Issue 4/04

February 9, 2004

Paula Kaufman, University Librarian, Editor



The Brazilian go vern ment has negotiated a US$5 million reduction in the fees it pays to allow many of the country's researchers to gain free access to electronic versions of a large number of scientific journals. The go vern ment's 'journal website' (Portal de Periódicos), allows researchers across the country to access the full text of thousands of international journals, magazines and databases covering a broad range of subjects. Last year, the go vern ment funding agency responsible for the website, known as CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Staff), paid a total of US$20 million in individual agreements with international publishers in order to provide access to their publications through its website. But as a result of recent negotiations, CAPES will this year pay one quarter less. In addition, CAPES has also secured an increase of almost a third in the amount of content available through the website." SciDec.Net 1/30/04 Open Access News 1/31/04



Although Duke University admin istrators are wary of endorsing the open-access publishing movement, they agree that a drastic change is in order.... 'The industry needs to rethink its cost structure and find more cost-effective ways of delivering services and processing their publications,' Patricia Thibodeau, associate dean for library services at the Duke Medical Center , said. She cited open-access models as possibilities, such as those used by the nonprofit Public Library of Science and for-profit BioMed Central....Duke admin istrators said a number of other concerns surround the open-access publishing debate. Provost Peter Lange, for example, said he was concerned that the fee structure could have a discriminatory effect across scholars working at different kinds of institutions, doing different kinds of research. 'Unintended consequences can be substantial, so it's a situation we need to analyze carefully,' he said. Lange said there is also the issue of a transition period, which could be problematic if universities are stuck paying both traditional subscription fees and helping out with authors' fees to open-access journals. Open-access agitators claim the transition period will not last long, saying that open-access journals will continue to grow in prestige and popularity, forcing traditional publishers to decrease prices or go out of business." Duke University Chronicle 2/4/04 Open Access News 2/4/04



A 'serials crisis' consumed the Stanford Faculty Senate recently as senate members debated a set of recommendations dealing with the high and rapidly increasing subscription costs for academic journals. With journal subscription costs having risen as much as 50 percent in the past five years and set to rise another 12 percent this year, the Committee on Libraries recommended in a report that the senate set guidelines aimed at reducing the University's reliance on the most expensive journals. 'The cost of journals has crippled University budget s,' said Biochemistry Prof. Doug Brutlag, who presented the report. After more than an hour of discussion, the motion was put off for debate at another session....University Librarian Michael Keller pointed out that for-profit publishers have been known to target articles that are in course packets, increasing costs from $15 up to $60 when they determine that a journal article is in a course reader. The proposed resolution would have said, among its four points, 'Libraries are encouraged to systematically drop journals that are unconscionably or disproportionately expensive or inflationary. Special attention should be paid to Elsevier.' It would also have encouraged faculty to withhold articles from exploitative journals....'Digital repositories are going to be the infrastructure of the future,' Keller said. 'It's very important that we invest as a university.'" Stanford Daily 2/6/04 Open Access News 2/6/04



Google has embarked on an ambitious secret effort known as Project Ocean , according to The New York Times . The company now plans to digitize the entire collection of the vast Stanford University Library published before 1923 (which has no copyright restrictions). The project could add millions of digitized books that would be available exclusively via Google. 2/1/04



In “Debating Access to Scientific Data,” APA Online, February 2004, Tori DeAngelis provides a long and detailed look at the OA controversy in psychology, showcasing publishers with superficial acquaintance with the variety of OA funding models and the answers to standard objections. Open Access News 2/2/04



Given the uncertainties about the business model and the paucity of experience with open access, PNAS conducted a survey to determine what fraction of its authors would be willing to pay a surcharge (in addition to current author-paid page and color charges) to make their articles freely available online at the time of publication and, if so, how much they would be willing to pay. Such an option would allow those who are committed to the principle of open access to publish in PNAS . Such a surcharge might help defray the cost of canceled subscriptions and related revenue, and of admin istering the author-pays option. This is particularly important for PNAS , which operates as a nonprofit, break-even operation and is not permitted to maintain contingency funds or capital reserves. It should also be clear that this option would simply accelerate the free availability of PNAS content, which is now accessible without cost immediately in 132 developing countries and worldwide 6 months after publication. PNAS surveyed 610 corresponding authors of accepted papers from August 22 to October 30, 2003 . It received 210 responses, a 34.4% response rate. Like its corresponding authors, roughly two-thirds of the respondents were from the United States . Almost exactly half of the respondents were in favor of the open access option. It was a surprise to PNAS at this early stage of the discussion that so many would be willing to pay extra for open access. However, the vast majority of these, almost 80%, were willing to pay a surcharge of only $500, about one-fourth of the amount that might be needed to cover journal operations without subscription income. More Details available at Open Access News 2/4/04



