  The index provides basic information on nomenclature and hierarchy for plant and animal names, plus counts of the number of times the animal name occurred in volumes of the Zoological Record, which reflects the frequency the name is used in the literature.  Currently, the database includes bacteria, algae, mosses, fungi, and animals.

  • NCBI Taxonomy Homepage. Bethseda, MD: NCBI, 2000- .This page was created to publicize the names of the 105,082 species (as of September 1, 2001) of organisms with gene sequences listed in GenBank. While less than 25% of the species represented in GenBank are metazoans, this still represents a large number of animals.  The taxonomy homepage is not a taxonomic authority, but it serves as a useful guide to the current state of the field and contains many links to other taxonomic resources, both on the Web and in print.

  • The Tree of Life: A Multi-Authored, Distributed Internet Project Containing Information About Phylogeny and Biodiversity. Maddison, D. R. and W. P. Maddison, 1998.The Tree of Lifecovers all groups of organisms, living and extinct.  Most of the groups are treated only to the generic level.  All of the treatments include extensive bibliographies dealing with the systematics of that group, and most also include photos or drawings of representative species, plus links to other Web sites dealing with the taxon.  The Tree of Life, unlike some of the other comprehensive Web sites listed here, is aimed at researchers and advanced students.

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Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

  • Nomenclatural Glossary for Zoology. BIOSIS, 1996.This glossary is designed to aid indexers in the production of nomenclatural entries for the Zoological Record but is valuable for anyone needing definitions of the often technical terminology used in taxonomy. It covers about 400 terms such as holotype, nomen imperfectum, or tautonymy. The glossary is consistent with the 4th edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (see below).

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Guides to the Literature

  • BiologyBrowser. Biological Abstracts, Inc. Philadelphia, PA: BIOSIS, 1992-  .A collection of free resources for biologists, some of them produced by BIOSIS.  The site also includes a collection of Web sites, several discussion forums, a list of conferences, and other material.  The Web site directory can be searched or browsed by geographical location, organism, or subject.
    • No longer available online.

  • International Field Guides. Schmidt, Diane. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 1998-  .This frequently updated site is a companion to the print guide to North American field guides listed above.  Over 1,500 field guides from all parts of the world outside of North America are described.  Most are in English, and most are readily available in North America.  The descriptions follow the same format listed above.

  • Using the Biological Literature: A Practical Guide. Schmidt, Diane, Elisabeth B. Davis, and Pamela F. Jacobs.  3rd ed.An annotated guide to resources for all the biological sciences, with separate chapters on entomology and zoology.  Each chapter identifies resources such as indexes, dictionaries and encyclopedias, handbooks, journals, and associations.  Major Web sites are also listed, and this associated Web site at keeps the URLs updated.

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Handbooks

  • 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Cambridge, England: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2000.For over 40 years, the IUCN Red Lists have provided taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information for endangered plant and animal species worldwide. Separate Red Lists were available for various groups such as birds or fishes.  However, beginning with the 2000 edition the lists have been combined and will only be available electronically.  They are available for free on the Web at the URL listed above, and on CD-ROM for a fee.  The Web site provides a great deal of information on the IUCN’s programs, the criteria used for listing a species, references, and extensive links to other sites that provide information on the listed species.

  • InfoNatura: Birds and Mammals of Latin America. Version 1.0. Arlington, VA: NatureServe, 2001.This site provides conservation-oriented information on more than 5,500 species of birds and mammals of Latin America and the Caribbean. The database is searchable by English common name and scientific name or by higher taxa.  The species accounts include taxonomic information such as English, Spanish, and Portuguese common names, global conservation (IUCN and CITES) status, distribution, and references.  InfoNatura is a product of NatureServe (see below) in collaboration with Conservation Data Centers in 12 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1998-   .ITIS is a database of authoritative names for organisms, primarily plants and animals from North America but also from around the world.  It is the result of a partnership of several federal agencies including NOAA, USDA, USGS, and the Smithsonian Institute.  The scientific names are taken from authoritative sources selected by taxonomic experts.  The database can be queried by common or scientific name and includes both valid and invalid names.  Results include the status of the name, taxonomic hierarchy, references, and distribution.  Portions of the database can also be downloaded.

  • NatureServe Explorer: An Online Encyclopedia of Life. Version 1.6. Arlington, VA: NatureServe, 2001.A database of conservation information on over 50,000 plants, animals, and ecological communities of North America.  The data included in each species account includes taxonomic information, global and national conservation status, distribution, management, natural history, and references.  NatureServe is a non-profit organization developed by the Nature Conservancy and the Natural Heritage Network to advance the application of biodiversity information to conservation.  It is also involved in the InfoNatura project, above.

  • Phylogeny of Life. University of California, Berkeley. Musueum of Paleontology.This Web site provides an introduction to the exhibits in the Phylogeny Wing at the Museum of Paleontology.  The Web List of Taxa is an index to the organisms covered in the exhibits.  Almost all taxa of organisms, from viruses to animals, are included with a brief introduction to the taxonomy, ecology, and life history of organisms in the group.  There are also illustrations, short lists of Web sites for further research, information on the paleontology of the taxa, and links to an online glossary.  This is an excellent site for information on obscure taxa of animals. While most groups are discussed only at the level of the phylum, taxa such as the insects or mammals are taken to the family level.

  • Species 2000. International Union of Biological Sciences.”Species 2000 has the objective of enumerating all known species of plants, animals, fungi and microbes on Earth as the baseline dataset for studies of global biodiversity.” Eighteen organizations have formed a federation to combine existing taxonomic databases created by their members.  The Web site contains information about the Species 2000 initiative, as well as two versions of the database.  One, the “Catalogue of Life”, is a reference version stabilized every year.  It is also available on CD-ROM.  The “Dynamic Checklist” contains the same information, but is continually updated.  Another section, the “Names Service”, provides information on accepted and invalid nomenclature, including groups of organisms not included in the catalogue or checklist.  As of August 2003, the Catalogue of Life included 304,000 species, but not all taxa are represented.

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Textbooks

  • Animal Diversity. Hickman, Cleveland P., Larry S. Roberts, Larry S., and Allan Larson. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2000.An undergraduate level survey of the animal kingdom, this text is suitable for one-semester courses.  It covers diversity, evolutionary relationships, adaptations, and environmental interactions.  After beginning chapters introducing the science of zoology, and the evolution, anatomy, and classification of animals, the bulk of the book consists of chapters covering each of the major taxa from protists to mammals.  The text has a profusion of colorful illustrations and numerous sidebars.  Each chapter concludes with a summary, review questions, selected references, and links to the Web.  The links are also available at this website.

  • Integrated Principles of Zoology. Hickman, Cleveland P., Larry S. Roberts, and Allan Larson. 11th ed Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001.Like most other zoology textbook, this one covers basic biology, genetics, physiology, and ecology as well as the diversity of animal life.  Each chapter concludes with a summary, review questions, and selected references.  The text is supported by several multimedia products, including a tutorial CD-ROM, this Online Learning Center web site,  and a Visual Resource Library CD-ROM. For undergraduates.

