Finding Primary Sources
What is a primary
Primary sources are original artifacts or documents. They offer contemporary accounts from
participants or people directly involved in an event.
learn more about secondary sources, see our
- Diaries and literary memoirs
- Letters/ Correspondence
- Artistic works (musical and visual arts)
- News segments/transcripts
- Legal documents and Statistics
Why use primary sources?
Primary sources enable you to work with the raw material and draw your own conclusions. Secondary sources are further removed from the events and often reflect the author’s
How can I tell if something is a primary source?
The following questions can help you determine if you have a primary source.
- How does the author know what he/she knows?
- Does his/her knowledge stem from personal experience or having witnessed an event?
- Does the author cite several other (published) reports?
- Why is the information being provided or the article written?
- Are there references to other writings on this topic?
- Is the date of publication evident?
- Does the date of publication close to the event described?
Where can I find Primary Sources?
can find primary sources in the University Archives as well as local public libraries.
Find Specific Types of Primary
You can use the
Catalog Advanced Search to look for different types of primary sources.
- Enter the type of primary source you're looking for in the first box (examples include:
narratives, correspondence, music scores, etc.)
- Change the drop-down menu next to the first search box from "Keyword" to "Subject"
- In the second box, type a related keyword (author, event, geographical location, etc.)
For example: You may type "narratives" in the first box and "Anne Frank" in the second box to
look for Anne's diary and related primary sources.
News Transcripts are available through
- In the
Search by Subject or Topic option category select "Broadcast
- Enter search terms in box
- Use options on result page to focus your results.
Speeches and Interviews can be searched in
- On the search page scroll down to the
Limit your results section.
- From the
Document type option box on the right select
Interview. To search both simultaneously hold down the "Control" key when
making a selection.
General Primary Source Resources:
Article and Newspaper Databases
Identifies articles in regional U.S. newspapers, international newspapers, newswires and
newspaper columns, as well as TV and radio news transcripts.
Newspapers (Through the History, Philosophy, and Newspaper Library's page)
Look here for African American Newspapers from the 19th Century, Early American Newspapers,
Early American Imprints, 1639 -1800 and
Early American Imprints, 1801-1819
Includes several types of primary source documents, browse by topic or search.
Local Archive Sources
Includes over 17,000 cubic feet of office records, publications, and personal papers from the
University and the Urbana-Champaign campus.
Life and Culture Archives
Includes collections relating to student life and culture on the national level and at the
University of Illinois.
Provides access to the research and scholarship of faculty, staff, and students at the
University of Illinois.
Illinois History and Lincoln Collections
Contains material on Illinois and local history, in addition to other collections.
Digital Collections for Historical
The History, Newspaper, and Philosophy Library has a page listing public digital history
collections. Great for finding historical primary source documents such as letters and
Provides a more detailed tutorial on understanding and using primary sources.
Public Web Sources
Project (a Library of Congress initiative)
Offers a diverse collection in a variety of formats (prints, photographs, letters, reports,
sheet music, recordings, maps).
A huge collection of photographs, documents, reports, and more.
Comprehensive guide to legislative information from the Library of Congress.
New York Public Library Digital
Provides free and open access to over 685,000 images digitized from the The New York Public
Library's vast collections.