Issue 11/05              

                                                                          August 3, 2005   

Paula Kaufman, University Librarian, Editor


News:  You can now keep current with our new Issues in Scholarly Communication blog at  It’s also available through an RSS feed.  While you’re there, check out our new Scholarly Communication website, which has links to many issues core to understanding and shaping our systems of scholarly communications.  If you have suggestions for these new services, contact Katie Clark ( or me (  We hope to keep you informed and up-to-date.



Lynne Brindley, Chief Executive of the British Library, has predicted a switch from print to digital publishing by the year 2020. Speaking at the launch of the Library's new three-year strategy, Lynne Brindley said: "Most people are aware that a national switch to digital broadcasting is expected by the end of this decade. Less well known is the fact that a similar trend is underway in the world of publishing: a study by EPS , commissioned by the Library, projects that, by the year 2020, 40% of
UK research monographs will be available in electronic format only, while a further 50% will be produced in both print and digital. A mere 10% of new titles will be available in print alone by 2020.”  Book2Book:  6/29/05


AMAZON BUYS DVD-ON-DEMAND SITE has purchased CustomFlix, a DVD-on-demand site in an effort to broaden its portfolio of digital media services. Amazon's purchase follows closely on its purchase this spring of BookSurge, which prints books on demand.  BNA's Internet Law News (ILN) - 7/12/2005



For $140, you can buy a handheld Global Positioning System receiver that will gauge your latitude and longitude to within a couple of meters. But in 1804, when Meriwether Lewis and William Clark ventured across the Louisiana Territory, a state-of-the-art positioning system consisted of an octant, a pocket chronometer, and a surveyor's compass. But somehow, Clark—the cartographer in the group—made do. When San Francisco map collector David Rumsey took his copy of Lewis and Clark's published map of their journey, scanned it into a computer, and matched landmarks such as river junctions against corresponding features on today's maps, he found that it took only a slight amount of digital stretching and twisting to make Clark's map conform to modern coordinates. In fact, Rumsey was able to combine Clark's depiction of his party's route to the Pacific with pages from government atlases from the 1870s and 1970s and photos from NASA Landsat satellites, creating a digital composite that documents not only a historic adventure but the history of mapmaking itself. To Rumsey, maps are far more than two-dimensional portrayals of landscape; they have the power to send users on intellectual journeys to distant places and long-ago times. Rumsey believes that by using the latest digital technology, we can learn remarkable things about politics, culture, and science, as seen through the eyes of mapmakers. As the Lewis and Clark composite shows, for example, the Indian tribes whose location, size, and economies Clark described with keen anthropological interest would, within half a century, be cast as enemies and herded onto reservations. Putting one map next to another makes such contrasts leap out at the viewer, says Rumsey. "What excites me is context," he says—meaning the ability, using onscreen tools and the Internet, to juxtapose maps from different periods, or even to examine letters and paintings related to the maps. Today, visitors to can create juxtapositions using the thousands of map images Rumsey has digitized and a toolbox of sophisticated map-browsing programs that he developed in collaboration with Luna Imaging, a digital-archiving firm in Los Angeles. The site, which is in its fifth year and attracts two million visitors annually, exists because Rumsey is one of those rare collectors whose interest in sharing their collections eventually surpassed their interest in adding to them.  Technology Review 7/05



Four Texas university systems and Rice University will collaborate on a digital repository whose goal is to offer online resources, such as teaching aids, dissertations, and practical information, although not books.  The repository will be called the Texas Digital Library, but it will not resemble the California Digital Library—not initially, at least. While the California Digital Library—which provides books, journals, and databases to California libraries—provides an inspiration, says Fred Heath, vice provost of the University of Texas Libraries, "this would be closer to the DSpace collaborative at MIT."  The DSpace project is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's online archive of scholarly works.  Intended to benefit both educators and the public, the new digital repository will be supported by the Texas A&M University System, the Texas Tech University System, the University of Houston System, and the University of Texas System. Rice, a private institution, is also part of the consortium. Chronicle of Higher Education 7/13/05  (see for information about UIUC’s repository IDEALS)



The Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers is calling on Google to stop scanning copyrighted material as part of its deal with five research libraries to digitize millions of books. In a statement on its Web site, the London-based group, which represents 340 nonprofit publishers in 30 countries, says: "We cannot believe that a business which prides itself on its cooperation with publishers could seriously wish to build part of its business on a basis of copyright infringement." Google has drawn similar complaints from other publishers for its plans to scan some copyrighted library books and allow full-text searches of the volumes through its popular search engine. The company says it will offer only short excerpts of copyrighted works online—which its officials claim is legal under the fair-use doctrine. Publishers say Google must get permission even to make a digital copy of works under copyright.  The Chronicle: Wired Campus Blog 7/12/05



James Billington, Librarian of Congress, in the past has not been the biggest booster of e-books, but LOC does have a gem in its American Memory collections. Now equivalents are springing up in Russia, Brazil, Spain, France and the Netherlands, aided through LOC’s Global Gateway effort, as reported in a blog/newsletter on UNESCO. And Billington and some UNESCO supporters are talking about a World Digital library.  That’s fine, but one hopes that its content will go beyond the LOC’s approach with the Memory project and incorporate e-books, both public domain and contemporary. If books are born digital to start with, they will be easier to preserve than paper editions alone. You cannot separate issues of book preservation from the e-book question.  Along the way, needless to say, LOC ideally will care about gracefully evolving format standards and shorter copyright terms and less Draconian copyright laws in general. The leadership of the UN’s World Intellectual Property Organization so far has shown insufficient interest in copyright laws favorable to Third World economic and social development. TeleRead 7/14/05



On Wednesday, July 13, the Campaign for Reader Privacy criticized the House Judiciary Committee regarding its failure to adopt Rep. Jerrold Nadler's (D-NY) amendment to a bill reauthorizing the USA Patriot Act. Nadler's amendment would have restored crucial safeguards for the privacy of library and bookstore records that were eliminated by Section 215 of the Act. Bookselling This Week 7/14/05



A little over a month ago, the publishing world was celebrating the fact that Congress seemed ready to do away with at least some of the more controversial elements of the USA PATRIOT Act—particularly section 215, which grants the federal government unprecedented access to library and bookstore records (along with those of other businesses). After the London bombings, and heightened terror alerts in U.S. cities, however, the climate seems to have changed once again. On Wednesday, the House Judiciary Committee and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence approved legislation (H.R. 3199) reauthorizing the PATRIOT Act, another step toward establishing the Act’s permanence. Especially distressing to the publishing (and reading) community is the fact that Rep. Jerrold Nadler’s (D, N.Y.) amendment to the legislation, which would have limited the FBI’s access to library and bookstore records, was not approved. This despite a June vote in which the Republican-led House of Representatives overwhelmingly approved an amendment to the Justice Department Spending Bill that would have cut funding for those searches. That amendment passed 238–187, with 38 Republicans and 199 Democrats voting in its favor.  The Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, F. James Sensenbrenner Jr. (R, Wisc.) (also the author of H.R. 3199) said that the London bombings last week made reauthorization of the act even more urgent, adding that “The PATRIOT Act has been an effective tool against terrorists as well as criminals intent on harming innocent people.” Under the original wording of 215, the FBI is allowed to conduct secret searches of business records—including those of libraries and bookstores—without first proving probable cause. Recipients of a 215 order are not allowed to challenge the order, or even speak of it. With the slightly amended language of H.R. 3199, libraries and bookstores are permitted to challenge the legality of a Section 215 order, and a “relevance standard” is established, which, according to Rep. Pete Hoekstra (R, Mich.), would “more clearly ensure that orders are relevant to a terrorism or espionage investigation.” The American Booksellers Association, however, points out that this “does not guarantee the recipient the opportunity to appear before a judge,” and “in the absence of a more stringent standard than ‘relevance,’ the judge would have no grounds to limit the overwhelming majority of orders.”  Oren Teicher, COO of the ABA, which, along with PEN American Center, the American Library Association and the Association of American Publishers, has supported restrictions on the ability of the federal government to conduct secret searches of bookstore and library records, says the organization is “disappointed.” “The House Judiciary Committee has ignored the will of the substantial majority of House members who voted last month to restore the safeguards for reader privacy,” he says. “We will continue to push for further safeguards on the House floor and in the Senate.”
The Committee did, however, adopt Rep. Dan Lungren’s (R-Calif.) amendment, which provides a 10-year “sunset provision” on Sections 206 and 215 of the PATRIOT Act, meaning both sections will come under review again in 2015. Section 206 concerns roving wiretaps. Rep. Nadler, who had proposed a review of the two provisions in 2011, objected to the ten-year provision, saying, “Ten years is too long. Lots of things can happen in 10 years. . . . The liberties of Americans are worth focusing on a lot more than every 10 years.”  H.R. 3199 will go before the House next week.  The Book Standard 7/15/05



