Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition
For Education, Psychology, and other Social Sciences
The APA Style Guide, designed by the American Psychological Association, is commonly used by social and behavioral scientists. It is also sometimes used in scientific publication, as its rules attempt to reduce biases in writing.
To go to the libguide on APA-style citing, go to this link: Citing Sources: APA Style
Outside Links on APA Citation Style
If you are interested in additional information on APA, APA citations in black, or the APA’s website, these links may be helpful.
- APA Example Paper: Sample paper in APA style from Purdue OWL
- APA General Format:Description of the general format of an APA paper from Purdue OWL
- APA Style: The official website of APA Style, as compiled by APA Style and the American Psychological Association.
- @APA_Style: APA Style Guide is on Twitter! Find it here.
- APA Style Facebook: Connect with the APA Style Guide on Facebook.
- +APA Style: Connect with APA Style on Google+
Citation Styles Handbook: APA Illinois Writer's Workshop
|Date||Book Title||Article Title||Periodical Title|
|Volume||Pages||Place of Publication||Publisher||Other|
date of post, title or subject of the post. Follow with the words "Retrieved from" and the URL.,
Format: Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Retrieved from URL.. (
Example: 2006, March 2). Pesticides linked to frog mutations. Retrieved from http://organicgarden.blogspot.com/.(
Start with the year of publication parenthetically. After that, include the title of the book (italicized), location, and publisher. Capitalize the the first character of the subtitle as well.name followed by the
Format: Date). Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher.. (
Example: 2005). Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners . Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd.(
Book Article or Chapter
Begin with the name of the year of publication. Then give the title of the selection"In" the name of the (followed by "Ed." for Edited by), the title of the book (italicized); the pages on which the selection appears; and publication information.of the selection, not with the name of the author of the book, then the
Format: Date). Title of article or chapter. In (Ed.), Title of book (pages). Place of publication: Publisher.. (
Example: 1995). The new organic grower. In (Ed.), Gardening when it counts (pp. 219-223).Westport, CT: Greenwood.(
Book with an Editor
Format: Date). Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher.. (Ed.). (
Example: 2001). Gardening When It Counts . Westport, CT: Greenwood.(Ed.). (
Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses
If the dissertation is retrieved through a commercial database (e.g. ProQuest), say "Retrieved from" name of database and give the accession or order number in parentheses at the end of the reference.
Format: Date). Title of dissertation/theses . Retrieved from name of database. (accession or order number).. (
Example: 1999). Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs . Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 9944848).(
For an electronic book, include the name of the database.
Format: Date). Title of book . Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from database.. (
Example: 2005). Allotment gardening: An organic guide for beginners . Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd. Retrieved from NetLibrary.(
If the work is not available directly online or must be purchased, use "available from" rather than "retrieved from."
Format: Title of book . Available from URL..
Example: Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest . Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0.(n.d.).
If citing a book used in a e-reader, make sure to note the version.
Format: Date). Title of book [e-reader]. Place of publication: Publisher.. (
Example: 2007). Pride and Prejudice [Kindle Version]. New York, NY: Penguin Classics.. (
Format: Date). Title of article. In Name of Encyclopedia (edition. Volume, Pages). Place of publication: Publisher.. (
Example: 1987). Organic Gardening. In The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia (15 ed. Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica.(
Encyclopedia Article (Online)
Format: Title of article. (n.d.). In Name of Encyclopedia . Retrieved from URL.
Example: Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopadia Britannica online . Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism.
Where pagination continues from issue to issue through the entire volume.
Format: Date). Title of article. Name of Perodical , Volume, Pages.. (
Example: 2012). Usability study of a mobile website: the Health Sciences Library, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, experience. Journal Of The Medical Library Association , 100(1), 64-68.(
Journal or Magazine Article
Where each issue starts with page one:
Format: Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Volume, Pages.. (
Example: 2007). When to buy organic. Better Homes and Gardens , 85 (6), 288.(
Journal or Magazine Article Retrieved from a Database
If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier), give that number at the end and do not include the database name. If there is no DOI, include the name of the database and the document number assigned by the database, if any.
Format: Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Volume , Pages. Retrieved from database (document number).. (
Example: 2005). How to say it organically: consumers are buying into organic foods; are you buying organic ingredients? Food Processing , 66 (4) , 49-54. Retrieved from Academic OneFile database (A132242002).(
To cite a film, video, or DVD, list the year of the film's release. Give the title in italics, followed by "Motion picture" in brackets, the country where it was made, and the name of the studio. If the motion picture is difficult to find, include instead the name and address of its distributor., and the
Format: Date). Title of film [Motion picture]. Place of production: Name of studio.. . (
Example: 2000). Traffic [Motion picture].United States: Gramercy Pictures., & (Producers). (Director). (
Format: Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Pages.. (
Example: 2009, April 14). Education standards likely to see toughening. New York Times , A3.(
If the newspaper was accessed through the online version of the newspaper:
Format: Date). Title of article. Title of periodical , Pages. Retrieved from URL.. (
Example: 2009, April 14). Education standards likely to see toughening. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.(
List as many of the following elements as are available, in the same order as you would for a fixed media source: date of publication (if there is no date, use "n.d."); title of article (in italics); URL that will take readers directly to the source. Give your date of access if the source itself has no date.;
Format: Date). Title of article . Title of webpage. Retrieved from URL.. (
Example: 2008, December 20). Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious? Nutrition and healthy eating. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organic-food/NU00255.. (
With YouTube videos, it is important to distinguish between the creator of the content and the person who posted the content. If the date posted, the title, and the URL. If no creator is listed, put the poster in the first spot.of the video is credited, put their name in the author position ( ). Next include the of the person who posted the video (Poster), followed by the
Has a creator:
Format: Date) Title of video . Location of video. Retrieved from URL.. (
Example: OtisCollege (Poster) (2007, March 14). What is information literacy [Video] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeopJX5jJV8., & (Creators).
Has only a poster:
Format: Date). Title of video . Location of video. Retrieved from URL.. (
Example: Slingshot fun [Video]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E..
Works of Art
Format: Date). Title of painting . Location of museum; Name of museum.. (
Example: 1872). Whistling boy [Painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum.. (
Format: Date). Title of painting . Location of museum; Name of museum. Retrieved from URL.. (
Example: 1872). Whistling boy [Image of painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from http://www.artstor.org.. (
- The list of sources that you used should be titled "References"
- Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by .
- Indent the second and following lines 5 to 7 spaces or one half inch. (In Word, use "Hanging Indent.)
- Use only the initials of the and .
- If no title and then the date. is given, start with the
- Article titles and book titles : capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle. (Capitalize all significant words of periodical titles .)
- Websites: if the the page was created is not given, use (n.d.).