Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
The subjects of anatomy and physiology make such convenient and logical associates that they are combined as a package in this section, along with the currently hot topics of neurobiology and endocrinology. Anatomy is a "the study of the structure of living organisms, especially of their internal parts by means of dissection and microscopical examination." The same source interprets "physiology" as the "branch of biology concerned with the vital functions of plants and animals, such as nutrition, respiration, reproduction and excretion." (Oxford Dictionary of Biology, 4th ed, 2000). Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system. This section includes primarily human anatomy and physiology: plants and animals are discussed in Plant Biology and Zoology. Although a few medical titles are included, emphasis in this chapter is on the biological sciences rather than the behavioral or clinical. There is overlap between this section and Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Molecular and Cellular Biology, so don't neglect to broaden the search to these other chapters if the molecular aspects, for example, of a particular discipline are important.
- American Association of Anatomists (AAA).
Founded in 1888, now with over 2,500 members. Professional society of anatomists and scientists in related fields. Publishes Anatomical News, Anatomical Record (plus the New Anatomist), Directory (Departments of Anatomy in the U. S. and Canada), Developmental Dynamics. Their Web site includes extensive links, membership information.
- American Physiological Society (APS).
Founded 1887. 9,100 members. Professional society of physiologists. Publishes: Advances in Physiology Education, American Journal of Physiology and all of the sections, FASEB Directory, Handbooks, Journal of Neurophysiology, News in Physiological Sciences, Physiological Reviews, The Physiologist. Web site primarily for membership information.
- American Society for Neurochemistry (ASN).
Founded 1969. Over 1,000 members. Investigators in the field of neurochemistry and scientists who are qualified specialists in other disciplines and are interested in the activities of the Society. Publishes American Society for Neurochemistry Membership Directory, Newsletter, Transactions, books: Basic Neurochemistry, and Neurochemistry of Cholinergic Receptors. The Web site is primarily for membership information, though it does include links to other societies.
- Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
Founded 1887. 650 members. Individuals involved in anatomical science. Promotes development and advancement in anatomy and related science through research and education. Offers program for graduate students. Publishes Journal of Anatomy. The Web site provides extensive links to general interest sites, plus educational sites in anatomy, neurobiology, embryology, and other related areas.
- Endocrine Society (ES).
Founded 1918. 8,000 members. Promotes excellence in research, education, and clinical practice in endocrinology and related disciplines. Publishes Endocrine News, Endocrine Reviews, Endocrinology, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Molecular Endocrinology. Web site provides news bulletins, information for patients, and links to other societies as well as membership information. Formerly: Association for Study of Internal Secretions.
- International Brain Research Organization (IBRO).
Founded 1960. 55,000 members. Scientists working in neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology, the behavioral sciences, neurocommunications and biophysics, brain pathology, and clinical and health-related sciences. Works to promote international cooperation in research on the nervous system. Publishes Directory of Members, Neuroscience, annual News. Web site primarily for membership information; also has world and local news of interest to neuroscientists.
- International Society of Endocrinology (ISE).
Founded 1966. 53 members. Federation of national endocrinology societies with 15,000 individual members. Disseminates information on endocrinology and facilitates collaboration between national endocrinological societies and persons interested in the field. Publishes Abstracts of Congresses and Symposia Abstracts. Web site primarily for meeting and membership information.
- International Society for Developmental Neuroscience (ISDN).
Founded 1978. 850 members. Aims to advance research and knowledge concerning the development of the nervous system and to support the effective application of this information for the improvement of human health. Publishes International Journal of Developmental Neurosciences, ISDN Newsletter. Web site provides membership information and newsletter.
- Physiological Society-England.
Founded 1876, 1,775 members. Multinational physiologists at senior levels in universities, research institutions, hospitals, and relevant industries and government departments, about a third of whom are resident overseas. Promotes the advancement of physiology in all areas. Publishes Experimental Physiology, The Journal of Physiology, study guides, monographs. Web site provides extensive membership information, educational resources, software archives, and extensive links to programs and societies.
- Society for Endocrinology.
Founded 1939, 1,700 members. Clinicians and scientists working within the field of hormones and hormone related disease. Publishes Endocrine-Related Cancer, European Journal of Endocrinology, Journal of Endocrinology, Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. The Web site provides membership information, links to freely accessible articles from Journal of Endocrinology and Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, and extensive links to other Web pages.
- Society for Neuroscience.
Founded 1969, 28,000 members. Scientists engaged in research relating to the nervous system. Seeks to advance understanding of nervous systems, including their relation to behavior, by bringing together scientists of various backgrounds and by facilitating integration of research all levels of biological organizations. Produces nontechnical reports on the results and implications of current research. Publishes Abstracts, Journal of Neuroscience, Membership Directory, Neuroscience Newsletter, Neuroscience Training Programs in North America. The Web site includes membership directory, links to related sites.
- Society of General Physiologists (SGP).
Founded 1946, 1,000 members. Biologists interested in fundamental physiological principles and phenomena. Publishes Journal of General Physiology, Proceedings of Annual Symposium, SGP Constitution and Membership List. Web site limited to membership information.
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Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
- Nomina Anatomica. Authorized by the Twelfth International Congress of Anatomists in London, 1985. Together with Nomina Histologica, 3rd ed. Nomina Embryologica, 3rd ed. Revised and Prepared by Subcommittees of the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee, 6th ed. Edinburgh; New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1989. 1 v. ISBN 0443040850.
The authoritative, standard nomenclature for anatomy, embryology, and histology is apparently out of print. Portions of the Nomina Anatomica are available on the Web. (Update: This resource is no longer available online.)
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Guides to Internet Resources
- Busis, Neil A. Neurosciences on the Internet. Pittsburgh, PA: Busis, 1995- .
"A searchable and browsable index of neuroscience resources available on the Internet: Neurobiology, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, psychology, cognitive science sites and information on human neurological diseases." This site is privately produced by an M.D. and includes links to a wide array of sources: centers/lab, clinical departments, databases, diseases, exams, guides, images, journals, newsgroups and forums, organizations, software, biology, etc.
- MIT CogNet. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000- .
By subscription only. This site "provides a unique electronic community for researchers in cognitive and brain sciences, with in-depth current and classic text resources, and a dynamic interactive forum for today's scholars, students, and professionals." For an annual fee of between $30.00-$240.00, individuals can subscribe to the service and gain access to neuroscience materials published by MIT, job listings, virtual poster sessions, and other resources. A library or institutional subscription is also available.
- Non-AAA Resource Links. American Association of Anatomists.
The Association provides a particularly good listing of anatomy resources on the Web.
- Visible Human Project. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine.
Excellent access to anatomy is provided by the Visible Human Project and the related Visible Embryo Project with the goal of creating complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.
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