SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION ISSUES
A NEWSLETTER FOR THE UIUC COMMUNITY
June 9, 2005
For knowledge workers who have been turning to the open Web as a shining new source of valuable information and enhanced productivity, the luster seems to be fading. A new round of 2,000 interviews in Outsell's ongoing studies of knowledge workers' information habits, preferences, and behaviors shows a couple of remarkable trends:
First, people who use the Internet in their jobs are starting to tire of going directly to the open Web. Just 67 percent say they go to the open Web for the information they need for the job, compared to 79 percent in 2001. They are increasingly more likely to rely on corporate intranets, colleagues, libraries, and other intermediaries.
Second, there's been a double shift in one key measure of productivity: time spent looking for information. Not only are users spending more time overall searching for information (11 hours per week vs. 8 hours in 2001), but they now are spending more of that time simply hunting for the information (53 percent) rather than analyzing and applying it to their work. Four years ago, the majority of their time (56 percent) was spent analyzing and applying the information.
Outsell's research covers knowledge workers in critical functions such as finance/HR/legal, information technology, sales/marketing, science/engineering, and manufacturing/purchasing. Outsell now 5/10/05 http://www.outsellinc.com/outsell/press%20room/pr_release/pr20050510_01.htm
ADOBE TO SHUT DOWN E-BOOK SERVICE
Adobe has quietly decided to shut its Adobe Digital Media Store, which was set up to showcase the versatility of the PDF format, as of June 3, 2005. According to its Web page, users no longer are able to purchase digital content, although they may download already purchased content and redeem gift certificates before the June closing date. BNA's Internet Law News (ILN) - 5/16/05
RESTORE OPEN GOVERNMENT BILL INTRODUCED
Democrat Henry Waxman introduced a bill on May 12th to statutorily mandate that agencies interpret the Freedom of Information Act's presumption that government agency documents are to be provided to the public in a permissive and not a restrictive manner. H.R. 2331's title is: The Restore Open Government Act. It would strengthen the laws that provide for an open and transparent Federal Government. Representative Waxman issued a press release discussing the law. Law Library Blog 5/16/05 http://www.democrats.reform.house.gov/Documents/20050511144026-14992.pdf
REPLACING BOOKS WITH COMPUTERS IN LIBRARIES
As digital delivery of printed material becomes increasingly efficient and common, some colleges and universities are relocating books from libraries to make room for facilities where students access content on computers. The University of Southern California was one of the first to create such a digital learning laboratory in 1994, and in the past few years it has been joined by schools including Emory University, the University of Georgia, the University of Arizona, the University of Michigan, and the University of Houston. The University of Texas at Austin has recently decided to move all of the books from its undergraduate library to other facilities and create an "electronic information commons." No one expects books to disappear completely, but, according to Geneva Henry, executive director of the digital library initiative at Rice University, libraries should be primarily concerned with the exchange of ideas rather than simply storage of books. As colleges and universities work to provide appropriate services to students who have grown up with computers, the trend to use electronic resources is likely to continue. EduPage 5/16/05 New York Times, 14 May 2005 (registration req'd)
MORE BOOKS, FEWER SALES
The U.S. publishing industry continues to put out more books than the American public is prepared to buy, according to a report issued Monday by the Book Industry Study Group. The number of books sold dropped by nearly 44 million between 2003 and 2004, even as the annual number of books published approaches 175,000. "People are reading less, so what you're seeing is the same phenomenon that has hit magazines and newspapers, a massive shift toward home video, DVD, Internet and cable," said Albert N. Greco, an industry consultant and a professor of business at the graduate school of Fordham University. BookTrade.Info 5/17/05 http://forums.booktrade.info/booktrade.php?&do=news&bit=General&newsitem=5922
NY TIMES PLANS TO CHARGE FOR SOME ONLINE CONTENT
The New York Times has announced that it will begin charging for Op-Ed and news columns on NYTimes.com as part of a new online subscription called TimesSelect. For $49.95 a year or free for print subscribers, TimesSelect members will also get access to The Times archives, exclusive online multimedia (audio and photo essays, video and podcasts), a first look at some articles, and "TimesFile," a new tool that helps readers tag and organize articles from The Times. Everyone in the online news industry will be watching to see how successful The Times is in its approach, especially in light of latimes.com's recent decision to end its subscription for calendarlive.com. Cyberjournalist.net 5/16/05 http://www.cyberjournalist.net/news/002615.php
UNIVERSITY PRESS GROUP RAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT GOOGLE’S DIGITIZATION PROJECT