For free speech and civil liberties groups fighting to amend Section 215 of the USA Patriot Act and restore readers' right to privacy, the events of the last few days were a classic case of good news, bad news. In the Senate's version of the USA Patriot Act reauthorization bill, significant progress was made in correcting and clarifying 215. Meanwhile, in the House, the Republican-led Rules Committee rebuffed efforts to introduce Rep. Bernie Sanders' (I-VT) amendment to restore reader privacy to its reauthorization bill.  Bookselling This Week 7/21/05




When we last left Google Print, publishers were angry, authors were concerned and Google was inscrutable—and no impediment to the company's massive plans was visible. But slowly, the parties are beginning to circle, and address, one other, giving hope that some accommodations may be in the works. Now sources say members of the board of the AAP met with Google CEO Eric Schmidt earlier this month to discuss concerns about Google's Print for Library project. It's the first known meeting between the groups. The meeting was sparked by a June letter from the AAP president Pat Schroeder to Google requesting a meeting to talk about copyright issues raised by the library initiative. The letter also requested that Google implement a six-month moratorium on scanning books in the library project that are under copyright. The AAP had no comment on whether Google agreed to the moratorium, saying only that the meeting helped to clarify the "interests and concerns" of publishers and Google. The two parties have agreed to additional meetings, although no dates were set at press time.  Publishers Weekly 7/14/05



Stephen Wildstrom, The Web Hits the Stacks, Business Week, July 14, 2005.

Two factors combine to make so much valuable and authoritative information [in books] inaccessible. The bulk of human knowledge represented by printed material—especially the portion that is more than 25 years old—does not exist in digital form. In addition, most books and other printed matter published in the last century are still under copyright, and rights owners want to know they'll be compensated for the use of their material....Probably the most intriguing project is Google Print, an attempt to scan the contents of the world's books. One part, developed with publishers, lets people search the contents of current books—an effort similar to's Search Inside. The more ambitious piece, an outgrowth of the National Science Foundation's digital-libraries initiative, aims to put leading research collections online. This project has a long way to go, not least because publishers are already up in arms over copyright (see BW Online, 6/22/05, A New Page in Google's Books Fight). So far, relatively few books have been digitized. Among those are many copyrighted works that are in libraries but out of print. Google lets you search the contents of these works but only serves up snippets of text surrounding the search terms. Even if I end up having to go to a university library to see the whole book, this still strikes me as a powerful tool that I would have died for back in my student days. As useful as the Web is, Google Print shows how much is missing. It's good to see it gradually coming within clicking distance.  Business Week 7/14/05  Open Access News 7/14/05



The July/August 2005 issue of D-Lib Magazine marks the journal’s 10th anniversary with a set of articles that look back and ahead at digital library issues.  Be sure to read Bill Mischo’s article Digital Libraries: Challenges and Influential Work



