For Literature, Art and the Humanities
The Modern Language Association has for more than 100 years compiled the MLA Style Manual, the definitive guide to formatting and citation in many humanities fields, particularly those focusing on literatures and languages. The MLA Manual is the style guide of choice for many journals and is used throughout the world (from mla.org).
To go to the libguide on MLA-style citing, go to this link: Citing Sources: MLA Style
Outside Links on MLA Citation Style
The following links provide additional information on the MLA Style Manual, as well as sample papers, citations, and information on the Modern Language Association and its Style Manual.
- MLA Style Sample Paper: A sample paper in MLA Style format from Purdue OWL
- MLA General Format Guide: A guide to the formatting and general style for MLA Style papers from Purdue OWL
- Frequently Asked Questions About the MLA Handbook: The Modern Language Association answers frequently asked questions about the MLA Style Manual.
- What Is MLA Style?: A brief history of the MLA Style Manual.
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: The official website for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers provides those with accounts with additional information and resources on MLA Style.
- The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing: The MLA’s two printed style manuals, one tailored to research papers and the other to scholarly publication, are detailed here.
Citation Styles Handbook: MLA - Illinois Writer's Workshop
|Date||Book Title||Article Title||Periodical Title|
|Volume||Pages||Place of Publication||Publisher||Other|
Begin the entry with the author's name, followed by the title or subject of the posting in quotation marks"; the name of the blog in italics (if the blog doesn't have a name, use the generic label Online Posting); the publisher or sponsor of the website (if not available use n.p.); date of post; medium of publication (Web); and your date of access. Then give the <URL> for the blog.
Format: Title of article." Title of blog . Publisher, Date of post. Medium of publication. Date accessed.. "
Example: Pesticides linked to frog mutations." Organic Gardening News and Advice . Blogspot, 2 Mar. 2006. Web. 13 Mar. 2008.. "
Format: Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Medium of publication..
Example: Allotment gardening: an organic guide for beginners . Devon: Green Books, Ltd., 2005. Print..
Book Article or Chapter
Begin with the name of the title of the selection in quotes; the title of the book in italics; the name of the or (preceded by "Ed." for "Edited by"); publication information; the pages on which the selection appears, and the medium you consulted (print or electronic).of the chapter or selection, not with the name of the author of the book. Then give the
Format: Title of Selection." Title of book . Ed. name of Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Pages. Medium.. "
Example: The new organic grower." Gardening When It Counts . Ed. . Westport: Greenwood, 1995. 219-223. Print.. "
Book with an Editor
In place of the author, instead begin with the name of thefollowed by a comma and the abbreviation ed.
Format: Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Medium.. (Ed.).
Example: Gardening When It Counts . Westport: Greenwood, 2001. Print.. (Ed.).
Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses
If the dissertation was published, include information as you would for a book, italicizing the title . After the title include the descriptive label Diss. and publication information. If you have the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number, you may also choose to include it.
Format: Title of dissertation or theses . Diss. Publisher, Date, Place of publication: UMI order number, medium..
Example: Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign . Purdue University, 2002, Ann Arbor: UMI, 2004, Print..
If the dissertation was not published, put the title in quotation marks, followed by the descriptive label, the name of the granting university, and the year. To site a Masters Thesis, substitute Diss. with appropriate label (MA thesis or MS thesis). If the dissertation is found using an online database, instead of concluding with medium (i.e. Print), include the title of the database (italicized), medium of publication (Web), and the date of access.
Format: Title of dissertation or theses." Diss. Publisher, Date, Database, Medium. Date accessed.. "
Example: Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs" Diss. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1999. Proquest Digital Dissertations, Web. 29 Apr. 2010.. "
Format: "Title of dissertation or theses." MA thesis. Publisher, Date, Medium..
Example: Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory." MA thesis. Purdue University, 2002. Print.. "
If the electronic book also appears in print, include the name of the database in italics, the place of access, and the date of access.
Format: Title of ebook . Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Database . Medium. Date accessed..
Example: Allotment gardening: an organic guide for beginners . Devon: Green Books, Ltd., 2005. NetLibrary . Web. 18 Apr. 2009..
If the electronic book is being cited from an electronic device like the Kindle, Nook, or iPad, instead of the above, cite the medium of the publication. The medium is the specific type of electronic file used such as a Kindle file, Nook file, EPUB file, or PDF file.
Format: Title of ebook . Place of publication: Publisher, Date. File used..
Example: Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage . New York: Farrar, 2010. Kindle file..
When an encyclopedia or a dictionary is well known, simply list the title of the entry in quotes, the title of the reference work , the edition number (if any), and the date of the edition. If a reference work is not well known, provide full publication information as for other books.of the entry (if there is one), the
Format: Title of article." Title of Encyclopedia . Edition. Date. Medium.. "
Example: Organic Gardening." The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia . 15th ed. 1987. Print.. "
Encyclopedia Article (Online)
If you access the article through an online database , include the regular publication information as you would for a print resource. After the date, include the name of the database in italics, the medium (Web), date of access and the <URL>.
Format: "Title of article." Title of Encyclopedia. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Database . Medium. Date accessed.