Saying that Google's high-profile library project "appears to be built on a fundamental violation of the copyright act," the Association of American University Presses listed concerns and questions about the project in a six-page letter to Google's top lawyer. The complaint is one of a growing list of formal objections to Google's digital-library plans by publishing groups. The university-presses group, which represents 125 nonprofit scholarly publishers, posed 16 detailed questions about Google's project, which the company calls Google Print for Libraries. The project, announced in December, involves libraries at Harvard and Stanford Universities, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and the University of Oxford, in England, as well as the New York Public Library (The Chronicle, December 14). The libraries are letting Google scan some or all of their books, and Google plans to add the full-text records to its popular search index. Scanning is already under way at some of the libraries, though Google officials say that only a handful of texts have been added to the index so far. The entire project could take up to a decade to complete. Although many of the books being scanned are so old that copyright no longer applies, Google officials say they also plan to scan books still under copyright. For copyrighted works, Google officials say that online search results will offer only short excerpts. But publishers say that even to scan those books could violate copyright. Chronicle.com 5/23/05 http://chronicle.com/free/2005/05/2005052301t.htm
A recently released policy review by the British Academy on e-resources for research in the humanities and social sciences makes the following general recommendations:
· U.K. institutions and national bodies adopt a coordinated and coherent strategic approach to e-resource provision and access, based on research community needs.
· E-resource conversion by resource holders pays particular attention to secondary before primary e-provision.
· Those providing e-resources address means and mechanisms for access from general information discovery systems, such as Web search engines.
· National institutions, funding bodies and library representatives collectively address the development of licensing and fair use protocols for e-resources that balance the claims of providers and users.
· National institutions and funding bodies conduct an in-depth analysis of the requirements and options for long-term e-resource curation, preservation and use.
OCLC Abstracts 5/23/05 http://www.britac.ac.uk/reports/eresources/index.html
PROJECT MUSE COLLABORATES WITH GOOGLE TO INDEX JOURNAL CONTENT
Project MUSE subscribers can now use Google or Google Scholar to locate full text of journals hosted by MUSE. Project MUSE has collaborated with Google Inc., to enable researchers and students to use the Google web site and its Google Scholar interface to explore the Project MUSE web site for relevant scholarly research information. Individuals at a MUSE subscribing institution can now use the familiar interface of Google at www.google.com or www.scholar.google.com to search the full-text content from any of the more than 270 scholarly journals that MUSE currently hosts. Articles can be viewed in HTML or PDF. …Currently, MUSE subscribers can search and browse the collection's numerous journals through the subscribing library's catalog, many traditional abstracting and indexing databases, links from related products and MUSE's own search engine. Google is the first well-known Internet search engine to index scholarly content online. …Students or researchers unaffiliated with a MUSE-subscribing library (such as UIUC) will be able to view abstracts or excerpts of articles found through a Google search of MUSE journal content. The excerpt will help the user determine if he or she wants to locate a full copy of the text, and guidance will be offered on alternative methods of accessing the article. SPARC-OAForum Digest #556 May 29, 2005.
CATALOG OF ART MUSEUM IMAGES ONLINE
RLG has announced CAMIO, Catalog of Art Museum Images Online, a database of art from prominent museums. CAMIO's contents span all continents and range from 3000 BC to the 21st century. They include high-resolution images of photographs, paintings, sculpture, decorative and utilitarian objects, prints, drawings and watercolors, jewelry and costumes, textiles, books, installations, and architecture plus audio-video and mixed media. CAMIO is scheduled for release July 1, 2005. It is available by subscription to universities and colleges, public libraries, museums, and schools (5/28/2005 3:15:51 AM) Peter Scott’s Library Blog. http://www.rlg.org/en/page.php?Page_ID=11521
GOOGLE PRINT SERVICE LAUNCHES
Google has opened the door to its online library with the launch of a book-specific search page. Print.Google.Com makes official the search giant's project to digitize the world's books. BNA's Internet Law News (ILN) - 5/31/2005 http://www.internetnews.com/dev-news/article.php/3508536
One of the most interesting presentations at this fantastic conference was given by Eve Gray, of Eve Gray & Associates. Gray was asked to study the publishing strategy of the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) in South Africa. This research institution had a traditional strategy of publishing lots of research books, and selling them. Gray convinced them to change their strategy—to give away all their research books for free online, and offer a high quality print-on-demand service for anyone who wants the paper version. The result: "the sales turnover of the publishing department has risen by 300%." As she concluded her presentation, "giving away books and lead to an increase in our book sales." There's much much more in her interesting analysis. She has generously offered it for downloading. Here's the press release. Lessig Blog 5/27/05 http://www.lessig.org/blog/archives/eve_gray.pdf
Jeffrey Young, From Gutenberg to Google: Five views on the search-engine company's project to digitize library books, Chronicle of Higher Education, June 3, 2005. Excerpt: 'It's been nearly six months since the company announced that it would work with five of the world's largest libraries in an effort to scan millions of books and make the full texts part of its popular search index. But some librarians and publishers say they are still in the early stages of understanding what the project's impact might be on their fields, and on scholarship in general. The Chronicle asked five key players to comment on the project and its meaning.