The presentations from the recent meeting in Chile , Strengthening Editors' and Scientists' Capabilities in Electronic Publishing ( Valparaiso , January 14-15, 2004 ) are now online. During the conference, the 120 participants from 15 countries drafted the Valparaiso Declaration for Improved Scientific Communication in the Electronic Medium, which was released today. Excerpt: "Journals must improve their production processes by using online technologies in order to reduce their publication times...Assessments of reading habits and analyses of the market for electronic journals clearly confirm the fact that the Internet is already a place of convergence and the preferred medium for the transmission of scientific knowledge...Managers of scientific journals are responsible for achieving their maximal dissemination, bringing with it greater visibility and accessibility. They should not only ensure that their contents and format are standardized but also that they are indexed in the greatest possible number of data bases and indexes, and that the complete texts are immediately available in multiple repositories...The gradual reduction in publishing costs as a result of electronic publication (given the fact that the costs of the production process are more and more being borne by the authors and readers) must inexorably lead to systems of communicating science that are open and managed by the scientific community itself. Open Access News 2/4/04



The editor-in chief of JAMA and her colleague state their views on what constitutes responsible medical publishing and the considerable time and effort required for cooperation with authors, peer review, and the production of a readable and useful journal for medical professionals and general readers. Further, they discuss production costs, especially in consideration of open access models such as PLoS, author charges, and foundation support, stating that it is unclear if such a model is viable, and from their point of view, not workable for their authors. Alternatively, JAMA proposes:

“At least for the present, our plan for free access is as follows: (1) free online access for one major article published in the most recent issue; (2) by the end of February 2004, free online access for all major articles and editorials beginning 6 months after publication and up to 5 years after publication; (3) unlocked online articles (ie, PDF files) to facilitate readers' personal uses of articles including highlighting and annotating; (4) 25 free online accesses to each corresponding author's article for distribution to colleagues as soon as the article is published; and (5) free online access to countries in the developing world by our participation in the World Health Organization's HINARI (Health InterNetwork to Research Initiative) Project. We will continue to keep our subscription price as low as possible by offsetting cost with advertisements that follow our rules of professionalism.” The authors state that this policy will stay in place while other OA models are tested in the marketplace. JAMA 1/21/04 Open Access News 2/6/04



The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) is another agency that has responded to the trade embargo ruling by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the U.S. Treasury Department and will not accept papers from Sudan , Libya and Iran and Cuba . The article quotes ASM editors who are unhappy with the policy, one of whom remarks on the potentially negative effects upon science as a whole, and another who calls the policy discriminatory. A Nature editorial in the same issue, “Trading Scientific Freedom,” reviews several objections against the policy and urges that scientists make their legislators aware of the "inconsistencies and ambiguities of the current regulations" and strive towards "the preservation of the freedom of scientific communication." Nature Medicine 2/04 Open Access News 2/4/04



A citizen and consumer advocacy group has issued a report slamming the practices of textbook publishers. In the provocatively-titled RIP-OFF 101, HOW THE CURRENT PRACTICES OF THE PUBLISHING INDUSTRY DRIVE UP THE COST OF COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS , the California Public Interest Research Group (CALPIRG) accused educational publishers "of a number of market practices that drive up the price of textbooks for students." The report has influenced at least one California assembly member, Carol Liu (D-La Cañada

Flintridge) to introduce legislation to "encourage publishers to provide 'unbundled' materials, require explanations of changes made in new editions, and ask that faculty consider price when making textbook selection decisions." CALPIRG argues that textbook prices are significantly harming higher education in the state, already challenged by a devastating budget deficit. AAP President Pat Schroeder responded that publishers were never contacted as part of the study and that CALPIRG neglected a multitude of issues in forming its report. "We believe your report is totally one-sided and fatally flawed," Schroeder wrote in a letter posted on the AAP web site. Schroeder said the group's claims about price inflation were "hyperbolic," and "not borne out by data." Schroeder cited sources that say student spending on new and used course materials has risen between three and four percent annually over the past four years, "a far cry from the double-digit inflationary spiral," as characterized in the CALPIRG report. Library Journal Academic News Wire: February 05, 2004 To view the report, see