Invertebrates

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Associations







  • Society for Experimental and Descriptive Malacology (SEDM). 1630 Northbrook Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. E-Mail: jbburch@umich.edu





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Checklists and Classification Schemes

  • CephBase.  Wood, James B. Galveston, TX, 1998-  .This Web site provides access to several databases containing information about the cephalopods, both life histories and classification.  The “Species Search” interface allows users to search by common or scientific name, and the records include the classification, common name, distribution, images, predators and prey, references, type specimens, and links to other Web sites for each species.  There are now 785 species covered in the databases. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Classification of the Extant Echinodermata. California Academy of Sciences.This page provides a list of the families of echinoderms.  There are links to images of some of the echinoderms, principally the starfish.  The main CAS Echinoderm Webpage (http://www.calacademy.org/research/izg/echinoderm/) has basic information on echinoderms, meeting information, and an extensive list of Web pages. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Ctenophores. Mills, C. E.  2001.The author, a scientist at the University of Washington, has created a Web page with extensive information on the Ctenophora.  The site includes a list of all valid names of the Ctenophora as well as general information about the comb jellies.

  • Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda. Smithsonian Institute National Museum of Natural History.This 59 page long PDF file provides a classification of cephalopods based on the latest literature.  It was apparently prepared by staff at the Smithsonian, but no authors are credited.  The author, date, type location, and type repository for each species or subspecies is given, though no synonyms are listed.

  • Hexacorallians of the World: Sea Anemones, Corals, and Their Allies. Fautin, Daphne G. 2002.This site provides an authoritative list of several orders of cnidarians, specifically the Actiniaria, Antipatharia, Ceriantharia, Corallimorpharia, Ptychodactiaria, Scleractinia, and Zoanthidea.  A vast amount of data can also be found here, including the usual catalog information (first description, synonymy, type specimen and location, distribution, and so on) as well as images and several classification schemes.

  • Sipuncula Taxa with Synonyms. Hallan, Joel and Edward B. Cutler.The classification system on this page was taken from Cutler’s The Sipuncula: Their Systematics, Biology, and Evolution.

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Handbooks

  • Annelid Worm Biodiversity Resources: Polychaetes, Oligochaetes, Leeches, and Allies. Read, Geoff. New Orleans: University of New Orleans, 1996-  .This site includes information on the Sipuncula and Pogonophora as well as annelids. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • C. elegans II. Riddle, Donald L., et al., eds. Plainview, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1997.This handbook discusses the biology of C. elegans in great detail, providing all the details that researchers who study the development or genetics of this common model organism need.  The full text of the volume is also available at no charge for personal use at this website as part of the NCBI Bookshelf.


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Identification Tools

  • Shells Database.A Japanese-English Web database covering 3,865 species of mollusks at the time of viewing.  The database can be searched by shell shape, scientific name, or Japanese common name.  The molluscs are also listed in taxonomic order so users can browse individual families.  The record for each species includes a color photograph, taxonomy, English and Japanese common names, distribution, habitat, notes, and bibliography.  The search by shape function is useful for collectors who need to identify a shell, while the remainder of the site is oriented more towards researchers. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

Serials

  • American Malacological Bulletin. Vol. 1-  . Hattiesburg, MS: American Malacological Union, 1983-  .  Two no. a year. ISSN 0740-2783.Publishes articles and symposia reports in all areas of malacology.  Cumulative author and taxonomic indexes and tables of contents from 1983 to 1998 are available on the American Malacological Union’s Web site.

  • Invertebrate Systematics. Vol. 16-  . Melbourne: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization with the cooperation of the Australian Academy of Science, 2001-  . 8/yr. $675.00. ISSN 0818-0164. Available electronically.Publishes articles on the systematics of invertebrates from around the world.  Most of the papers concern major revisions of taxonomic groups, though articles on species of economic or conservation interest are also welcomed.  The journal also publishes methodological papers and reviews. Sample articles from select issues are available at this website.  Formerly: Invertebrate Taxonomy.

  • The Veliger. Vol. 1-  . Berkeley, CA: California Malacozoological Society, 1958-  . Quarterly. $82.00. ISSN 0042-3211.Publishes articles, short articles, notes, and book reviews in all areas of molluscan research.  Tables of contents and supplementary data are available at the journal’s site.

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Arthropods (Including the Spiders, Crustaceans, and Insects)

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Associations














(Update: This resource is no longer available online.)








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Bibliographies

  • FORMIS: A Master Bibliography of Ant Literature. Porter, Sanford D. and Cesare Baroni Urbani. Gainesville, FL: USDA, ARS, CMAVE, 1999-  .The database is a composite of several ant literature indexes, including UCD Ant Literature Database, Biblio Fourmis, Baroni Urbani Bibliography, references from AGRICOLA, and citations from Hölldobler and Wilson’s The Ants.  It contained about 30,000 references at the time of viewing. It can be searched on the Web or downloaded in EndNote format for PCs or Macs.

  • Sakai Literature. Haas, Fabian.Sakai’s massive Dermapterorum Catalogus and its continuation, Forficula, gather together most of the world literature of the Dermaptera. However, there is no overall index for the 30-plus volumes in the series, so this database was created.  It provides author, year, title and keyword(s) of the articles in the various volumes.  At the time of viewing, it was incomplete, containing only records from volumes 10, 11, 12, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 of Dermapterorum Catalogus and volumes 1 to 6 of Forficula.  Link does not work at the present time.

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Biographies and Histories

  • Nomina auctorum: Auflösung von Abkürzungen taxonomischer Autoren-Namen. Schmitt, Michael, Heike Hübner, and Reinhard Gaedike. Berlin: Wiley-VCH, 1998. 189 p. (Nova supplementa entomologica, Heft 11). ISSN 0948-6038.According to the International Code on Zoological Nomenclature, zoologists should cite the original author who described a species or genus without abbreviating the name, but in past years names were often abbreviated.  Volume 1 of this set lists 4.687 abbreviations and gives the full names of the authors, while volume 2 lists 3.533 authors with birth and death dates along with the abbreviations used for their names and their taxonomic specialties.  The Web site contains the full text of the printed volumes. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

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Checklists and Classification Schemes

  • Biosystematic Database of World Diptera. Thompson, F. C., ed. Washington, DC: Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Honolulu, Hawaii; B. Bishop Museum, 1998.The database provides names and information about world Diptera.  It consists of four major parts, a Nomenclator listing valid and invalid names, the Species Database (under construction) providing information such as distribution, biological associates, and economic importance, a Reference database, and a selection of tools such as a directory of dipterologists and historical information (also under construction).  The site also provides an outline of the family level classification used in the database.

  • Checklist of Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Bousquet, Yves, ed. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture Canada, 1991. 430 p. (Publication, Agriculture Canada, 1861/E). ISBN 0660137674.This checklist covers all species and subspecies of beetles found in Canada and Alaska.  Species names are arranged alphabetically within the genera, and include synonyms, distribution by province or region, and references to keys. Also available on this Web site. Link does not work at this moment.

