learn

insider's guide
to the library

LEARN Navigation Menu



  Library workshop calendar    LibGuides    Library videos

  Savvy Researcher Twitter    University of Illinois Facebook    Library Flickr

Chicago Citation Style

Chicago Citation Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition

Chicago Style Manual of Style Online (Illinois students/faculty/staff only)

Author Date Book Title Article Title Periodical Title
Volume Pages Place of Publication Publisher Other

Blog

Citations of blog entries should include the author of the entry; the name of the entry, in quotation marks; the title or description of the blog and a URL. Citations of a comment should start with the identity of the commenter and the date of the comment (if a time stamp appears with the comment), the words "comment on," and the citation information for the related entry. There is no need to add pseud. after an apparently fictitious name of a commenter; it may be assumed that the identity of any commenter may be an alias. If known, the identity can be given in the text or in the citation, in square brackets. Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication. Add the word blog in parentheses after the name of the blog (unless the word blog is part of the name). Citations of blog entries are generally relegated to the notes; a frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography.

Endnote Only

Format: Author, "Title of article," Title of blog (blog), Accessed Date, URL.

Example: Scott Supak,"Organic Agriculture Loans at Kiva," Organic Gardening News (blog), March 21, 2012 (3:57 PM). http://organicgarden.blogspot.com/2011/12/organic-agriculture-loans-at-kiva.html.

Book

For one author:

In a note, the author's name is given in the normal order. In a bibliography, where names are arranged alphabetically, it is inverted (last name first).

Endnote

Format: Author, Title of Book , (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), Page.

Example: Sharon Berger Allotment gardening: an organic guide for beginners , (DevonGreen Books, Ltd.2005), 55.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of Book . Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Example: Berger, Sharon Allotment gardening: an organic guide for beginners DevonGreen Books, Ltd., 2005.

For two or more authors:

Two or three authors (or editors) of the same work are listed in the order used on the title page. In a bibliography, only the first author's name is inverted, and a comma must appear both before and after the first author's given name or initials. Use the conjunction and (not an ampersand).

For works with more than ten authors-more common in the natural sciences- Chicago recommends the policy followed by the American Naturalist only the first seven should be listed in the bibliography, followed by et al. (Where space is limited, the policy of the American Medical Association may be followed: up to six authors' names are listed; if there are more than six, only the first three are listed, followed by et al.)

Endnote

Format: AA Author and BB Author, Title of Book , (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), Page.

Example: Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945 , (New YorkKnopf2007), 76.

Bibliography

Format: Author, AA and BB Author. Title of Book . Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Example: Ward, Geoffrey C. and Ken Burns The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945 New YorkKnopf2007.

Book Article or Chapter

Begin with the name of the author of the selection, not with the name of the author of the book. Then give the date of publication. Then give the title of the selection, "in" the title of the book ; the name of the author or editor (editor preceded by "ed." for "Edited by"); the pages on which the selection appears; and publication information.

Endnote

Format: Author, "Title of Selection," in Title of Book , ed. Editor, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), Page(s).

Example: Eliot Coleman, "The new organic grower," in  Gardening When It Counts , ed. Anna Kruger, (WestportGreenwood1995), 219-223.

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of Selection." In Title of Book , edited by Editor, Pages. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Example: Coleman, Eliot. "The new organic grower." In  Gardening When It Counts , edited by Anna Kruger219-223. WestportGreenwood1995.

Doctoral Dissertation or Master's Thesis

Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"-not in italics. This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books. The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography. If the document was consulted online, include a URL or, for documents retrieved from a commercial database, give the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number supplied or recommended by the database.

Endnote

Format: Author, "Title of Dissertation or Thesis", (PhD diss. or MA thesis, University of Publication, Date), Page(s).

Example: K.E. Feasel,  "Profiles of personal agency," (PhD diss.University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign2005), 1-3.

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of Dissertation or Thesis." PhD diss. or MA thesis, University of Publication, Date, URL or ID number.

