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APA Citation Style

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition

For Education, Psychology, and other Social Sciences

Citation Styles Handbook: APA Illinois Writer's Workshop

Author Date Book Title Article Title Periodical Title
Volume Pages Place of Publication Publisher Other

Blog

Author's name, date of post, title or subject of the post. Follow with the words "Retrieved from" and the URL.

Format: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Supak, S. (2006, March 2). Pesticides linked to frog mutations. Retrieved from http://organicgarden.blogspot.com/.

Book

Start with the author name followed by the year of publication parenthetically. After that, include the title of the book (italicized), location, and publisher. Capitalize the the first character of the subtitle as well.

Format: Author. (Date). Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Berger, S. (2005).  Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd.

Book Article or Chapter

Begin with the name of the author of the selection, not with the name of the author of the book, then the year of publication. Then give the title of the selection"In" the name of the author or editor (followed by "Ed." for Edited by), the title of the book (italicized); the pages on which the selection appears; and publication information.

Format: Author. (Date). Title of article or chapter. In Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pages). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Coleman, E. (1995). The new organic grower. In A. Kruger (Ed.),  Gardening when it counts  (pp. 219-223).Westport, CTGreenwood.

Book with an Editor

Format: Editor(s). (Ed.). (Date). Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Kruger, A. (Ed.). (2001).  Gardening When It Counts Westport, CTGreenwood.

Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses

If the dissertation is retrieved through a commercial database (e.g. ProQuest), say "Retrieved from" name of database and give the accession or order number in parentheses at the end of the reference.

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of dissertation/theses . Retrieved from name of database. (accession or order number).

Example: Feasel, K. E. (1999).  Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs . Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 9944848).

eBook

For an electronic book, include the name of the database.

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from database.

Example: Berger, S. (2005).  Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners Devon, EnglandGreen Books, Ltd. Retrieved from NetLibrary.

If the work is not available directly online or must be purchased, use "available from" rather than "retrieved from."

Format: Author(s). Title of book . Available from URL.

Example: Davis, J. (n.d.).  Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest . Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0.

If citing a book used in a e-reader, make sure to note the version.

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of book [e-reader]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Austen, Jane. (2007).  Pride and Prejudice  [Kindle Version]. New York, NYPenguin Classics.

Encyclopedia Article

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article. In Name of Encyclopedia (edition. Volume, Pages). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Smith, J. (1987). Organic Gardening. In  The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia  (15 edVol. 24pp. 390-392). Chicago, ILEncyclopaedia Britannica.

Encyclopedia Article (Online)

Format: Title of article. (n.d.). In Name of Encyclopedia . Retrieved from URL.

Example: Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopadia Britannica online . Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism.

Journal Article

Where pagination continues from issue to issue through the entire volume.

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article. Name of Perodical , Volume, Pages.

Example: Yeh, S., & Fontenelle, C. (2012). Usability study of a mobile website: the Health Sciences Library, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, experience. Journal Of The Medical Library Association , 100(1), 64-68.

Journal or Magazine Article

Where each issue starts with page one:

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Volume, Pages.

Example: Donaldson, D. (2007). When to buy organic Better Homes and Gardens 85 (6)288.

Journal or Magazine Article Retrieved from a Database

If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier), give that number at the end and do not include the database name. If there is no DOI, include the name of the database and the document number assigned by the database, if any.

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Volume , Pages. Retrieved from database (document number).

Example: Shelke, K. (2005). How to say it organically: consumers are buying into organic foods; are you buying organic ingredients Food Processing 66 (4) 49-54. Retrieved from Academic OneFile database (A132242002).

Movie

To cite a film, video, or DVD, list the producer, director and the year of the film's release. Give the title in italics, followed by "Motion picture" in brackets, the country where it was made, and the name of the studio. If the motion picture is difficult to find, include instead the name and address of its distributor.

Format: Producer(s). Director(s). (Date). Title of film [Motion picture]. Place of production: Name of studio.

Example: Zwick, E., Herskovitz, M., & Bickford, L. (Producers). Soderbergh, S. (Director). (2000).  Traffic  [Motion picture].United StatesGramercy Pictures.

Newspaper Article

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Pages.

Example: Dillon, S. (2009, April 14). Education standards likely to see toughening New York Times A3.

If the newspaper was accessed through the online version of the newspaper:

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Pages. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Dillon, S. (2009, April 14). Education standards likely to see toughening New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.

Website

List as many of the following elements as are available, in the same order as you would for a fixed media source: author's name; date of publication (if there is no date, use "n.d."); title of article (in italics); URL that will take readers directly to the source. Give your date of access if the source itself has no date.

Format: Author(s). (Date). Title of article . Title of webpage. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008, December 20).  Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious?  Nutrition and healthy eating. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organic-food/NU00255.

YouTube video

With YouTube videos, it is important to distinguish between the creator of the content and the person who posted the content. If the creator of the video is credited, put their name in the author position (Creator). Next include the name or screen name of the person who posted the video (Poster), followed by the date posted, the title, and the URL. If no creator is listed, put the poster in the first spot.

Has a creator:

Format: Creator(s). (Date) Title of video . Location of video. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Takayma-Ogawa, J., & Willette, J (Creators). OtisCollege (Poster) (2007, March 14).  What is information literacy [Video] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeopJX5jJV8.

Has only a poster:

Format: Creator(s) username. (Date). Title of video . Location of video. Retrieved from URL.

Example: darkinsidious Slingshot fun  [Video]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E.

Works of Art

Format: Artist(s). (Date). Title of painting . Location of museum; Name of museum.

Example: Duveneck, Frank. (1872).  Whistling boy  [Painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum.

Format: Artist(s). (Date). Title of painting . Location of museum; Name of museum. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Duveneck, Frank. (1872).  Whistling boy  [Image of painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from http://www.artstor.org.

General Rules

  • The list of sources that you used should be titled "References"
  • Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author .
  • Indent the second and following lines 5 to 7 spaces or one half inch. (In Word, use "Hanging Indent.)
  • Use only the initials of the authors' first and middle names.
  • If no author is given, start with the title and then the date.
  • Article titles and book titles : capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle. (Capitalize all significant words of periodical titles .)
  • Websites: if the the page was created is not given, use (n.d.).