  • Checklist of the Collembola of the World Bellinger, P.F., K.A. Christiansen, and F. Janssens. 1996-2001.The site includes a great deal of information on the world’s Collembola, including a bibliography, glossary of morphological terms, image gallery, classification, list of genera, list of keys to genera, and much more.

  • A Checklist of the Insects of Subsaharan Africa. Washington, DC: National Museum of Natural History, Dept. of Systematic Biology, Entomology, 2000- .This database is designed as an authoritative record of the over 10,000 species of insects known to occur in Subsaharan Africa.  It is both printable and searchable by genus and species names.  The site also includes a “Summary of Key Literature on Identification of Afrotropical Insects and Spiders”. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Classification of the Class Scorpionida. Stockwell, Scott A. 1996.This site is based on the author’s 1989 Ph. D. dissertation, Revision of the Phylogeny and Higher Classification of Scorpions (Chelicerata).  The author also provides links to other scorpion sites.  This link is not accessible at the present moment.

  • Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms. 4th ed. Committee on Common Names of Insects. Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America, 1997. ISBN 0938522647.This list provides official common names of 2,046 insects from the US. There are four sections: insects listed by common name, insects listed by scientific name, a hierarchical listing of names, and a final section listing vernacular equivalents for higher taxonomic groups.  The list is updated on the society’s Web page.

  • Common Names of Insects in Canada (revised 1999). Belton, E. M. and D. C. Eidt. Entomological Society of Canada, 1999.This list is based on Paul Benoit’s Nomenclatura Insectorum Canadensium (5th ed.).  The updated list is only available electronically, either on the Web or as a DOS zip file. English and French common names are included for each species, as well as scientific names and order and family names.

  • Families and Subfamilies of Coleoptera. Coleopterists Society.This site lists the higher-order taxonomy of the Coleoptera.  It is based on J. F. Lawrence and A. F. Newton, Jr.’s “Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names)”, pp. 779-1006 in Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson, 1995.

  • Insects and Related Arthropods of North America. Opler, Paul A., coordinator. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page, 1999.This site provides access to checklists of insects found at various parks, refuges, and management units within North America.  At the time of viewing, only a few lists were provided but more are expected.  Separate lists are provided for Lepidoptera and dragonflies.

  • List of Odonata of the World. (2013 Version). Schorr, Martin, Martin Lindeboom, and Dennis Paulson.An attempt to list all valid species of Odonata. It includes the author and year of description for all genera and species, plus synonyms for almost all North American, South American, Australian, and African species.  At the time of viewing, synonyms for Eurasian species were still incomplete.  Updates D. Allen Davies and Pamela Tobin’s The Dragonflies of the World: A Systematic List of the Extant Species of Odonata.

  • Mantophasmatodea: Gladiators. Zompro, Oliver.Zompro is one of the original discoverers of this new order of insects.  This Web site includes a bibliography and species list as well as information on keeping these insects in captivity.

  • Mayfly Central. West Lafayette, IN: Department of Entomology, Purdue University.The two main resources available at this site at the time of viewing were The Mayflies of North America and The Mayflies of Central America, two species lists maintained by researchers at Mayfly Central.

  • Neotropical Leafhoppers Taxonomic Resource Page. Yepez, Fernando Francisco. Maracay, Venezuela: Museo del Instituto Agricola.The site presents information on the neotropical leafhoppers.  At the time of viewing, the only data available were species lists for the neotropical subfamilies, photographs of about 10 species, and links to other sites. In English, Spanish, and Portuguese. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • New Entomological Taxa. Vol. 1-  .  Davis, CA: Scientific Reference Resources, 1999-  .  Monthly. ISSN 1525-2396.An index of new taxa and nomenclature changes for insects, acarines, arachnids and myriapods, in addition to their parasites, pathogens, and symbionts. Both fossil and living species are included.  The print version is available in eight separate taxonomic sections or as a combined set. Over 700 journals and book series are scanned for the index.  At the time of viewing, records from Volume 1, number 5 were available on the Web.  Publication of New Entomological Taxa has been discontinued. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Nomina Insecta Nearctica: A Check List of the Insects of North America Rockville, MD: Entomological Information Services, 1996-97. 4 vols. plus CD-ROM.This set provides a directory of scientific names applied to the insects of North America, including synonyms, homonyms, unavailable names, and misspellings.  It is intended as a preliminary checklist.  The CD-ROM consists of a database divided into three groups of tables: family names, generic names, and species names. The associated Web site provides a classification of the North American insects covered in the print volumes that serves as a table of contents to the individual checklists.

    • North American Stonefly List (February 16, 2001 version). Stark, Bill P. 1998.The list contains 628 species of stoneflies found in North America.  It is in systematic order and includes the state and provinces where each species is found.

(Note: This resource is no longer available online.)


  • The Odonata of North America. Dragonfly Society of the Americas. 1998-  .This list is both a current North American checklist and a list of standard common names.  The common names were originally established in 1978 and revised over the years by the members of the Common Names Committee of the society.

  • Spiders of North America (North of Mexico). American Arachnological Society, Spiders of North America Check-list Committee.Based on Platnick’s Advances in Spider Taxonomy1992-1995 (see below), this site provides a list of valid names for the spiders of North America north of Mexico.  Names are listed in alphabetic order within each family.  The entries include synonymy and the states where the species are known to occur.  The site also includes modern names for the spiders listed in three well-known older works: Kaston’s Spiders of Connecticut, Kaston’s How to Know the Spiders, and Emerton’s Common Spiders of the United States. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)


  • Trichoptera World Checklist. Trichoptera Checklist Coordinating Committee, International Symposia on Trichoptera.Includes taxonomic hierarchy and searchable database of the names of living and fossil Trichoptera.  The database can be searched by taxon/synonym, type country, and biogeographic regions, and records also list biogeographic region and notes.

  • World Checklist of Extant Mecoptera Species. Penny, Norman D. California Academy of Sciences, 1997.Provides an updated list of the world species of Mecoptera with references.  Most species are listed with author and date of description and distribution.  There are also a few photographs.

  • World List of Marine, Freshwater and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans. Kensley, Brian, Marilyn Schotte, and Steve Schilling. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute, 1996.The taxonomy of the isopods is in a state of confusion, so this list is intended as a rough guide to the correct nomenclature. The list includes information on the classification, type locality, habitat/depth, original genus, and remarks for each taxon and can be searched or browsed.  An extensive bibliography is also provided.  As of the date of accession, 10,184 names were included in the list.

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Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

  • The Torre-Bueno Glossary of Entomology, rev. ed. Torre-Bueno, J.R. de la, et al. New York: New York Entomological Society in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History, 1989. 840 p. ISBN 0913424137.This is a revised and expanded edition of Torre-Bueno’s 1937 Glossary of Entomology, and includes the 1960 Supplement A by George S. Tulloch.  The terms covered include systematic, descriptive, and general terms.  The editors have also included an extensive list of references.  A portion of the glossary dealing with social insects is available at the American Museum of Natural History’s Social Insects Web site. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

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Guides to the Literature


  • Colorado State University Entomology. Bishop, Jason and Lou Bjostad. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University, 1994-  .According to the Web site, this was the first entomology site in the world, in existence since February 1994.  The site provides an extensive list of sources in a number of categories, such as jobs, universities, publications, favorite readings, images, and movies.