To view AAP's response, see



Publishers ended 2003 with fewer losses and more gains in domestic, as well as elementary and high school publishing sales for December. Solid gains during the holiday season brought sales back up to par with, and in some categories beyond, 2002 net sales. Sales of adult hardcover books gained 11.9 percent compared to December 2002, with sales of $103.3 million. Adult paperback sales realized gains of 27.7 percent, totaling $88.6 million for the month. The adult mass market category also grew tremendously by 26.5 percent, with sales totaling $92 million. Year to date figures, however, showed sales were still down 1.7 percent for the year in this category despite year-end gains…Audio books amassed a 29 percent growth, with sales of $12.6 million (12.3 percent growth in 2003). E-books witnessed another tremendous month with sales up 159.8 percent, with sales totaling $700,000. Due to the relatively small size of the category, incremental growth made for a 169.5 percent boon in 2003 for E-books. Religious books also posted strong numbers in December, with sales up 36.6 percent ($20.8 million) from last December. Year to date figures showed sales were up 50.2 percent for the year. Sales of university press hardcover books grew 17.9 percent from December 2002 ($7.4 million), which were bolstered by the 15.8 percent growth ($10.2 million) in university press paperbacks. Year-end numbers showed increases as well; university press hardcover books gained 11.4 percent, and 7.4 percent gains were made in the university press paperback category. Sales in the professional and scholarly category rose 25.8 percent in December, with sales of $95.4 million. Year to date numbers showed sales were up by a narrow 3.6 percent for the year overall. Higher education sales were 16.8 percent greater in December, totaling $744.4 million. Year to date figures showed sales were up 3.6 percent for the year, final month gains were critical in bringing this growth. El-hi (elementary/high school) basal and supplemental K-12 net sales were up 14.8 percent in December, with sales of $139.2 million. Calendar year to date numbers showed sales in this category gained 2.5 percent in 2003.



In 2003, the British retail market recorded its biggest rise since Nielsen BookScan first monitored it six years ago. There is a concentration of power: the top 10 publishing groups enjoyed their highest ever percentage of this market, while the best selling 100 titles accounted for their highest ever share of overall sales. Or, to put it the other way round, smaller publishers and titles below the top rank are losing market share. But the big houses have their own problems: they are engaged in intensive battles to acquire the top titles and to get them into bookshops, and are having to pay, in advances and discounts, to win those battles. The 2003 figures show Bertelsmann regaining the top spot in the retail sales table from Pearson. This comparison is somewhat misleading: Bertelsmann, owning the Random House Group, is exclusively a general publisher, while Pearson has Pearson Education in addition to its general publishing subsidiary, Penguin. However, retail figures do not give an accurate guide to Pearson Education's sales, many of which are through institutions. So we cannot know which of these conglomerates has the biggest overall UK sales. It is safer to say that Random House is the biggest general publisher, with Penguin second and HarperCollins third. Hodder Headline, owned by WH Smith, is fourth; Bloomsbury - publisher of Harry Potter, Schott, and Donna Tartt - is fifth. The Guardian 2/7/04,6109,1142475,00.html



For generations, reference librarians have been known as the source for answers to perplexing questions on almost any subject. In recent years libraries found other means for answering questions, offering reference services over the telephone, by e-mail, and more recently, through 24-hour Internet chat services. Still, with a widespread public expectation that answers can be found almost instantly by typing a few words into an Internet search engine, librarians increasingly find themselves on the sidelines in the question-answering business. So they are slowly warming to the idea that they must educate the public about ways to sort through the mountain of available information. "When Google doesn't work, most people don't have a plan B," said Joe Janes, an associate professor in the Information School at the University of Washington in Seattle , who is teaching a course on Google this quarter. "Librarians have lots of plan B's. We know when to go to a book, when to call someone, even when to go to Google." While librarians often use search engines themselves, some say that the public has become too reliant on Web searches, which may not be the appropriate way to find what they need. For instance, Google is a fine place to search for something specific, like biographical information. But for general information, say on literature or oceanography, sites that list categories are much better, like Yahoo , or Web sites favored by librarians, like the Librarians' Index to the Internet,, and the Internet Public Library, . New York Times 2/5/04



File-sharing: who's to blame? - Wired News

Another look at the proceedings of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals hearing in which three judges are listening to the arguments of those who allege that file-sharing software companies should be held responsible for copyright infringement by individual users. The case is being closely watched and debated and "could determine whether music and film companies can hold distributors of file-sharing software liable for illegally swapped music and movies online." Included: commentary from both sides of the debate. Wired News 24/04 /Corante - Tech News: February 5, 2004,1412,62161,00.html



Recently, Penguin became the first major U.S. publisher to begin selling all of its titles directly to the consumer via its Web site, as first reported by Publishers Weekly . And while a spokesperson for Penguin Group USA told BTW (Bookselling This Week) that the move was meant to be "complementary rather than competitive," booksellers contacted nonetheless hoped the move was not a sign of things to come for the publishing industry. As of January 13, 2004 , Penguin began giving consumers the option of purchasing, at full price, all of its titles from or The sites also offer users the ability to read excerpts. The house's decision to sell its titles directly to the consumer via the Web was made because "it's getting more difficult for retailers to carry our entire backlist—which is about 30,000 titles," said Dave Zimmer, a spokesperson for Penguin. The Penguin sites do offer links to bookselling sites, such as,, and, to name a few. Zimmer also was quick to point out that selling directly to consumers is not exactly a new thing. Like other publishers, "we had already included mail-in coupons [on the backs of books] that allow consumers to have books shipped to them [directly from Penguin]," he explained. At present, Penguin does not discount titles sold through its Web site and does charge for shipping and handling, though Penguin CEO David Shanks acknowledged that Penguin could offer discounts in the future, as reported by PW . Moreover, Shanks called the move a way to test Penguin's ability to sell books and compared it to retailers starting publishing operations, the PW article noted. Nonetheless, Chris Livingston of The Book Shelf in Winona , Minnesota , said that he believed this is "something you don't want to see publishers do en masse. Personally, I think this is a cause for concern if that's where the industry is going." Bookselling This Week 2/3/04



In his report, "Digital Media Trends in Asia-Pacific," Renny Hwang provides an overview of the legal and cultural patterns in Asia-Pacific that will affect the way online music services develop internationally. Hwang identifies differences in litigation and legal protection systems in Japan , China , Taiwan , Korea , and Australia . With Apple's announcement that it will release iTunes in Japan some time in 2004, international scholars, analysts, businesspeople, and policymakers have become more attuned to differences in international law and social norms that will influence consumers' response to these services. Hwang's report provides background for understanding each country's unique legal environment.



Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd will start selling an electronic book called “Sigma Book” on Feb. 20. It uses an LCD that allows the display to keep showing material that is on the screen even when it is turned off. It uses an SD memory card and is capable of continually working with two AA batteries for three months. “Sigma Book” will be sold for about $360 at bookstores in Japan .



Evidenceincamera has been created by The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives at Keele University . The aim is to make the aerial reconnaissance photographs, deposited by the UK Ministry of Defence at TARA , accessible via the internet. For the first time you can access 5.5 million photographs taken over occupied Western Europe , by the Allies during World War II. Work is continuing to make millions more photographs taken throughout the world during World War II and later conflicts, accessible. Peter Scott's Library Blog 1/27/04



Stephen Wolfram is now providing free online access to the full text of his long, controversial, best-selling book, A New Kind of Science . Registration is required.

See the Slashdot discussion ( ) on this development. Open Access News 2/6/04



On February 5, Australian music industry investigators raided the premises of Kazaa's parent company, Sharman Networks, and four other Internet businesses, including the offices of Telstra, the nation's chief telco. Music Industry Privacy Investigations (MIPI) also targeted the University of Queensland , the University of New South Wales and Monash University . The raids came after MIPI was granted a court order permitting it to search for evidence that KaZaA is complicit in the illegal trade of unauthorized copies of songs. The organization plans to use documents seized in the raids in court proceedings. "Kazaa has built a large international business through encouraging and authorising the illegal copying of music users of its network. It authorises this copying without seeking the licence or permission of the owners and creators of the music, nor does it pay any royalties to either the owners or creators of the music," said MIPI chief Michael Speck, according to a Sydney Morning Herald report. Sharman Networks described the raid as a "cynical attempt" to "discredit" the company and to "disrupt its business". The raids are part of a six-month investigation, MIPI said, the results of which will be presented before the Federal Court next Tuesday. MIPI is a subsidiary of the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). "ARIA supports the industry's move to stop the illegal behavior of file sharing networks," said Steven Peach, ARIA's CEO. "The 'free ride' simply can't continue indefinitely at the expense of the owners and creators of the music." ® The Register 2/6/04 Digital Entertainment News 2/6/04



