Chapter 11: Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 11: Anatomy and Physiology
This chapter covers neurobiology and endocrinology as well as anatomy and physiology. Anatomy is a "the study of the structure of living organisms, especially of their internal parts by means of dissection and microscopical examination." The same source interprets "physiology" as the "branch of biology concerned with the vital functions of plants and animals, such as nutrition, respiration, reproduction and excretion." (Oxford Dictionary of Biology, 4th ed, 2000). Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system. This chapter includes primarily human anatomy and physiology: plants and animals are discussed in Chapters 10, “Plant Biology” and 13, “Zoology.” Although a few medical titles are included, emphasis in this chapter is on the biological sciences rather than the behavioral or clinical.
As usual, there is overlap between this chapter and Chapters 5, “Biochemistry and Biophysics,” and 6, “Molecular and Cellular Biology,” so don't neglect to broaden the search to these other chapters. Developmental biology is covered in Chapter 7.
- American Association of Anatomists (AAA). 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://aaatoday.org.
Founded in 1888. Over 2,500 members. Professional society of anatomists and scientists in related fields. Publishes Anatomical News, Anatomical Record, Developmental Dynamics, and Anatomical Sciences Education. Their Web site includes extensive links as well as membership information.
- American Physiological Society (APS). 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3991. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.the-aps.org.
Founded 1887. 9,100 members. Professional society of physiologists. Publishes: Advances in Physiology Education, American Journal of Physiology and all of the sections, Comprehensive Physiology, Journal of Applied Physiology, Journal of Neurophysiology, News in Physiological Sciences, Physiological Genomics, Physiological Reports, Physiological Reviews, The Physiologist, Physiology. Web site primarily for membership information. Also, publishes Methods in Physiology, Clinical Physiology, and People and Ideas book series.
- American Society for Neurochemistry (ASN). 9037 Ron Den Ln., Windermere, FL 34786. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.asneurochem.org.
Founded 1969. Over 1,000 members. Investigators in the field of neurochemistry and scientists who are qualified specialists in other disciplines and are interested in the activities of the Society. Publishes ASN Newsletter, ASN Neuro and the book Basic Neurochemistry. The Web site includes membership information and links to resources.
- Anatomical Society (AS). c/o Ms. Mary-Anne Piggott, BSc, Exec. Admin., King's College, Dept. of Anatomy Hodgkin Building, Rm. HB 4.1, London SE1 1UL, UK. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.anatsoc.org.uk.
Founded 1887. 650 members. Individuals involved in anatomical science. Promotes development and advancement in anatomy and related science through research and education. Offers program for graduate students. Publishes Aging Cell and Journal of Anatomy. The Web site provides links to educational sites. Formerly: Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
- Endocrine Society. 8401 Connecticut Ave., Ste. 900, Chevy Chase, MD 20815-5817. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.endo-society.org.
Founded 1918. 8,000 members. Promotes excellence in research, education, and clinical practice in endocrinology and related disciplines. Publishes Endocrine News, Endocrine Reviews, Endocrinology, Hormones and Cancer, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Molecular Endocrinology, Translational Research in Endocrinology and Metabolism, and Translational Research in Endocrinology and Metabolism Monographs. Formerly: Association for Study of Internal Secretions. Web site provides news bulletins and links clinical guidelines as well as membership information.
- International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) Organisation Internationale de Recherche sur le Cerveau. c/o Stephanie de la Rochefoucauld, Exec. Dir., 255 rue St. Honore, F-75001 Paris, France. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://ibro.info.
Founded 1960. 55,000 members. Scientists working in neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology, the behavioral sciences, neurocommunications and biophysics, brain pathology, and clinical and health-related sciences. Works to promote international cooperation in research on the nervous system. Web site primarily for membership information.
- International Society for Developmental Neuroscience (ISDN). c/o John Steeves, Sec. Gen., University of British Columbia, 2469-6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.developmental-neuroscience.org.
Founded 1978. 850 members. Aims to advance research and knowledge concerning the development of the nervous system and to support the effective application of this information for the improvement of human health. Publishes International Journal of Developmental Neurosciences, ISDN Newsletter. Web site provides membership information and newsletter.
- International Society for Endocrinology (ISE). c/o Hannah van Oudheusden, Exec. Off., University of Birmingham, Institute of Biomedical Research, Wolfson Dr., Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.endosociety.com.