  • Electronic Resources on Lepidoptera: Butterflies and Moths. Majka, Christopher. 1996-  .This directory provides an extensive series of links dealing with Lepidoptera.  The links are arranged alphabetically, by subject, and by geographical region and include both popular and research-oriented sites.

  • The Entomology Index of Internet Resources. Van Dyke, John and L. B. Bjostad. Ames, IA: Iowa State University.This excellent directory is arranged by subjects such as beekeeping, insect sounds, and pesticides and resource types such as bibliographies and newsgroups.

  • Insect and Spider Collections of the World. Samuelson, Al and Neal Evenhuis.Based on The Insect and Spider Collections of the World, 2nd edition, by R.H. Arnett, G.A. Samuelson and G.M. Nishida.  The database can be searched by coden, location, or name and collections with Web sites are linked.

  • NC State AgNIC Systematic Entomology: A Guide to Online Insect Systematic Resources.The results of collaboration between North Carolina State University Libraries and the North Carolina State Department of Entomology, this site provides access to research and practical resources on the identification, classification, nomenclature, and evolution of insects and related arthropods.  Links are organized into several categories, including North Carolina Resources, Educational Resources, Catalogues, Checklists, and Phylogenies, People and Places, Identification and Research Tools, and Electronic Publications.  The site is an excellent source of information.

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Handbooks

  • Antbase. Agosti, Donat and Norman Johnson. American Museum of Natural History.Antbasewas created to provide free information on Hymenoptera.  The center of the site is an updated list of species names, currently containing 11,006 species of ants.  This “Hymenoptera Name Server” provides valid names, initial description, synonyms, and links to the “Hymenoptera On-Line” database.  The database provides access to other information, such as images, citations, maps, online keys, links to databases such as GenBank, and more.  Other resources available from AntBase include the FORMIS ant bibliography (see Indexes, above), the IUCN Red List for ants, the Ant Image database from Japan, and general information about ants.  The site is the first of several planned to cover other social insects such as social wasps, bees, and termites.

  • Butterflies of North America. (Version 12 DEC 2003). Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, and Ray E. Stanford, coordinators. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page, 1995.A companion to Ferguson’s Moths of North America web page, above, containing the same types of information.

  • Coleoptera Home Page. Baptist, Vratislav R. E. M. J. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney.Gathers a variety of information of interest to coleopterists, including taxonomic databases, bibliographies, control information, and a wide variety of miscellaneous tips and websites.  Amateurs and students will find much of interest as well, such as photographs, cartoons, biggest and smallest species, and more.

  • Collecting and Preserving Insects and Mites: Techniques and Tools. Schauff, M. E., ed. Washington, DC: National Museum of Natural History.An updated version of USDA Miscellaneous Publication 1443, this manual provides methods for collecting and preserving insects.  It is designed for both amateurs and professional entomologists, and covers trapping, rearing, preserving, mounting, labeling, and shipping specimens.

  • Crustacea.net: An Information Retrieval System for Crustaceans of the World. Lowry, J. K., Les Watling, and Matz Berggren, eds. Sydney: Australian Museum, 1999-  .This site provides a variety of information on the crustaceans of the world, including keys, morphological descriptions, glossaries of morphological terminology, current family level lists, and links to other crustacean sites.

  • Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of the United States. (Version 12 DEC 2003). Kondratieff, B. C. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, 2000.This extensive site provides information on all of the Odonata of the United States, including distribution maps, photographs, checklists, links to other sites, and references.

  • Ephemeroptera Galactica: The Ephemeropterists’ Home Page.  Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.This site is the official page for the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.  It lists news, publications, catalogs, other links, and directories.  Many faunal and systematic lists are provided for mayflies around the world.

  • Fleas (Siphonaptera). Medvedev, Sergei G. and Valentin Vashchonok. St. Petersburg, Russia: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences.This site provides information on the biology, ecology, morphology, distribution, taxonomy, hosts, and control of fleas.  The creators of the site also provide images, references to the literature, links to other Web pages, and more.

  • Mayflies of the United States. Kondratieff, Boris C., coordinator. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page, 2000.One of several similar sites from the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, this site provides distribution maps, checklists, links to other sites, and references to the distribution of Ephemeroptera in the United States.

  • Moths of North America. (Version 12 DEC 2003). Ferguson, Douglas C., et al., coordinators. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, 1999.One of several similar sites covering the distribution and identification of plants and animals of the United States, this site contains distribution maps, species accounts, and photographs for the moths of the United States and northern Mexico.  Canadian moths will be added in the future. There are also checklists for counties in the US and states in Mexico, links to other butterfly resources, and FAQs.

  • Online Termite Database. Constantino, Reginaldo. Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Brasília.This taxonomic database is complete for the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, with data based on the author’s “Catalog of the Living Termites of the New World”, which was published in Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 35(2):135-231 (1998). It has been expanded to include a nearly complete list of genera and species of the world, though the information on the New World species is more complete. The data included for each species include full synonymic and taxonomic information, illustrations, distribution maps, pest status, bibliography, and type depositories.

  • Orthoptera Species Online. (Version 2). Otte, Daniel and Piotr Naskrecki. 1997.The Orthoptera Species File (OSF) is a taxonomic database of the world’s orthopteroid insects. It contains full synonymic and taxonomic information for over 25,000 species and genera.  At the time of viewing, Version 2 (using SQL Server) did not contain the images or sound recordings found in Version 1 but did include corrections.  The site also includes a searchable database of entomologists working on the Orthoptera and links to other Orthoptera sites.

  • Scalenet: A Database of the Scale Insects of the World. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 1997-  .The site covers the scale insects (Coccoidea) world wide. The site covers classification, nomenclatural history, distribution, hosts, and references to the literature. At the time of viewing, data were available for about 25 families, with plans to expand the site to cover the remaining 3 families in the near future.  Users can also find general information about scale insects, links to other sites, a glossary, and even poetry about scale insects.

  • Stoneflies of the United States. Kondratieff, Boris C. and Richard W. Baumann, coordinators. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page, 2000.A sibling to the mayfly site listed above, containing the same types of information for the Plecoptera of the United States.

  • TaxoDros: The Database on Taxonomy of Drosophilidae. Bächli, Gerhard.Based on the Drosophila Taxonomy Database maintained by the author since 1975, this searchable database contains information on the classification, descriptions, and biodiversity of Drosophila and related fruitflies. There is also a searchable database of references.

  • Termites: Urban Entomology Program. Toronto: Urban Entomology Program, University of Toronto, 1998.This site is part of the University of Toronto’s Urban Entomology Program’s Web site.  The termite site provides information on termite biology, taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution of northern termites, termite control, images, and keys as well as a wealth of miscellaneous information and links.

  • The World Spider Catalog. Platnick, N. I. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 2004.This site is the electronic version of Brignoli’s Catalogue of the Araneae and Platnick’s three volume Advances in Spider Taxonomy supplements, and will update the printed works.