Example: Feasel, K.E. "Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs." PhD diss.University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign2005, ProQuest (AAT 2340298).

eBook

The majority of electronically published books offered for download from a library or bookseller will have a printed counterpart. Because of the potential for differences, however, authors must indicate that they have consulted a format other than print. This indication should be the last part of a full citation that follows the recommendations for citing printed books as detailed throughout this section.

Endnote

Format: Author, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), Edition or URL.

Example: Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice (New YorkPenguin Classics2007), Kindle edition.

Bibliography

Format: Author. Title of Book . Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. Edition or URL.

Example: Austen, Jane Pride and Prejudice New YorkPenguin Classics2007http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1342.

Encyclopedia Article

Well known, alphabetically arranged reference books used as sources are not included in the reference list but are cited in the text.

Example: In her article on organic gardening in the 1987 edition of  The New Encyclopaedia Britannica , Jessica Smith says that the phrase organic gardening was coined in the 1960s.

Articles from less well known reference works can be treated as a book article or chapter.

Encyclopedia Article (Online)

Endnote only

Format: Author, "Title of Article," in Name of Encyclopedia , edited by Editor(s), Publisher, Date, URL.

Example: Melissa Isaacson, "Bulls," in  Encyclopedia of Chicago , edited by Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. GrossmanChicago Historical Society2005http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/184.html.

Journal Article

Endnote

Format: Author, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical Volume, (Date): Pages.

Example: Bryan Geier, "Organic agriculture worldwide,"  Acta-horticulturae  525, (2000): 31-37.

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of Article". Title of Periodical Volume (Date): Pages.

Example: Geier, Bryan. "Organic agriculture worldwide--a fast growing reality for 100% pesticide risk reduction."  Acta-horticulturae  525 (2000): 31-37.

Magazine Article (Popular)

If the magazine article was found online-- either through a database or the web-- be sure to also include a URL.

Endnote

Format: Author, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical , Date, Page(s).

Example: David Donaldson, "When to buy organic,"  Better Homes and Gardens June 3, 2007288.

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of Article". Title of Periodical , Date.

Example: Donaldson, David, "When to buy organic, Better Homes and Gardens June 3, 2007.

Movie

Begin with the screen writer then the title , italicized. For a videotape or DVD, add "Videocassette" or "DVD". Cite the director followed by the year of the film's release, the city it was produced in, name of the distributor and the year the film was released on DVD or Videocassette.

Endnote

Format: Title of Film , Director (Date; City of Production: Distributor of Film, Date Released) Medium.

Example: Clash of the Titans , Directed by Desmond Davis (1981Buckinghamshire, EnglandMGM, 2001), DVD.

Bibliography

Format: Title of Film . Director. Date. City of Production: Distributor of Film, Date Released. Medium.

Example: Clash of the Titans . Directed by Desmond Davis. 1981Buckinghamshire, EnglandMGM, 2001. DVD.

Newspaper Article

Endnote

Format: Author, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical (City of Production, State of Production), Date.

Example: Sam Dillon, "Education standards likely to see toughening,"  New York Times (New York, NY), April 14, 2009.

Bibliography

Format: Author. "Title of Article". Title of Periodical (City of Production, State of Production), Date.

Example: Dillon, Sam. "Education standards likely to see toughening."  New York Times (New York, NY)April 14, 2009.

Website

Web sites may be cited in running text ("On its Web site, the Mayo Clinic Staff states . . . ") instead of an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well. The following example shows the more formal version of the citation. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it at the end of the citation, before the URL, as in the example below.

Endnote

Format: Creator, "Title of video," Name of website , last modified date, URL.

Example: Google. "Google Privacy Policy," Google.com , Last modified March 11, 2009.http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

Bibliography

Format: Creator. "Title of Page." Name of website Last modified Date. URL.

Example: Google. "Google Privacy Policy."  Google.com . Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

General Rules

  • There are two different Chicago citation styles -- one for humanities and one used in the sciences. This web page gives examples in the science style. The Chicago Manual of Style is available online.
  • The list of sources that you used should be titled "Bibliography."
  • Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author .
  • Doublespace all lines.
  • Indent the second and following lines 5 spaces or one half inch. (In Word, use "Hanging Indent.")
  • If no author is given, start with the title.
  • Abbreviate the names of all months except May, June, and July.