(Young's article and all five of the related articles are accessible only to subscribers. The Chronicle is hosting an online discussion of these issues, which also appears to be limited to subscribers.) Open Access News 5/31/05
Matthew Cockerill, Access all articles, The Guardian, June 2, 2005. An excellent introduction to OA. Excerpt: '"Sorry, but this article is available only to subscribers." Try to view a science journal article online and, more often than not, that is the message you will see. This is not just a problem for members of the public - scientists and medical practitioners face it every day. There are so many science journals that no library can afford to subscribe to them all. The internet has the potential to give researchers instant access to all the information they need, but this potential is not exploited because scientific journals still operate a subscription-based model inherited from the days of print publishing....For the past few years, however, change has been brewing. The research funders, who spend hundreds of millions of pounds each year on scientific research in the first place, have grown impatient with traditional publishers, who take an exclusive license to all the research findings that are published in their journals and then sell limited access back to the scientific community. Funders realise that the scientific literature represents a distillation of the knowledge that has been obtained at huge expense through the research they have paid for. The literature is an extremely valuable resource, so why should they surrender control of it to publishers who are responsible only for the final stage of the process? In many cases, funders do not even have full access to the research they themselves have funded: a recent study found that fewer than half of the articles resulting from NHS research grants end up accessible online to NHS employees. Scientists, too, want as many people as possible to see their research, since the wider the readership, the greater the impact the research will have and the more it will benefit their career....It is against this background that the Wellcome Trust, the UK's biggest non-governmental funder of biomedical research, has taken the historic step of announcing that, from October 1 2005, recipients of its funding will be required to deposit a copy of all resulting research articles in an online archive, and that this archive will make those articles freely available within six months of publication....It cannot be overemphasised how significant a change this represents for science.' Open Access News 6/2/05 The Guardian 6/2/05 http://education.guardian.co.uk/elearning/comment/0,10577,1497526,00.html
Richard Roberts, winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, has pulled out of an ACS conference because of its position on PubChem. He has permitted me to post a copy of his letter of withdrawal to SOAF. Excerpt: 'I regret that I am going to have to pull out of the ACS-CSIR conference in India next January. For some time now I have been deeply troubled by the actions of the ACS and this has finally reached breaking point with the violent opposition to the PubChem initiative at NCBI. I find myself no longer able to support anything that carries the imprimatur of the ACS. I was greatly troubled when ACS so vehemently opposed the Open Access initiative. This led me to resign my membership in the society after more than 20 years as a member....[T]he current opposition to PubChem is reprehensible and without any redeeming merit. As an advisor to PubChem I am aware of what they are trying to do and it is in no way a threat to anything that ACS is doing. Rather it complements those activities very nicely and provides for the biological community an important resource that is not provided by CAS. Furthermore, PubChem is keen to provide links to CAS and thereby enhance the usefulness of both resources. My only interpretation of the recent actions by the ACS Board and management is that it is no longer trying to be a scientific society striving towards the goals of its Congressional charter, which is to represent the best interests of the scientists who form its membership. Rather it seems to be a commercial enterprise whose principle objective is to accumulate money. The ACS management team might be well-advised to poll its members to discover if they are happy about the recent actions taken in their names....Frankly, the recent actions of the ACS are a disgrace to its image in the USA and around the world. They engender such bad feelings as to raise in question the motivations of its leadership. I cannot in good faith support any of the activities of a body that has gone so seriously wrong.' Open Access News 6/1/05 https://mx2.arl.org/Lists/SPARC-OAForum/Message/1977.html
GERMAN COMPETITION TO GOOGLE BOOK DIGITIZATION PROJECT
A German association of booksellers and publishers plans to create its own searchable database of books online. The proposed archive, prompted in part by Google's library project, aims to give small publishing houses a chance to compete in the Internet-publishing marketplace. Read more about this article, and other information-technology news reported elsewhere online, in The Chronicle's Wired Campus blog. Chronicle of Higher Education 6/6/05 http://wiredcampus.chronicle.com/