  • Zoraptera Database. Hubbard, Michael D.This site contains a catalog of the 30 or so species of Zoraptera, current to about 1990, and a general bibliography as well as a general introduction and links to other Zorapteran sites.

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Identification Tools


  • Generic Key to Adult North American Dragonflies Alan W. Harvey. Statesboro, GA: Georgia Southern University.Key to 63 genera of adult dragonflies.  It can be used online with illustrations of features or printed.  It is based on Needham and Westfall’s 1955 classic, A Manual of the Dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera) (see above for the second edition).  Harvey’s key includes page numbers referring to the first edition of Needham and Westfall.  This link is not accessible at the present moment.

  • Singing Insects of North America. Walker, Thomas J. and Thomas E. Moore. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, 2000-  .When completed, this site will provide images, sounds, descriptions, and other information to assist users in identifying the crickets, katydids, and cicadas of North America.  There are keys to families and subfamilies, genera, and species to assist identification as well as checklists, distribution maps, and more.  The site was still under construction at the time of viewing, but was already quite extensive.

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Serials

  • Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Vol. 1-  . Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America, 1908-  . Bimonthly. $196.00. ISSN 0013-8746.The articles in this journal report on the basic aspects of the biology of arthropods.  The articles are arranged into subject areas such as systematics, ecology and population biology, arthropod biology, physiology, morphology, and behavior.  Book reviews, letters to the editor, and interpretive articles (Forum section) are also included.  Many of the articles are freely available online as PDF files.

  • Acarologia.  Vol. 1-  . Paris: Acarologia, 1959-  .   Quarterly.  $143.61. ISSN 0044-586X.Publishes research articles covering all aspects of the biology and systematics of mites and ticks, including basic and applied studies and the occasional review article. The journal’s Web site also includes links to other acarological sites.

  • Environmental Entomology. Vol. 1-  . Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America, 1972-  . Bimonthly. $210.00. ISSN 0046-225X.The journal publishes original research papers covering the interaction of insects with all aspects of their environment.  Each issue is divided by subject, into physiological and chemical ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, population ecology, pest management and sampling, and biological control.  The journal also publishes letters to the editor, interpretive articles, and book reviews.  Many of the articles in each issue are freely available online as PDF files.

  • Florida Entomologist. Vol. 1-  . Lutz, FL: Florida Entomological Society, 1920-  . Quarterly. $50.00. ISSN 0015-4040.Published by the Florida Entomological Society.  Covers all areas in entomology, though at least one author must be a member of the Florida Entomological Society.  The journal publishes research articles, short scientific notes, book reviews, and the occasional symposium proceedings.  Florida Entomologist was one of the first journals available on the Internet, and is still available at no charge.  All issues back to 1917 (when it was titled the Florida Buggist) are available.  Authors may also choose to add supplementary files to the online version of their articles.

  • Journal of Arachnology.  Vol. 1-  . New York: American Arachnological Society, 1973-  . 3 times/year. $125.00. ISSN 0160-8202.Publishes feature articles and short communications in all areas of arachnology, including spider biology and systematics.  The journal also publishes the proceedings of the International Congress of Arachnology.  Starting with 1999, the society began publishing the journal online at no charge on a trial basis.  Full text of volumes from 1999 to the present plus a few earlier volumes are available at this Web site.

  • Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 1-  . Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America, 1908-  . Bimonthly. $234.00. ISSN 0022-0493. Available electronically.Publishes articles on the economic significance of insects.  They are divided by subject into sections such as apiculture and social insects; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; and horticultural entomology. Many of the articles in each issue are freely available online as PDF files.

  • Journal of Insect Science. Vol. 1-  . Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Library, 2001-  . ISSN 1536-2442. Available electronically.Publishes articles on all aspects of the biology of insects and other arthropods.  This online-only journal was created as an alternative to expensive commercial publications.  It is available at no charge on the Web. Articles are published as available, rather than being grouped together in issues.  Thirteen articles were published in the journal’s first year of publication.

  • Journal of Medical Entomology. Vol. 1-  . Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America, 1964-  . Bimonthly. $196.00. ISSN 0022-2585. Available electronically.Publishes articles, short communications, rapid communications, forum articles, and book reviews in all aspects of medical entomology and medical acarology.  Many of the articles in each issue are freely available online as PDF files.

  • Journal of Orthoptera Research: JOR Vol.1-  .  Philadelphia: Orthopterists’ Society, 1992-  . Semiannual. $25.00.  ISSN 1082-6467.Publishes articles and short notes covering all aspects of orthoptera biology and systematics.  The journal also publishes the proceedings of the triennial International Conference on Orthopteroid Insects.  Tables of contents and a few full-text articles are available at the journal’s Web site.

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Vertebrates

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Associations


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Bibliographies

  • References on Endangered, Threatened, and Recently Extinct Vertebrates and Sources for Additional Information Smithsonian Institution.This site provides an extensive bibliography of literature covering endangered, threatened, and extinct species.  It is divided into several sections, covering general works, regional literature, information on the various groups of vertebrates, popular magazines that cover the topic, and sources of information from governmental bodies and societies.  While many of the books and magazines emphasize endangered species from North America, the coverage is world wide.

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Textbooks

  • Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates. 9th ed. Kent, George C. and Robert K. Carr. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2001. 524 p. ISBN 0073038695.A survey of vertebrate anatomy designed for biology majors and pre-med students, this text is arranged by system or body part.  Introductory chapters cover evolution, protochordates, extinct forms, and morphogenesis while later chapters discuss each body part or system.  There are numerous illustrations, but this is not a dissection guide.  Each chapter concludes with a summary, critical thinking questions, selected readings, and Web resources. The Web sites do not have URLs listed in the book, but the publisher provides a freely accessible site which contains links and updates the items listed in the book.

  • Vertebrate Biology. Linzey, Donald W. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001. 530 p. ISBN 0697363872.This survey of vertebrate biology covers the systematics, evolution, zoogeography, biology, behavior, ecology, and conservation of vertebrates.  In addition to chapters covering each of the above subjects, the author includes chapters covering each major class (early chordates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals).  Each chapter concludes with review questions, supplemental readings, and relevant Web sites.  The Web sites do not have URLs listed in the book, but the publisher provides a freely accessible site which contains links and updates the items listed in the book. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Vertebrate Life. 6th ed. Pough, F. Harvey, Christine M. Janis, and John B. Heiser. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002. 699 p. ISBN 0130412481.This survey text discusses the biology of vertebrates, using cladistics to provide an evolutionary framework to form a context for studies of the behavior, ecology, and physiology of vertebrates.  The text includes information on extinct vertebrates such as the mammal-like reptiles and dinosaurs as well as living forms. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. Kardong, Kenneth V.  Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2002. 762 p. ISBN 0072909560.A survey of the animal kingdom designed for undergraduate courses.  The text emphasizes the function and evolution of vertebrates. Four appendixes list vector algebra, the international system of units, common Greek and Latin terms used in anatomy, and the classification of chordates. Each chapter includes a bibliography and links to the book’s Web site.  Some of the Web material is only available to purchasers of the text, but the collection of Web links is available to all.