Polimetrica, the Milan-based scientific publisher, has launched a book series on open access. From the web site: 'Open Access is a book series which aims to promote projects, initiatives, tools and methods, developed in order to help the free and open access to the knowledge resources. Each volume contains papers, short monographs and other documents connected with one or more of the following questions: what were, what are and what could be the different meanings of the expression "free and open access”? What kinds of activities could be developed in order to help the free and open access to the knowledge resources? How is it possible to organize these activities? What was, what is and what could be the role of the free and open access activities in the different kinds of cultures, societies and economies? How is it possible to circulate the free and open access philosophy in these multiple contexts? This series aims to address its enquiries by directing the research perspectives towards the future (what could be ...), not forgetting the present (what is ...) and the past roots (what was ...): the frameworks of knowledge are made up through plural histories, localized in different cultural, social and economical backgrounds and developed in relation to different needs, equally important and considerable. To be published a work must be structured, correct, clear and well written. Authors are encouraged to cooperate with other working scientists and with people and organizations interested in developing, promoting and benefiting the obtained results.'  Giandomenico Sica is the editor-in-chief of the series. Each volume will appear in an open-access edition as well as a priced, printed edition.  Open Access News 7/18/05



Technology is transforming scholarship, and while technology’s impact has been less extensive in the humanities than in the social or natural sciences, recent years have seen a blossoming of innovation by digital humanists. In a forthcoming report from CLIR and DLF titled A Kaleidoscope of Digital American Literature, author Martha Brogan describes achievements in digital American literature and explores priorities and concerns of digital practitioners in the field. Written with the help of Daphnée Rentfrow, the publication is based on a preliminary report prepared for The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation in 2004.  CLIR Issues July/August 2005



“The University,” Ed Ayers declared, “is still unified under one convention, and that is scholarship.” So opened the Digital Library Federation’s (DLF) Spring Forum 2005, held in San Diego April 13–15. Edward Ayers, dean of the University of Virginia’s College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and director of the Valley of the Shadow project, delivered the keynote address to an audience of DLF members, allies, and invited guests from the United States and abroad. Ayers’s theme of “technology and the professorate” was timely. All university constituencies find themselves grappling with the implementation and implications of modern technology. What does it mean for the scholarly community when new tools change not only the method of dissemination but the very creation of scholarship itself? It is true, Ayers acknowledged, that modern American universities often seem fixed in the apparently disparate disciplinary structures formed in the nineteenth century. But it is also true that those who gather at our universities and colleges, regardless of their discipline, come with the common goals of creating new scholarship and building on what already exists. Digital technology does not alter these goals, but it does raise serious questions about the nature of modern and future scholarship. How may scholars study, write, and share their knowledge? And how can librarians most effectively support scholars in an increasingly digitally based environment?  CLIR Issues July/August 2005



Here's a really hard question: What is a book? It's hard, because for 500-odd years, nobody's had to think about it. A book has been a self-contained unit of a lot of words on a good number of bound pages. But that might not be the answer anymore - or at least not the only answer…. Books overall are losing the battle for attention, especially with anyone born after about 1975. From 2003 to 2004, the number of books sold worldwide dropped by 44 million. True, there are still 2.3 billion books sold each year, but the bottom line is that people are flocking to the Web, TiVo, cell phone screens, PlayStation Portables and DVDs while buying fewer books. Books risk becoming the equivalent of pot roast in a world full of ethnic foods. There will always be a place for pot roast, but it sure isn't the place it occupied 30 years ago. To avoid that fate, the concept of a book might have to change. But how? Author and activist Cory Doctorow hopes to find out. In June, he released his latest novel, Someone Comes to Town, Someone Leaves Town, online for free downloads on the same day his publisher released printed copies to bookstores. On his Web site, Doctorow encourages fans: "When you download my book, please: Do weird and cool stuff with it. Imagine new things that books are for. Then tell me about it ... so I can be the first writer to figure out what the next writerly business model is." He's not thinking that the future of books is simply reading book-length text on a screen instead of on paper pages. He's thinking it's something that happens when you decouple the content from the medium. In music, that kind of decoupling hasn't resulted in people listening to the old concept of "albums" on iPods or laptops. Instead, people have been doing new things - buying individual songs, making mixes, sharing playlists online, creating podcasts, dumping music into cell phones to use as ring tones. We are generally doing absolutely nothing that the music industry might've predicted a decade ago. The technology isn't here yet to make that possible with books. No screen has yet been able to beat traditional paper books as a display for lengthy text. But that won't be the case forever. A breakthrough for books with an iPod-level impact is going to happen at some point. And then? "I think book is a verb," Doctorow says. It's what you're doing when reading something like a narrative story or biography or academic argument in big chunks in multiple sessions, he says. "We need to find ways to insert the verb of book into technologies that arrive," Doctorow adds….USA Today 7/19/05