ONLINE USER EXPERIENCE STUDY
The Online Publishers Association (OPA) has unveiled the results of its latest research project, the "Online User Experience Study." Conducted in partnership with the Media Management Center at Northwestern University, the study identified 22 experiences that describe and define how people interact with and relate to digital media, and determined how each of those specific experiences impact site usage. "Experience is a critical concept to understand, particularly in a crowded environment where media constantly compete for consumers' attention," said Michael Zimbalist, president of the Online Publishers Association. "It goes beyond providing content that gets good user satisfaction ratings, to involving and engaging users' minds and emotions. Properly implemented, it can elevate a product from something that satisfies a basic need to something that compels repeat usage and loyalty." The research involved a combination of personal interviews and surveys. In-person interviews were conducted with 65 Internet users from across the country. The statements these Web users used to describe those experiences were then incorporated into an online questionnaire.* Analysis of the survey results identified 22 distinct user experiences. The survey also measured site usage for each respondent and its relation to how that user rated each of the experiences identified through the qualitative interviews. From there, the relationship between usage and experience was derived, and the experiences were ranked according to their relative impact on site usage. The study revealed that the experience "Entertains and absorbs me" is the top driver of site usage. The top 12 experiences that drive site usage are as follows:
The research methodology employed in the User Experience Study has been used by the Media Management Center in the past to study engagement with newspapers and magazines. While many experiences are common to both print and digital media, several are unique to the Internet, including: "Entertains and absorbs me"; "Connects me with others"; "Tailored for me"; "Guides me to other media"; "A way to fill my time"; "My guilty pleasure," and "Tries to persuade me." Two particularly noteworthy experiences common to print and online are "Annoyed by the ads" and "Turned on by the ads." This suggests that the creativity and relevance of advertisements impact a user's engagement with a particular Web site, just as it does in newspapers or magazines. http://www.online-publishers.org/?pg=press&dt=060105
PONDER FUTURE OF BROWSING
As the US book world wound up its annual national convention, some retailers were wondering about the fate of a cultural institution. It's not a book or a publisher, but a customer - the old-fashioned bookstore browser who picks and pokes and doesn't care about the critics or Oprah or the best-seller charts. "I think people are less likely to just look around than they were five years ago,'' says Margaret Maupin, a buyer for The Tattered Cover in Denver. "And they're more impatient about getting a book. They come in and ask for it and if you don't have it they go somewhere else.'' Nobody at BookExpo America, which ended Sunday, was predicting the demise of those idle, curious souls who think of bookstores as second homes. But booksellers and publishers agree that an accelerated society can't help affecting an industry known for taking its time. Book2Book 6/7/05 http://tinyurl.com/7zco7
Remember when Larry Lessig signed away his copyright in an article to a law review and vowed never to do it again (Never Again)? He has since been throwing his weight behind efforts to make legal scholarship open to all—including a brand-new project that Science Commons announced today: the Open Access Law Program:
Professor Lessig is the first signatory on the Open Access Law Author Pledge, where law professors can agree to support open access principles. This support includes encouraging journals to become open access and promising to publish only in journals that are open access.
Through its Open Access Law Program, Science Commons will work with law schools, authors, libraries and journals to encourage open access to legal journals and articles, and plans to expand the Program into other areas of law publishing. Although the program's initial focus is on legal publishing in the United States, Science Commons is also supporting international efforts to make legal material freely available to all.
Much more about the new program and its goals, here. Donna Wentworth Copyfight 6/6/05 http://tinyurl.com/7wdnp, The copyright wars: Lessig vs. Epstein
COPYRIGHT WARS: LESSIG vs EPSTEIN
The People Own Ideas (Lawrence Lessig) http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/05/06/issue/feature_people.asp?p=0 and The Creators Own Ideas (Richard A. Epstein) http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/05/06/issue/feature_creators.asp?p=0 give the two respective sites of the copyright wars. From MIT Technology Review. Teleread 6/7/05 http://www.teleread.org/blog/?p=2991