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Fishes

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Checklists and Classification Schemes

  • Seafood List. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.This site lists acceptable market names for imported and domestically available seafood as well as scientific names, common names, and known vernacular or regional names.  It updates the print edition of The Seafood List: FDA’s Guide to Acceptable Market Names for Seafood Sold in Interstate Commerce published by the GPO in 1993, which is out of print.

  • A Classification of the Recent Elasmobranchii. Mould, Brian. 1997.This site provides access to the PDF file of the author’s classification of the sharks and rays.  The publication lists scientific names, type localities and distributional ranges of the living sharks and rays of the world.

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Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

  • Dictionary of Ichthyology-Related Terms. Jackson, Keith L. 2000-  .This dictionary, part of the Ichthyology World Resources site listed under Guides to the Literature, has hyper-linked definitions to a number of terms used in ichthyology.  Many of the terms relate to fish anatomy or taxonomy.

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Guides to the Literature

  • Elasmoworld. Tisserand, Cecil T.Contains a variety of material dealing with sharks and their relatives, including a 4,000 item searchable bibliography, the directory for the American Elasmobranch Society (see associations, below), extensive information about the biology of elasmobranchs, links to other sites, and much more.

  • Ichthyology Web Resources. Jackson, Keith L. 2000.This excellent site lists ichthyology resources of scientific and educational value.  The sites are arranged by subject, including areas such as anatomy, behavior, biodiversity, taxonomy, techniques, and educational resources.  There are also lists of associations, journals, directories, museums, and more. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

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Handbooks

  • All Catfish Species Inventory. Philadelphia, PA: Academy of Natural Sciences, 2002.A project designed to facilitate the description and dissemination of information about catfish species.  There are over 2,700 species currently known and the authors estimate that there are another 1,750 waiting to be discovered.  The site includes a catfish gallery, information on catfish specimen repositories, a bibliography, news and announcements, and more.

  • Catalog of Fishes. Eschmeyer, William N. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, 1998. 3 v. plus CD-ROM. ISBN 0940228475.This catalog lists genera in alphabetical order with name, author, date, type specimen, remarks, and status.  There are separate sections listing names by class and providing literature cited.  Updates the author’s Catalog of the Genera of Recent Fishes, published in 1990. The online version includes all species, genera, and references, along with the classification, introduction, and list of museum abbreviations from the print version, but excludes the appendices and other material.

  • Checklist of Marine Fishes of Turkey (CLOMFOT). Mater, S., M. Kaya, and M. Bilecenoglu. 2000-  .This site covers 417 species of fishes found in the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The species accounts include common Turkish name, distribution, habitat, length, and commercial importance.  Available in pdf and html versions.

  • FishBase: A Global Information System on Fishes. Froese, R. and D. Pauly, eds. Makati City, Philippines: FishBase, 2002-  .FishBaseis a relational database containing data on almost all known species of fishes.  It can be searched on the Web but is also available as four CD-ROMs for $95.00.  Each species account summarizes information on classification, size, habitat, description, biology, fisheries importance and status, and references, plus contains links to more detailed information on everything from allele frequencies to vision.  The FishBase site also has a utility allowing fishwatchers to link observations to the FishBase records, a forum, useful links, and more fish-related information.

  • Inter-Institutional Database of Fish Biodiversity in the Neotropics (NEODAT II).The Inter-Institutional Database of Fish Biodiversity in the Neotropics (NEODAT II) is a database containing systematic and geographic data on Neotropical freshwater fish specimens deposited in 24 natural history collections.  The searchable database includes distribution maps and references to original descriptions and systematic revisions.  The site also houses an image gallery and a Rare Literature section with electronic versions of several rare ichthyological works and some original descriptions. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

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Identification Tools


  • LarvalBase: A Global Information System on Fish Larvae. Ueberschär, Bernd. Kiel, Germany: Institute for Marine Research, 1999-  .This database is a companion to FishBase, which does not contain information on larval fish.  LarvalBase is an integrated system providing data on fish eggs and larvae, including identification and rearing.  It is designed to improve aquaculture, and at the time of viewing covered 395 species.  The database can be searched or browsed by scientific name, and the data for each species includes identification, hatchery and rearing information, and links to FishBase.  Photographs of some larvae are also available on a separate page.

  • Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).The encyclopedia is a compilation of data in several formats that assists with the accurate identification of fish species.  The data included for each species includes high resolution images, description, and chemical taxonomic information.  The database can be browsed by common name, market name, scientific name, or family.

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Amphibians & Reptiles

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Associations






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Bibliographies

  • HERPFAUN. Smith, Charles H. Heidelberg, Germany: EMBL, 1993.This bibliography contains over 2,000 references dealing with the geographical distribution of reptiles and amphibians worldwide.  It includes a variety of document types, including faunal monographs, checklists, determination keys, taxonomic revisions, bibliographies, conservation status reports, field guides, and so on.  The database can be searched by higher taxon and by geographical location and can be downloaded either as a text file, an hqx file, or a zipped text file.

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Checklists and Classification Schemes


  • Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtle Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. King, F. Wayne and Russell L. Burke, eds. Washington, DC: Association of Systematics Collections, 1989. 216 p. ISBN 0942924150.The checklist includes a bibliography of publications written by Archie Carr, who had recently died, as well as a checklist covering 271 species of non-squamata reptiles arranged taxonomically.  Each entry includes synonymy, type species and location, distribution, and comments.  There are some black and white illustrations.  An updated version is also available at this Web site. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Crocodilian Species List. Britton, Adam.This site provides detailed species accounts for all 23 species of crocodilians, including photographs, distribution maps, conservation status, and natural history.  The site also discusses crocodilian classification, communication, captive care, and much more information about crocodilian evolution and biology.

  • The EMBL Reptile Database. Uetz, Peter. Heidelberg, Germany: EMBL Heidelberg, 1995.Intended to provide classification information on all species of living reptiles, this database is updated about every three months and contains listings of synonyms, subspecies, family, distribution, comments, and references for each species of reptile.  The site also includes links to other reptile sites, information on keeping reptiles as pets, a list of references used to create the database, and more.  The database will include distribution maps and descriptions in the future.  At the time of visiting, only families were described, though some species accounts included links to photographs.

  • EMYSystem. Iverson, John B., A. Jon Kimerling, and A. Ross Kiester. Corvallis, OR: Terra Incognita Laboratory, Oregon State University, 2000.The site is a continuation of Iverson’s A Revised Checklist with Distribution Maps of the Turtles of the World, which included distribution maps and keys as well as taxonomic and nomenclatural information. Entries cover synonymy, common name, holotype, type location, distribution, subspecies, comments, and phylogenies where available.  In addition to the information found in the book, the site provides links to resources for turtle conservation and an identification resource that was under construction at the time of viewing.  The database can be browsed by scientific or common name or searched.

  • Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. Beltz, Ellin. 2002.Provides a checklist of scientific and common names of North American herps, including translations of scientific names, a biographical appendix listing individuals who had species named after them, citations to original descriptions, and a glossary of mythological terms used in herp nomenclature.


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Guides to the Literature

  • Center for North American Herpetology.The Center for North American Herpetology (CNAH) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting education about and conservation of amphibians and reptiles.  Its Web site, subtitled “The Academic Portal to North American Herpetology”, lives up to its billing.  It provides many links to herpetology sites, including North American sites arranged by taxonomic group, lists of societies and collections, directories, information on careers and jobs, links to the 5th edition of Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, and much more.

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Handbooks

  • Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Frost, Darrel R. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 2002. Version 2.21 (15 July 2002).This site provides scientific name, authority, year of publication, type species and location, English common name, distribution, and status for all species of amphibians. It updates the author’s Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference, published in 1985.  Users can search by taxonomic or geographic name or browse by taxonomic hierarchy.

  • Amphibiaweb: An Information System for Amphibian Conservation Biology. Berkeley: Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, 2000.This database provides detailed taxonomic and conservation information on all 5,000 species of amphibians of the world.  It includes taxonomic information taken from Frost’s Amphibian Species of the World (below).  At the time of viewing, coverage was spotty as some pages contained only taxonomic information and links to museum collections.  Other pages were more complete, with photographs, descriptions, life history, distribution, and references. The site also includes information on the decline in amphibian populations worldwide.

  • Caecilians Web Site. Herndon, Rebecca and Seth Morris.It is difficult to find information about caecilians (AKA rubber eels or black eels in the aquarium trade).  This site provides basic information about caecilians, including taxonomy, a bibliography, care in captivity, images, and video clips. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. New York: American Museum of Natural History for the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 1971-This publication consists of a series of individual two- to five-page species accounts.  As of 2002, about 760 accounts had been published in looseleaf format.  Each entry lists previous references, description, illustrations, distribution, fossil record, remarks, etymology, and comments. A list of recently published accounts can be found at this Web site.

  • Turtles of the World.  Ernst, Carl H., R. G. M. Altenburg, and Roger William Barbour. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Expert-center for Taxonomic Identification, 2000. 1 CD. (World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM series). $149.00. ISBN 3540145478 (Windows version 1.2); 3540145486 (Mac version 1.0).This CD-ROM updates Ernst and Barbour’s classic Turtles of the World.  Users can browse through the taxonomical hierarchy, map geographic distributions, and use an interactive key for identifying species.  Each species account includes information multiple color photographs, identification, distribution, geographic variation, habitat, natural history, and conservation status.  ETI also has a “microsite” containing general information on turtles taken from the CD. The taxonomic information from the CD can also be searched at ETI’s World Biodiversity Database site.

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Identification Tools



  • Tadpoles of the United States and Canada: A Tutorial and Key. Altig, Ronald, Roy W. McDiarmid, Kimberly A. Nichols, and Paul C. Ustach. Patuxent, MS: Patuxent Wildlife Research Center.A key to the tadpoles of North America, this site does not use the usual dichotomous key system.  Instead, users first key the specimen to the family level.  Within each family, there are separate sections for groups of characteristics such as range, coloration, labial tooth row formula, and others.  The authors plan to publish this key and similar ones for other larval amphibians in book format (date not given).

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Serials

  • Contemporary Herpetology. No.1-  .  Hammond, LA: Contemporary Herpetology, 1998-  . ISSN 1094-2246. Only available electronically.An electronic journal publishing articles on all aspects of herpetology, including ecology, ethology, systematics, conservation biology, and physiology. CH will also publish monographs, points-of-view, and faunistic surveys of poorly-known areas. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

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Birds

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Associations



  • Birdlife Australia (formerly Birds Australia, formerly Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union (RAOU)). 415 Riversdale Rd, Hawthorn East VIC 3123, Australia. Phone: 61 3 9882 2622. Fax: 61 3 9882 2677. Email: mail@birdsaustralia.com.au.



  • Wilson Ornithological Society. University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Bird Division, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079. Phone: 734-764-0457.  Fax:  734-763-4080.

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Bibliographies

  • Ornithological Worldwide Literature (OWL) (Previously Recent Ornithological Literature).  1986-  .  Washington, DC: American Ornithologists’ Union, British Ornithologists’ Union, and Royal Australasian Ornithologists’ Union. Quarterly.A supplement to the ornithological journals The Auk, The Emu, and Ibis, ROL was formerly a print publication available for free with a subscription to any of the journals.  Since 1999 has been published only on the Web as a browsable list of issues or searchable database, both going back to October 1997 at the time of viewing. ROL covers about 900 journals worldwide, plus dissertations, conference proceedings, and similar resources.  The bibliography is organized by broad subject categories such as systematics, morphology, identification, or distribution and includes information on new and renamed journals.

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Checklists and Classification Schemes

  • BIRDNET: The Ornithological Information Source Presented by the Ornithological Council. Ornithological Council.The Ornithological Council is an umbrella group for ten North American ornithological societies, including societies from Canada and Mexico.  The site provides information on ornithology, member societies, grants and awards for ornithological research, links to birding information, and guidelines for the use of birds in research.  In addition, the site provides links to Bird Accounts,  http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET/ORDERS/BIRDACCOUNTS.html, which provides an order-by-order list of bird species.  The intent is to have links to species accounts, but at the time of viewing only the species lists were available.

  • Check-List of North American Birds: Species of Birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, Including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands. 7th ed. Washington, DC: American Ornithologists Union Staff, 1998. 829 p. ISBN 189127600X.This checklist is considered to be the authoritative list of the 2,030 species of birds of North and Central America and reflects the changes in nomenclature and classification agreed upon by the American Ornithologists’ Union.  Each species is listed with scientific and English name, original citation, habitat, distribution (summer and winter), and notes. The list of birds included in the checklist is also available on the Web. Downloadable PDF and DBF versions are available from this site, which includes the latest updates not reflected in the print version.

  • Names of North American Birds. New York, NY: National Audubon Society, 1997.This list includes the scientific and common names of about 1,975 species occurring in North America, Mexico, and Hawaii. It is designed to help birders use the proper names when writing about birds and also explains the approved forms of writing bird common names.  The source of the names is not listed on the site.

  • Obsolete English Names of North American Birds and Their Modern Equivalents. Banks, Richard C. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988. 37 p. (Resource Publication of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, no. 174).The publication lists obsolete common names, as the title suggests, matching the old names to the common names listed in the sixth edition of the Check-list of North American Birds published in 1983.  Each obsolete name is linked with the new approved common name and scientific name.

  • Zoonomen: Zoological Nomenclature Resource. 2002. Version 4.5 (2002.08.18). Peterson, Alan P.This site consists of two sections, a list of current valid scientific names for birds based on the AOU checklist and Sibley and Monroe, and a historical analysis of avian taxonomy.  The list of names includes the original citation, nomenclatural notes, and links to biographical information on the original author.  The historic analysis provides graphs of various data configurations, such as number of species described per year or number of descriptions in each of the major avian taxonomy journals.