With new money and a new executive team at its head, the outcome of Blackwell's nine month-long strategic review effectively represents a new start for the chain. Blackwell UK, comprising the retail and online divisions of Blackwell Ltd, will remain in the hands of the family company, and shareholders have pledged new investment cash. The board has also hired a new management team, bringing fresh ideas from outside the industry. 7/22/05



Orphan Works—copyrighted literature and art whose owners cannot be identified—have led to an array of problems in publishing, digitizing projects, preservation efforts, and the filming of documentaries. The U.S. Copyright Office is holding a series of hearings to determine whether copyright law should change to allow for more liberal use of orphan works. Scholars and artists are at odds over proposed changes.  Chronicle Daily Report 7/25/05



"PLoS Genetics [is] a new open-access journal from the Public Library of Science (PLoS). Led by an internationally recognized editorial board with broad knowledge and expertise, PLoS Genetics is a journal that celebrates the research of the greater genetics and genomics community...PLoS Genetics is unique—publishing outstanding articles that reflect the full breadth and interdisciplinary nature of this research, all free to read and to use in your own research and teaching."  Be Spacific 7/26/05



Asian nations are catching up with Europe and the United States in terms of scientific output, says a US report. If current trends continue, publications from the Asia–Pacific region may outstrip those from the United States within six or seven years. In 2004, the report shows, countries from the Asia–Pacific region, including China, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore and India, produced 25% of the world’s research papers. In 1990, Asia's share of the scientific output was just 16%....One reason for the higher Asian publication share is strong economic growth and the resulting increase in research funding, says Mu-Ming Poo, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Berkeley, who spends part of every year as director of the Institute of Neuroscience in Shanghai. What's more, Poo says, research performance in Asia is now increasingly evaluated in terms of the publications in journals that are indexed by Thomson Scientific. In China, some institutions even pay researchers extra for publications in indexed journals, especially ones that carry widely cited articles.  Nature, July 2005 Open Access News 7/26/05



The Pew Internet & American Life Project has just released a new report on teens and technology.  Highlights: The number of teenagers using the internet has grown 24% in the past four years and 87% of those between the ages of 12 and 17 are online. Compared to four years ago, teens' use of the internet has intensified and broadened as they log on more often and do more things when they are online.  Among other things, there has been significant growth over the past four years in the number of teens who play games on the internet, get news, shop online, and get health information. In short, today's American teens live in a world enveloped by communications technologies; the internet and cell phones have become a central force that fuels the rhythm of daily life.  The full report may be accessed from:



Scientific and legal publisher Reed Elsevier, Netherlands, has reported increased revenues for the first half that ended June 2005, owing to the performance of its online services and a 96 percent subscription renewal rate for the company's journals. Around 40 percent of its services are web-based. The publisher’s income for the first half stood at £2,368 million (US$ 4,150 million), a 6 percent rise over the £2,263 million (US$ 3,966 million) earned in the corresponding period of 2004. For the full year, Reed Elsevier projected a 7 percent increase in overall revenue growth, as against 3% in 2004. The company's scientific, technical and medical publishing division benefited from the easing of budget limits at libraries and witnessed a 4 percent increase in article submission by academics. Reed Elsevier plans to look beyond the traditional markets of the UK, the US and the Netherlands to expand its global presence, particularly in China. KnowledgeSpeak 8/1/05


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