Founded 1966. 53 member societies. Federation of national endocrinology societies with 15,000 individual members. Disseminates information on endocrinology and facilitates collaboration between national endocrinological societies and persons interested in the field. Publishes Abstracts of Congresses and Symposia Abstracts. Web site primarily for meeting and membership information.
- Physiological Society-UK. Peer House, Verulam St., London WC1X 8LZ, UK. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.physoc.org.
Founded 1876, 1,775 members. Multinational physiologists at senior levels in universities, research institutions, hospitals, and relevant industries and government departments, about a third of whom are resident overseas. Promotes the advancement of physiology in all areas. Publishes Experimental Physiology, The Journal of Physiology, and Physiology News. Web site provides membership information and educational resources. Formerly: Physiological Society-England.
- Society for Endocrinology. 22 Apex Ct., Woodlands, Bradley Stoke, Bristol BS32 4JT, UK. URL: http://www.endocrinology.org.
Founded 1939, 1,700 members. Clinicians and scientists working within the field of hormones and hormone related disease. Publishes Clinical Endocrinology, Endocrine-Related Cancer, Endocrine Connections, Endocrine Abstracts, Journal of Endocrinology, and Journal of Molecular Endocrinology.
- Society for Neuroscience (SfN). 1121 14th St. NW, Ste. 1010, Washington, DC 20005. E-Mail: email@example.com. URL: http://www.sfn.org.
Founded 1969, 28,000 members. Scientists engaged in research relating to the nervous system. Seeks to advance understanding of nervous systems, including their relation to behavior, by bringing together scientists of various backgrounds and by facilitating integration of research all levels of biological organizations. Produces nontechnical reports on the results and implications of current research. Publishes Brain Facts, and Journal of Neuroscience. The Web site includes membership directory, links to related sites.
- Society of General Physiologists (SGP). PO Box 257, Woods Hole, MA 02543-0257. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. URL: http://www.sgpweb.org.
Founded 1946, 1,000 members. Biologists interested in fundamental physiological principles and phenomena. Publishes Journal of General Physiology and Proceedings of Annual Symposium. Web site limited to membership information.
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A wide variety of atlases are listed, from the classic to the recently published, in an effort to provide examples of illustrations of the human body geared to a wide group of student, medical, or lay person audiences. Animal atlases and dissection manuals are found in Chapter 13.
- Allen Institute for Brain Science. Allen Brain Atlas. Seattle, WA: Allen Institute for Brain Science, 2004- . http://www.brainatlas.org/.
"The Allen Brain Atlas resources are a growing collection of online public resources integrating extensive gene expression and neuroanatomical data, complete with a novel suite of search and viewing tools (from the website)." At the time of viewing, the site contained several interactive atlases for mouse, human, and non-human primate brains plus data on glioblastoma and sleep.
- Braininfo. Seattle, WA National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, 1991- . http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/.
A portal to neuroscience on the Web with 3 main components: NeuroNames, a database of definitions of neuroanatomic structures in four species, NeuroMaps, a digital stereotaxic atlas of rhesus macaque and mouse brains, and the Template Atlas of the Primate Brain, a stereotaxic atlas of the macaque brain.
- Visible Human Project. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine, 2003- . http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html.
Excellent access to anatomy is provided by the Visible Human Project and the related Visible Embryo Project with the goal of creating complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.
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Guides to the Literature
- Busis, Neil A. Neurosciences on the Internet <Neuroguide.com>. 1995- . http://www.neuroguide.com/.
This site is designed to "List the best neuroscience resources on the Web in one location [and] present original neuroscience content not available elsewhere." The Best Bets page lists about 25 top sites, including associations, institutes, and Web accessible projects. At the time of writing, the original content was restricted to a chart of the "Cutaneous Fields of Peripheral Nerves".
- MIT Cognet. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000- . http://cognet.mit.edu.
This site “provides a unique electronic community for researchers in cognitive and brain sciences, with in-depth current and classic text resources, and a dynamic interactive forum for today's scholars, students, and professionals.” For an annual fee of between $15.00 and $195.00, individuals can subscribe to the service and gain access to neuroscience books, journals, and reference works published by MIT, job listings, virtual poster sessions, and other resources. A library or institutional subscription is also available.
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- BMC Neuroscience. v. 1- , 2000- . London: BioMed Central. Continually updated. Open Access. ISSN 1471-2202.
Publishes "articles on all aspects of the nervous system, including molecular, cellular, developmental and animal model studies, as well as cognitive and behavioral research, and computational modeling." Articles available at http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcneurosci.