Chapter 8: Microbiology and Immunology
Chapter 8: Microbiology and Immunology
This chapter includes reference sources useful for microbiology and immunology. Microbiology is “the scientific study of microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, viruses and fungi).” For purposes of this discussion, however, fungi such as yeasts are included with plant biology in Chapter 10, “Plant Biology”. Immunology is the study of immunity, “the state of relative insusceptibility of an animal to infection by disease-producing organisms”. (Oxford Dictionary of Biology, 4th ed, 2000) Because microbial systems are convenient and effective for studying a whole range of life processes, there is a significant overlap between this chapter and Chapters 5-7, covering biochemistry and biophysics, molecular and cell biology, and genetics, respectively. Although medical microbiology and immunology are not comprehensively discussed in this chapter, some basic materials are included that pertain to the study of pathogenic microbiology and diagnostic immunology.
- American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). PO Box 1549, Manassas, VA 20108. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.atcc.org.
Founded 1925. 225 staff. A private organization seeking to collect, propagate, preserve, and distribute authentic cultures of microorganisms and genetic materials for reference purposes for use in educational, research, and other scientific and industrial activities. Conducts research, maintains depository for cultures, aids in processing and packaging biohazardous materials, and identifies cultures. Web site provides access to catalogs, news, and information about the ATCC.
- American Academy of Microbiology (AAM). 1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036-2804. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://academy.asm.org.
Founded in 1955, 1,500 members. Honorific leadership component of American Society for Microbiology (see below) concerned with microscopic and submicroscopic organisms. Encourages exchange of information among members. Publishes Academy News and Views. Web site provides links to Colloquium Reports, membership information, and more.
- American Association of Immunologists (AAI). 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.aai.org.
Founded 1913, 5,500 members. Scientists engaged in immunological research including aspects of virology, bacteriology, biochemistry, genetics, and related disciplines. Goals are to advance knowledge of immunology and related disciplines and to facilitate the interchange of information among investigators in various fields. Promotes interaction between laboratory investigators and clinicians; conducts training courses, symposia, workshops, and lectures; bestows awards; compiles statistics. Publishes quarterly AAI Newsletter and Journal of Immunology. Web site contains membership information, and information on educational and policy programs.
- American Society for Microbiology (ASM). 1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.asm.org.
Founded in 1899, 42,000 members with 36 local groups. Scientific society of microbiologists promoting advancement of scientific knowledge in order to improve education in microbiology. Encourages the highest professional and ethical standards and the adoption of sound legislative and regulatory policies affecting the discipline of microbiology at all levels. Affiliated with the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Publishes over twenty scientific journals and many books. Formerly: the Society of American Bacteriologists. Web site includes membership information, news, and educational materials for K12 and the general public.
- Canadian Society for Immunology (CSI) Societe Canadienne d'Immunologie. University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4. URL: http://www.csi-sci.ca/.
Immunologists and other health care professionals and scientists with an interest in immunology. Seeks to advance immunological study, research, and practice. Promotes ongoing professional development of members. Serves as a network linking members; sponsors research and educational programs. Web site contains membership information, links to other societies and immunology journals.
- European Culture Collections' Organisation (ECCO). DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung,von Mikroorganismen, und Zellkulturen GMBHMascheroder Weg 1b, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.eccosite.org.
Founded 1981. 61 members. Members of European organizations in 22 countries participating in the maintenance of biological material. Encourages communication and collaborative research among members. Informs members of current developments concerning taxonomy, culture identification, and patent information. Web site has links to other societies, transport regulations, and more.
- European Federation of Immunological Societies (EFIS). c/o Astrid Hahner, Coor., PO Box 42 08 07, D-12068 Berlin, Germany. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.efis.org.
Founded 1975, 16,000 members. Immunological societies from around the world focusing on Europe. Promotes the advancement of research and education in immunology. Publishes European Journal of Immunology and Immunology Letters. Web site includes links to databases and organizations of interest to immunologists.
- International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP). http://www.the-icsp.org/.
Founded 1930. 140 members. Multinational. A committee of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Sponsors international collaboration and research in systematic bacteriology. Publishes quarterly International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology; International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.
- International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). URL: http://ictvonline.org/
Founded 1966. 120 members. Multinational. A committee of the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Seeks to develop a standard, internationally accepted system of virus classification and nomenclature. Publishes triennial ICTV Reports. Web site provides extensive information on viral taxonomy.
- International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). c/o Mag. Gerlinde M. Jahn, Vienna Academy of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Alser Strasse 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.iuisonline.org.
Founded 1969, 51 members. National professional societies of basic and applied immunologists. Encourages the orderly development and utilization of the science of immunology; promotes the application of new developments to clinical and veterinary problems and standardizes reagents and nomenclature; conducts educational symposia and scientific meetings. Publishes Frontiers in Immunology. Web site for membership information.
- International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) Union Internationale des Societes de Microbiologie. c/o Robert A. Samson, Sec. Gen., PO Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.iums.org.
Founded 1930. 106 members. Multinational. National microbiological societies in 62 countries representing 100,000 microbiologists. Publishes International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology and International Journal of Food Microbiology. Web site lists affiliated groups.
- Society for Applied Microbiology (SFAM). Bedford Heights, Brickhill Dr., Bedford MK41 7PH, UK. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.sfam.org.uk.
Founded 1931, 1,800 members. Multinational. Individuals involved in the study of microbiology whose purpose is to promote and advance the study of microbiology, particularly bacteriology, in its application to agriculture, industry, and the environment. Publishes Microbiologist, Journal of Applied Microbiology, Letters in Applied Microbiology, Microbial Biotechnology, Environmental Microbiology, and Environmental Microbiology Reports. Holds three meetings each year. Formerly: Society for Applied Bacteriology.
- Society for General Microbiology (SGM). Marlborough House, Basingstoke Rd., Spencers Wood, Reading RG7 1AG, United Kingdom. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.sgm.ac.uk.
Founded 1945, 5,500 members. Multinational. Works to advance the study of general microbiology. Bestows awards and grants. Affiliated with the International Union of Microbiological Societies, and the Federation of the European Microbiological Societies. Publishes International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Journal of General Virology, Journal of Medical Microbiology, Microbiology, Microbiology Today, and an annual symposium series. Web site contains membership information, news, and links.
- Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (SIMB). 3929 Old Lee Hwy., Ste. 92A, Fairfax, VA 22030-2421. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.simhq.org.
Founded 1948, 2,122 members and 2 local groups. Mycologists, bacteriologists, biologists, chemists, engineers, zoologists, and others interested in biological processes as applied to industrial materials and processes of microorganisms. Affiliated with the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Publishes Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology and SIMB News. Web site includes career information.
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Classification, Nomenclature, and Systematics
- Lapage, S. P., et al., eds. International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Washington, DC: Published for the International Union of Microbiological Societies by American Society for Microbiology, 2006- . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8817/.
Covers the rules and procedures for correct bacterial nomenclature based on the 1990 revision. Also provides a summary of the history of the Code and lists of conserved and rejected names.
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- Linscott, William D. Linscott's Directory of Immunological and Biological Reagents. Mill Valley, CA: Linscott's Directory, 1990s- . http://www.linscottsdirectory.com/.
Catalog for nearly a million biological products, reagents, and immune serums. The directory has been published since 1980 in print but is now only available online.
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Two publishers that should be especially acknowledged are the American Society for Microbiology in Washington, DC (http://estore.asm.org/) and the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press in Plainview, NY (http://www.cshlpress.com/). Both of these publishers issue authoritative laboratory methods manuals and handbooks of importance to microbiologists, immunologists, and molecular biologists.
Consult Chapter 5, “Biochemistry and Biophysics”, Chapter 6, “Molecular and Cellular Biology”, and Chapter 7, “Genetics, Biotechnology, and Developmental Biology” for other handbooks relevant to microbiology and immunology.
- EcoSal: Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2002. $999.00 (medium, online). http://www.ecosal.org.
Online only continuously updated version of the classic publications Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology covering all areas of research on these two major bacterial species. Available by subscription only, although individual chapters may also be purchased online.
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Methods and Techniques
Techniques useful for microbiology may be found, also, in the “Handbooks” section, or in the biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology chapters.
- Chosewood, L. Casey and Deborah E. Wilson, eds. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 5th ed. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health, 2009. 415 p. (HHS publication, no. (CDC) 21-1112). $39.00.
Standards and safety best practices for microbiological and medical laboratories. Available for free at http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/index.htm.
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Textbooks and Treatises
- Todar, Kenneth. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Madison, WI: Kenneth Todar, University of Wisconsin-Madison Dept. of Bacteriology, 2003. http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/.
This freely accessible online textbook is aimed at high school students and undergraduates.
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- BMC Microbiology. v. 1- , 2001- . London: BioMed Central. Continually updated. Open Access. ISSN 1471-2180.
Publishes "articles on analytical and functional studies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, viruses and small parasites, as well as host and therapeutic responses to them and their interaction with the environment." Articles available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmicrobiol.
- mBio. v. 1- , 2010- . Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology. Bimonthly. Open Access. ISSN 2150-7511 (online).
"The scope of mBio reflects the enormity of the microbial world, a highly interconnected biosphere where microbes interact with living and nonliving matter to produce outcomes that range from symbiosis to pathogenesis, energy acquisition and conversion, climate change, geologic change, food and drug production, and even animal behavioral change." Articles available at http://mbio.asm.org/.
- PLOS Pathogens. v. 1- , 2005- . San Francisco, CA: Public Library of Science. Monthly. Open Access. ISSN 1553-7366 (print); 1553-7374 (online).
Publishes "articles that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with their host organisms." Articles are available at http://www.plospathogens.org/.