Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition
For Education, Psychology, and other Social Sciences
Citation Styles Handbook: APA Illinois Writer's Workshop
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Writer's name, date of post, title or subject of the post. Follow with the words "Retrieved from" and the URL.
(2006, March 2). Pesticides linked to frog mutations. Retrieved from http://organicgarden.blogspot.com/.
Start with the author name followed by the year of publication parenthetically. After that, include the title of the book (italicized), location, and publisher. Do note to capitalize the the first character of the subtitle as well.
(2005). Allotment gardening : An organic guide for beginners. Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd.
Book Article or Chapter
Begin with the name of the author of the selection, not with the name of the author of the book, then the year of publication. Then give the title of the selection, "in" the name of the author or editor (followed by "Ed." for Edited by), the title of the book (italicized); the pages on which the selection appears; and publication information.
(1995). The new organic grower. In A. Kruger (Ed.), Gardening when it counts (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Book with an Editor
(2001). Gardening When It Counts. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses
If the dissertation is retrieved through a commercial database (e.g. ProQuest), say “Retrieved from” name of database and give the accession or order number in parentheses at the end of the reference.
(1999). Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs . Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 9944848)
For an electronic book, include the name of the database.
(2005). Allotment gardening : An organic guide for beginners. Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd. Retrieved from NetLibrary.
If the work is not available directly online or must be purchased, use "available from" rather than "retrieved from."
(n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0
If citing a book used in a e-reader, make sure to note the version.
(2007). Pride and Prejudice [Kindle Version]. New York, NY: Penguin Classics.
(1987). Organic Gardening. In The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia (15 ed. Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Encyclopedia Article (Online)
Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopadia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism
Where pagination continues from issue to issue through the entire volume.
(1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Journal or Magazine Article
Where each issue starts with page one
(2007). When to buy organic. Better Homes and Gardens, 85 (6), 288.
Journal or Magazine Article Retrieved from a Database
If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier), give that number at the end and do not include the database name. If there is no DOI, include the name of the database and the document number assigned by the database, if any.
(2005). How to say it organically: consumers are buying into organic foods; are you buying organic ingredients? Food Processing, 66 (4), 49-54. Available from Academic OneFile database (A132242002).
To cite a film, video, or DVD, list the producer, director and the year of the film's release. Give the title in italics, followed by "Motion picture" in brackets, the country where it was made, and the name of the studio. If the motion picture is difficult to find, include instead the name and address of its distributor.
Soderbergh, S. (Director). (2000). Traffic [Motion picture]. United States: Gramercy Pictures.
(2009, April 14). Education standards likely to see toughening. New York Times, A3.
If the newspaper was accessed through the online version of the newspaper:
(2009, April 14). Education standards likely to see toughening. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.
List as many of the following elements as are available, in the same order as you would for a fixed media source: author's name; date of publication (if there is no date, use "n.d."); title of document (in italics); URL that will take readers directly to the source. Give your date of access if the source itself has no date.
(2008, December 20). Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious? Nutrition and healthy eating. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organic-food/NU00255.
With YouTube videos, it is important to distinguish between the creator of the content and the person who posted the content. If the creator of the video is credited, put their name in the author position (Creator). Next include the name or screen name of the person who posted the video (Poster), followed by the date posted, the title, and the URL. If no creator is listed, put the poster in the first spot.
Has a creator:
(2007, March 14). What is information literacy [Video] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeopJX5jJV8.
Has only a poster:
Slingshot fun [Video]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E.
Works of Art
(1872). Whistling boy [Painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum.
(1872). Whistling boy [Image of painting]. Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from http://www.artstor.org
- The list of sources that you used should be titled "References"
- Arrange the items on your reference list alphabetically by author.
- Indent the second and following lines 5 to 7 spaces or one half inch. (In Word, use "Hanging Indent.)
- Use only the initials of the authors' first (and middle) names.
- If no author is given, start with the title and then the date.
- Article titles and book titles: capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle. (Capitalize all significant words of periodical titles.)
- Websites: if the date the page was created is not given, use (n.d.).
For more information:
Gelfand, H., Walker, C. J. (1990). Mastering APA style: student's workbook and training guide. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Based on http://www2.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citation.htm by Robert Delaney at B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library, Long Island University.