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Identification Tools


  • Identification Guide to North American Birds: A Compendium of Information on Identifying, Ageing, and Sexing “Near-Passerines” and Passerines in the Hand. Pyle, Peter, et al. Bolinas, CA: Slate Creek Press, 1997-  . ISBN 0961894024 (pt. 1).While unfinished, this advanced identification guide is an important resource for the identification not just of species, but also to the age, sex, and molts of individuals.  There are no color illustrations, rather identification is based on detailed descriptions and line drawings of feathers, bills, and other anatomical details.  The set is a revised edition of the author’s Identification Guide to North American Passerines.  To date, only volume one has been published, covering the doves to weavers.  An online errata page for volume 1 is available at this Web site.

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Serials

  • The Condor: An International Journal of Avian Biology. Vol. 1-  . Lawrence, KS: Allen Press, 1899-  . ISSN 0010-5422. Available electronically.Publishes articles, short communications, book reviews, news dealing with the biology of wild birds.  A full text of the entire back run of the journal from 1899 through 2000 was available at the Cooper Ornithological Society’s Web site while current issues were available by subscription from BioOne. The journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society.

  • Emu. Vol. 1-  . Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 1901-  . Quarterly. ISSN 0158-4197. Available electronically.Publishes articles on all aspects of ornithology, including conservation and applied ornithology, with emphasis on the birds of Australasia.  New species are frequently listed.  Selected articles are available at no charge for personal use at the journal’s Web site but most require a subscription or per-article fee.  The journal of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

  • Ibis. Vol. 1-  . Osney Mead, UK: Blackwell Scientific, 1859-  . Quarterly. $306.00. ISSN 0019-0019. Available electronically.Publishes papers, reviews, and short communications on all aspects of ornithology with emphasis on systematics, behavior, and ecology.  Some articles are available only as online publications, but are also listed in the print table of contents.  Selected articles are available for free at the journal’s Web site .  The journal of the British Ornithologists’ Union.

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Mammals

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Associations






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Bibliographies

  • Bibliography of General Works in Mammalogy. Wahlert, John H. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1999-  .A handy list of resources appropriate for beginning students in mammalogy.  The list is quite extensive and is broken down into broad subject categories such as Keys to Mammals, Systematics and Nomenclature, and Anatomy.  Most of the items are books but a few are articles.  The author works at the American Museum of Natural History.

  • MAMMFAUN: A Bibliography Concerning the Geographical Distribution of Mammals. 1993. Smith, Charles H.Originally published as two floppy disks, this Web bibliography covers about 2300 items such as keys, field guides, faunal monographs, and articles dealing with the geographic distribution of mammals.  The bibliography covers only articles published up to 1993 and is arranged in alphabetical order by author.  In addition to the citation, the author has added geographical and taxonomic keywords.

  • PrimateLit: A Bibliographic Database for Primatology. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, 2001-  .This database covers the scientific literature dealing with all aspects of the biology and behavior of non-human primates.  It goes back to 1940 and indexes journals, books, book chapters, dissertations, proceedings, and other literature types.  A subset of the database, Current Primate References (CPR), provides access to the most recent six months worth of citations and was formerly published in print. Updated daily.

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Checklists and Classification Schemes

 

  • International Species Inventory System (ISIS).A system to record information on all animals held in captivity, ISIS holds data on over 1.65 million individuals from 10,000 species, including pedigrees and population demographics.  The data was formerly published as ISIS Mammalian Taxonomic Directory in looseleaf format.  The ISIS numbers are frequently included in other mammalian handbooks.

  • Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd ed. Wilson, Don E. and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds.

    A checklist to the mammals of the world, this is the standard classification guide for mammals.  It provides original citation, type locality, distribution, status, synonyms, and comments for each species.  An appendix lists the species accounts found in numbers 1-402 of the serial publication Mammalian Species, below.


  • Mammalian Species. No. 1-  . American Society of Mammalogists, 1969-  . Irregular. $50.00. ISBN 0076-3519.This serial publication consists of individual species accounts for the mammals of the world.  About 25-30 are published per year, over 700 by early 2003, and each number covers one species.  The information provided for each species includes species name, diagnosis, general characters, distribution, ecology, etymology, function, reproduction, behavior, genetics, and literature cited.  Most are illustrated with distribution maps, skulls, and line drawings.  An index and PDF files of the first 631 accounts have been made available on this website by Virginia Hayssen.

  • State Lists: State-Specific Lists of Indigenous Mammals. American Society of Mammalogists.This site links to state mammal lists, with plans to add Canadian and Mexican lists as well.  At the time of viewing, about half the state lists were complete.  The lists include common and scientific names, higher taxa, status and distribution, and whether a photograph is available from the society’s mammal image library, and the species account number from Mammalian Species, below.

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Handbooks

  • Australian Mammal Species Files. Australian Mammal Society. Australian Mammal Society, 2001.This site will contain species accounts for all Australian mammals when complete, though at the time of viewing only a few were available. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Mammal Collections in the Western Hemisphere: A Survey and Directory of Existing Collections. Hafner, Mark S., et al. Lawrence, KS: Printed by Allen Press for the American Society of Mammalogists, 1997.Presents the results of a survey of mammal collections taken in 1995.  The authors present summary information on the collections, including size, taxa represented, presence of catalogs or various policies, and similar data.  The directory itself provides contact information and a brief summary of the size and special strengths of the collection.  There are several appendixes covering such topics as a bibliography of type specimen catalogs, publication series associated with mammal collections such as Fieldiana: Zoology, and basic standards.

  • Platypus and Echidna. Bethge, Philip.While this site had not been updated for several years at the time of viewing, it contained detailed information on the biology of the monotremes.  For each group, the site is divided into three areas covering the basics, physiology, and ongoing research projects.  There is also an extensive bibliography and list of links for each group as well. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)

  • Primate Info Net. Jacobsen, Larry, coordinator.This site is maintained by the Wisconsin Primate Research Center (WPRC) Library at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and contains a variety of links and information for people interested in primatology.  Among the resources found on the site is a set of Primate Fact Sheets covering the natural history and taxonomy of the living primates.

  • Synopsis of Philippine Mammals (formerly A Synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands). Heaney, Lawrence R., et al. Chicago, IL: Field Museum of Natural History, 1998.This handbook covers 201 species of mammals of the Philippines. Species accounts include citation to the original description, English common name, distribution, habitat, and conservation status.  Updated version of the print handbook.

  • The Ultimate Ungulate Page: Your Guide to the World’s Hoofed Mammals. Huffman, Brent. 1996.

    This site provides information on the ungulates or hoofed mammals, including the Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla orders.  There are species accounts for about half the ungulate species, following the basic format of Mammalian Species (above), and includes classification, description, ecology, behavior, distribution, conservation status, and general remarks.  There are distribution maps and photographs as well, many of them taken by the author.


  • Virtual Pig Dissection. Michaud, Steve L.This Web site provides labeled drawings of pig anatomy, including external anatomy, respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, and male and female reproductive systems.  Anatomical names are linked to brief definitions.  The quality of the illustrations is reasonably good, but not as clear as most print lab manuals.

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Serials

  • Mammal Review. Vol. 1-  . Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 19-  . Quarterly. $457.00. ISSN 0305-1838. Available electronically.Publishes review articles on any aspects of mammalogy.  A few articles are available for free at the publisher’s Web site.  A publication of the Mammal Society.

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