Thanks to a combination of digital music downloads, Internet piracy and competition from big-box retailers, the brick-and-mortar music store appears fated for extinction. It's not just small independent music stores it's also music store chains like Tower Records, Wherehouse Entertainment and Sam Goody that are in "serious trouble." The consensus: "The market for legally downloadable music is tiny today, but the success of Apple's iTunes online music store and the rush of rival services to the marketplace is expected to gobble up an ever-larger share of the pop music pie." A recent report from Forrester Research, in fact, notes that many music listeners are "done with the CD. They just care about the songs." Washington Post 2/7/04 Corante - Tech News: February 9, 2004



Voices From the Gaps is a project that focuses on the lives and works of women writers of color in North America . The Voices project is made possible through an ongoing collaborative effort between faculty and students in the Department of English and the Program in American Studies at the University of Minnesota . In addition, this site relies upon students and scholars from around the world to contribute "author pages" for women writers of color. Peter Scott's Library Blog 2/3/04



Meg Bellinger, Yale University Library, will deliver the next Library of Congress Luminary lecture, Stewardship in the Digital Age: Roles and Issues for Libraries for Preserving Our Cultural Heritage , on Monday, February 23rd, 10:30-12:00 noon . The research library community has reached a level of maturity in its development of digital library initiatives. It has moved from projects and test beds to environments that sustain library services in a coherent fashion. All of the library services in the analog world of selection, acquisition, organization and description, access and preservation apply to the digital present. The digital repository provides these services but has the additional possibility of displacing and reinventing functions that have not been the traditional remit of library services. This presentation explores the development and evolution of the digital repository, explores how digital preservation or archiving in the repository environment fundamentally differs from the purposes of preservation services in the past attempts to refine definitions. The video of the lecture is presented in RealPlayer format. To view it, you must have the Real Player installed and at least a 28 K-bps (kilobits per second) Internet connection for your computer. The RealPlayer software may be downloaded, free of charge, from the RealNetwork Web site. ( )



A New York Times article looks at the way that the pornography industry is dealing with the online sharing of its content. Thousands of Web sites put Playboy magazine's pictures and those from other sites on the Internet, though the companies seek to turn those downloaders into subscribers. Playboy , like many companies that provide access to virtual flesh and naughtiness, is turning online freeloaders into subscribers by giving away pictures to other sites that, in turn, drive visitors right back to BNA's Internet Law News (ILN) - 2/9/04



It is often difficult to predict which technologies will catch on, so we tend to track many of them. One technology that we pointed out to readers last year now appears to be gaining momentum: RSS, an XML-based format for delivering content. RSS stands for “Rich Site Summary” or “Really Simple Syndication,” depending on your preference. RSS lets readers sign up and receive headlines and stories from web sites, weblogs, and online newsletters. To do so, users must download and install a piece of “aggregator” software on their desktops. There are many such aggregators with names like AmphetaDesk, FeedDemon, NetNewsWire, and NewsGator. When users click on a headline, they are linked to the originating web site to read the full story. RSS is quickly gathering steam with a growing number of large and small publishers and web sites, including BBC , Rolling Stone, Sci-Fi Today, Slashdot, Forrester Research, and, a music- and concert-news site operating under Ticketmaster's online division. RSS can support free as well as paid content, and some publishers have started inserting text advertising into their RSS-delivered headlines. RSS is one way around the current problem with spam invading email as a news delivery channel. RSS operates in a closed connection when publishers and users don't furnish their email addresses, so there is no opportunity for spam or viruses to infiltrate, nor any chance of delivery being blocked by anti-spam software. A resulting benefit is that publishers no longer need to maintain email lists because the user pulls content from sites of interest, rather than having email pushed to them. As we predicted last year, one disadvantage of early RSS technology is gradually being remedied. While RSS aggregator software is separate from browsers and email clients and users must still download and install it separately, there are now versions of RSS that integrate into browsers and POP mail clients. In addition, at least one vendor, NewsGator, offers a reader that will work on mobile devices that support HTML. Yahoo's offering removes the need for separate aggregator software altogether by using Yahoo itself as the aggregator and giving users an RSS window within My Yahoo. Greenhouse Effects 2/04


The scholarly communications are also on line at


The scholarly communications are also on line at