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Turabian Citation Style

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th Edition

By Kate L. Turabian

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations Online (website for the book)

Author Date Book Title Article Title Periodical Title
Volume Pages Place of Publication Publisher Other

Blog

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012...) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Note

Format: Author, Title of blog entry, Title of blog, Date published, accessed Date, URL.

Example: 1. Scott Supak, Organic Agriculture Loans at Kiva, Organic Gardening News and Advice, 12/4/2011, accessed 4/5/2013, http://organicgarden.blogspot.com/2011/12/organic-agriculture-loans-at-kiva.html.

Format: Author, Title of blog entry.

Example: 2. Supak, Organic Agriculture Loans at Kiva.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of blog entry. Title of blog, Date. Accessed Date. URL.

Example: Supak, Scott. Organic Agriculture Loans at Kiva. Organic Gardening News and Advice, 12/4/2011. Accessed 4/5/2013. http://organicgarden.blogspot.com/2011/12/organic-agriculture-loans-at-kiva.html.

Book

Note

Format: Author, Title of book. (Place of publication: Publisher), Pages.

Example: 1. Sharon Berger, Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners. (Devon, UK: Green Books, Ltd.), 139-148.

Format: Author, Title of book, Pages.

Example: 2. Berger, Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners, 139-148.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Example: Berger, Sharon. Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners. Devon, UK: Green Books, Ltd., 2005.

Book Article or Chapter

Note

Format: Author, Title of chapter in Title of book, ed. Editor, (Place of publication: Publisher, Date), Pages.

Example: 1. Eliot Coleman, The new organic grower in Gardening when it counts, ed. Anna Kruger, (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995), 219-223.

Format: Author, ed., Title of chapter Pages.

Example: 2. Coleman, ed., The new organic grower 219-223.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of chapter. In Title of book, edited by Editor, Pages. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example: Coleman, Eliot. The new organic grower. In Gardening when it counts, edited by Anna Kruger , 219-223. Westport, CT: Greenwood , 1995.

Book with an editor

Note

Format: Editor, ed., Title of book (Place of publication: Publisher, Date), Pages.

Example: 1. Anna Kruger, ed., Gardening when it counts (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995), 219-223.

Format: Editor, Title of book, Pages.

Example: 2. Kruger, Gardening when it counts, Pages, 219-223.

Bibliography

Format: Editor, ed., Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example: Kruger, Anna, ed., Gardening when it counts. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995.

Doctoral Dissertation or Master's Thesis

Note

Format: Author, Title of dissertation or thesis (PhD diss. or M.A. thesis, Place of publication, Date), Pages.

Example: 1. Karen Feasel, Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs (PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005), 5-7.

Format: Author, Title of dissertation or thesis, Pages.

Example: 2. Feasel, Profiles of personal agency, 5-7.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of dissertation or thesis. PhD diss. or M.A. thesis, Place of publication, Date.

Example: Feasel, Karen. Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs. PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2005.

eBook

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL.

If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Note

Author, Title of book (Place of publication: Publisher, Date), Pages, Medium.

Example: 1.Sharon Packer, Superheroes and superegos: analyzing the minds behind the masks (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010), 200-222, eBrary.

Format: Author, Title of book, Pages.

Example: 2.Sharon Packer, Superheroes and superegos: analyzing the minds behind the masks, 200-222.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Medium.

Example: Sharon Packer. Superheroes and superegos: analyzing the minds behind the masks. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010. eBrary.

Encyclopedia Article

Well known reference books used as sources are not included in the reference list but are as notes within the text without publication information. For an alphabetically arranged work, cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v.(for sub verbo , "under the word"; use s.vv. for pl.)

Note

Example: 1. New Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th ed., s.v. " Organic farming")

Less well known reference works should be cited in the reference list with publication information following the appropriate entry style for books. If using a substantial, authored entry from an encyclopedia, cite the article like a book chapter.

Encyclopedia Article (Online)

Online encyclopedia articles follow the same guidelines as print encyclopedias. Make sure to include the URL and date accessed in the parenthetical citation if the article is from a major reference work not listed in the reference list.

Note

2. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, s.v. "Organic farming,http://www.credoreference.com/entry/ebconcise/organic_farming (accessed January 14, 2011).

Journal Article

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Note

Format: Author, "Title of article," Title of periodical Volume (Date): Pages.