Example: "The Roman Empire, 14-284 C.E." The Encyclopedia of World History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Credo Reference . Web. 12 Apr. 2010.
Found in print: Begin with the title of the article in quotation marks, the journal name in italics followed by the volume, issue if there is one, year, followed by a colon and inclusive page numbers and medium (Print). If pagination is not continuous, give the first page and a plus sign (54+)., then the
Format: Title of article." Title of periodical . Volume (Date): Pages. Medium.. "
Example: Isabella in Measure for Measure." Shakespeare Studies . 15 (1982): 137-148. Print.. "
Found online (not using a database): Begin by following the guidelines for a print journal. Most often, online journals will include volume and issue numbers like print publications, and oftentimes, there will be nopage numbers in a web-only journal, in which case, replace page numbers with n. pag. Follow with date of publication, Web as medium of publication, and date of access.
Format: Title of article." Title of periodical . Publisher. Volume (Date): Pages. Medium. Date accessed.. "
Example: Organic agriculture worldwide--a fast growing reality for 100% pesticide risk reduction." Acta-horticulturae . International Society of Horticultural Science. 525.1 (2000): 31-37. Web. 13 Apr. 2009.. "
Found using an online database: Cite online journal articles from an online database as you would a print one. Provide the database name in italics. Library information is no longer required. List the medium of publication as Web and end with the date of access.
Format: Title of article." Title of periodical. Publisher. Volume (Date): Pages. Database . Medium. Date accessed.. "
Example: How to say it organically: consumers are buying into organic foods; are you buying organic ingredients?" Food Processing. 66.4 (2005): 49-54. Academic OneFile . Web. 13 Mar. 2008.. "
For the date, if the magazine is published every one or two weeks, include the full date. If it is published every month, include the month and year. Do not include the volume and issue numbers, even if they are given.
Format: Title of article." Title of periodical Date: Pages. Medium.. "
Example: When to buy organic." Better Homes and Gardens Jun. 2007: 288. Print.. "
Begin with the title of the film in italics. For a film, cite the and the or ("Perf." or "Narr."), followed by the year of the film's release and the name of the distributor Followed by the medium (Film). For a videotape or DVD, after the distributor include the year the film was released in this medium and instead of concluding with Film as the medium add "Videocassette" or "DVD."
Format: Title of Film . . or . Date released. Film Distributor, Date released on film. Medium.
Example: High Fidelity . Dir. . Perf. , , , and . 2000. Walt Disney Video, 2001. DVD.
In the publication title, omit introductory articles (a, an, the). If the title is in a language other than English, keep introductory articles. If the paper is nationally published, do not include a city of publication. If it is published locally, include city. If sections are paginated separately, include the section letter with the page numbers.
Found in Print:
Format: Title of article." Title of periodical Date: Pages. Medium.. "
Example: Education standards likely to see toughening." New York Times 14 Apr. 2009: A3. Print.. "
Found through the online version:
Format: Title of article." Title of periodical Date. Medium. Date accessed.. "
Example: Education standards likely to see toughening." New York Times 14 Apr. 2009. Web. 18 Apr. 2009.. "
Begin with the name of the title of the site, italicized if it is an independent work, or in quotation marks if part of a larger work. The title of the entire website if different than the page title. Next, the publisher or sponsor (if not available use n.p.).e. Then give the date of publication or last update, the name of any sponsoring organization, the date you accessed the source. If your instructor requires a <URL> or if you think a reader will need the <URL> to find the site again, include and the <URL> in <angle brackets>. Provide as much of this information as is available.or (if known) and the
Format: Title of page " Title of website. Publisher or sponsor, Date. Medium. Date accessed.or . "
Example: Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious? " Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Mayo Clinic, 20 Dec. 2006. Web. 13 Mar. 2008.. "
For videos, provide the title of post, Online Posting, sponsor (YouTube), date of access, medium, and date of access. Note that the <URL> is not required by the MLA standards, but if you feel it is necessary to locate the page again, include the <URL> in <angle brackets>.only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the . If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no author. Follow the same standards for a regular web source with ,
Has an author:
Format: Video title" Medium. Website, Date accessed. Web. Date published., "
Example: What is information literacy" Online Posting. YouTube, 14 Mar. 2007. Web. 30 Apr. 2010., & "
Has no author:
Format: "Video title." Online Posting. Website, Date accessed. Web. Date published.
Example: "Slingshot fun." Online Posting. YouTube, 29 January 2007. Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
Works of Art
Start with the title of the artwork in italics. Provide the date of composition; if the date of composition is unknown, place the abbreviation n.d. in place of the date. Finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution.(if known) then give the
Format: Title . Date. Name of institution, Location..
Example: The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid..
For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.g. images of artwork in a book), cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.).
Format: Title . Date. Name of institution, Location. Title of book. Edition. By . Place of publication: Publisher. Page. Medium..
Example: The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages.10th ed. By and . Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. 939. Print..
- The list of sources that you used should be titled "Works Cited."
- Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by .
- Double space all lines
- Indent the second and following lines 5 spaces or one half inch. (In Word, use "Hanging Indent.")
- If no is given, start with the title.
- Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June, and July.
- The 7th edition of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers became available in spring 2009. This webpage reflects the update found in the 7th edition.