Example: 1. Bernward Geier, "Organic agriculture worldwide-a fast growing reality for 100% pesticide risk reduction," International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production 525, (July 1998): 31-38.

Format: Author, "Organic agriculture worldwide," 33.

Example: 2. Geier, Title of article, Pages.

Bibliography

Example: Author. "Title of article." Title of journal Volume, (Date):Page(s).

Example: Geier, Bernward. "Organic agriculture worldwide-a fast growing reality for 100% pesticide risk reduction." International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production 525, (July 1998): p. 31-38.

Magazine Article

Note

Format: Author, "Title of article," Title of magazine, Date, Page(s).

Example: 1. David Donaldson, "When to buy organic," Better Homes and Gardens, June 3, 2007, 288.

Format: Author, "Title of article," Page(s).

Example: 2. Donaldson, "When to buy organic," 288.

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of article." Title of magazine. Date.

Example: Donaldson, David. "When to buy organic." Better Homes and Gardens. June 3, 2007.

Magazine or Journal Article Retrieved from a Database

Note

Format: Author, Title of article, Title of periodical, Date, Pages.

Example: 1. Karen Shelke, How to say it organically: Consumers are buying into organic foods; are you buying organic ingredients? , Food Processing, 2005, 49-56.

Bibliography

Format: Author . Title of article, Title of periodical. Date.

Example: Karen Shelke. How to say it organically: Consumers are buying into organic foods; are you buying organic ingredients?. Food Processing, 2005.

Movie

Begin with the title, italicized. For a videotape or DVD, add "VHS" or "DVD." Cite the director followed by the year of the film's release, the city it was produced in, name of the distributor and the year the film was released on DVD or VHS.

Format: Film Title. Medium. Directed by Director. (Distributor City: Distributor, Year of Release).

Example: High Fidelity, DVD, Directed by Stephen Frears. (2000; Los Angeles, CA: Walt Disney Video, 2001).

Newspaper Article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . .) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Note

Format: Author, "Title of article," Title of newspaper, Date, URL.

Example: 1. Sam Dillon, "Education standards likely to see toughening," New York Times, 14 April, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/education/15educ.html?ref=education.

Format: Author, "Title of article."

Example: 2. Dillon, "Education standards likely to see toughening."

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of article." Title of newspaper, Date. Accessed Date. URL.

Example: Dillon, Sam. "Education standards likely to see toughening." New York Times, 14 April, 2009. Accessed 15 June, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/education/15educ.html?ref=education.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

Note

Format: "Title of page," Name of website, last modified Date, accessed Date, URL.

Example: 1. "Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious?" Mayo Clinic, last modified September 7, 2012, accessed May 5, 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organic-food/NU00255.

Format: Name of website, "Title of page."

Example: 2.Mayo Clinic, "Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious?"

Bibliography

Format: Name of website. "Title of page." Last modified Date. Accessed Date. URL.

Example: Mayo Clinic. "Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious?" Last modified September 7, 2012. Accessed May 5, 2013. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organic-food/NU00255.

YouTube video

For videos, provide the author only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the author. If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no author. Has an author:

Bibliography

Format: Author, "Video title" Name of website. Medium.URL (accessed Date).

Example: Takayma-Ogawa, J., & Willette, J. "What is information literacy?" YouTube. Flash video file.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeopJX5jJV8 (accessed December 12, 2007).

Has no author:

Bibliography

Format: "Video title." Name of website. Medium. URL (accessed date).

Example: "Slingshot fun." YouTube. Flash video file. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E (accessed February 1, 2007).

Works of Art

It is uncommon to cite images in the biblography, but if requested use the following formats for the original work and image found in a database, respectively.

Bibliography

Format: Creator, Title, Medium, Date, Name of institution, Location.

Example: Duveneck, Frank, Whistling Boy, oil on canvas, 1872, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati.

Bibliography

Format: Creator, 1872. Title. Medium. Database name. URL. (accessed Date).

Example: Duveneck, Frank, 1872. Whistling Boy. Database on-line. ARTstor. http://www.artstor.org. (accessed 14 September 2007).

General Rules

  • There are two different Turabian citation styles. This web page gives examples in the Reference List style, which is becoming the more common style. See the printed manual for the other.
  • Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author.
  • Indent the second and following lines 5 spaces or one half inch. (In Word, use "Hanging Indent.")
  • If no author is given, start with the title and then the date.
  • Websites: include the date you looked at it.