Encyclopedias

General Encyclopedias (Organized Alphabetically)

9/11 Encyclopedia 

Details the events leading up to the attacks, going back a decade prior to 9/11, and covers the main people involved.

Access Science 

Based on the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology and the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. Includes thousands of illustrations, as well as related biographies and research updates.

African American Studies Center 

Includes full-text access to many reference sources in African American studies and features bibliographies, interactive timelines and maps, thematic photo essays and image collections, key primary source documents, and selected links to Internet resources.

Building the World: An Encyclopedia of the Great Engineering Projects in History Volume 1 

Presents macroengineering as a key element in the building, maintenance, and expansion of civilization.

Building the World: An Encyclopedia of the Great Engineering Projects in History Volume 2 

Covers the history, politics, and ethical debates related to climate change, including the impact of climate change on daily life, trade and commerce, travel, and the future of both industrialized and impoverished nations.

Credo Reference Encyclopedias 

Links to various subject encyclopedias in areas such as art, history, law, literature, philosophy, science, and technology.

Crime and the Justice System in America: An Encyclopedia 

An inter-disciplinary survey of crime and violence in America with historical perspective, but primarily focuses on the 20th century to the present.

Encyclopaedia Judaica 

Provides an overview of Jewish life and knowledge from the Second Temple period to the contemporary State of Israel, from Rabbinic to modern Yiddish literature, from Kabbalah to "Americana" and from Zionism to the contribution of Jews to world cultures.

Encyclopedia Britannica 

A general knowledge encyclopedia; it is the oldest English encyclopedia still in production.

Encyclopedia Mythica

Authoritative online encyclopedia of mythology, folklore, and religion.

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History 

Covers the African-American experience from 1619 to the present day. Using biographies, historical essays, and thematic pieces, it addresses a wide array of subjects in over 2,300 articles.

Encyclopedia of African-American Women Writers 

Surveys the world of African American women writers, with entries on more than 150 novelists, poets, playwrights, short fiction writers, autobiographers, essayists, and influential scholars. Each entry provides a biography, a discussion of major works, a survey of the writer's critical reception, and bibliography.

Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties and Rights Volume 1-3 

Covers civil rights and liberties in America including controversies over political and social issues, including abortion, free speech, religious liberty, voting rights, and the guarantees of equality.

Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns, and Elections 

Focuses on the role of the media, the significance of presidential debates, the influence of campaign consultants, and changes in organizational structure of parties and contemporary electoral systems.

Encyclopedia of Anti-Slavery and Abolition Volume 1-2 

This encyclopedia focuses on antislavery movements and important developments in slavery abolition and slave emancipation in many places around the globe.

Encyclopedia of Bioethics 

Covers ethics involving health professions, animal research, population control, and the environment.

Encyclopedia of Disasters: Environmental Catastrophes and Human Tragedies 

Includes entries on disasters that have had the greatest historical, environmental, and cultural impact.

Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security 

Guide to the history, uses, related scientific principles, and technology of espionage and intelligence. Topics range from the historical use of espionage to the emerging use of technology in modern espionage and counterintelligence.

Encyclopedia of European Social History 

This reference includes more than 230 articles on everything from serfdom and the economy, to witchcraft and public health.

Encyclopedia of Evolution 

A comprehensive guide to the essentials of evolutionary biology, entries by leading experts survey concepts and theories, present methods, models and findings, and discuss both the history of the field and current controversies.

Encyclopedia of Feminist Literature 

Includes entries on roughly 70 women writers whose works have challenged traditional gender roles, explored female oppression, or critiqued patriarchal social structures. In addition to providing biographical information, the entries include interpretative summaries of major works.

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture 

A three-volume survey of food and its place in human culture and society. Features multidisciplinary coverage of such topics as comfort food, ethnicity and food, medieval banquets, and nutrient composition, among many others.

Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America

This encyclopedia on the food and drink industries covers everything from food companies and brands to the environment, health, science and technology, culture, finance, and more. Historical context is emphasized and the focus is mainly on business in the United States.

Encyclopedia of Global Change 

Encyclopedia of Human Rights 

Encyclopedia of India 

A four-volume survey of the history, cultures, geography, and religions of India from ancient times to the present day.

Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture 

Spans Irish history from prehistoric times to the present, treating both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in detail. Entries represent an inclusive, cross-disciplinary approach, written by specialists and covering history, archaeology, anthropology, geography, politics, economics, the Irish and English languages and literatures, the visual arts, and other fields.

Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World 

This encyclopedia looks at Islam's role in the modern world in the context of the religion's history and development over the last 13 centuries. It contains thematic articles, biographies of key figures, definitions, illustrations, maps, and more.

Encyclopedia of Islam in the United States: Volumes 1-2 

Focuses on contemporary information on the beliefs, practices, notables, and sects of the Islamic faith and Muslim practitioners in the United States.

Encyclopedia of Latin American Theater 

Traces the history of Latin American theater from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Sections cover individual Latin American countries and entries for playwrights, independent theaters, and cultural movements.

Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered History in America 

A three-volume survey of more than 400 years of lesbian and gay history and culture in the United States. Coverage includes people, public policy, economics, social issues, identities, and culture, among many others.

Encyclopedia of Life

Encyclopedia in development with the goal of having information about every single organism on Earth.

Encyclopedia of Literary Modernism 

Quick reference of key authors, works, movements, theories, places, and events associated with literary modernism.

Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History Volume 1: The Ancient World

Focuses on human sexuality, love, and the interactions between the sexes in ten ancient cultures from the beginning of time until the death of the Roman emperor Constantine in 337 CE.

Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History Volume 2: The Medieval Era

Covers various topics relating to love, sex, and culture in the medieval world, defined roughly as the period from 300 to 1400 CE.

Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History Volume 3: The Early Modern Era

Provides a view of the world through the lens of sex, love, and culture during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (1400–1600).

Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History Volume 4: The Colonial and Revolutionary Era

This reference work focuses on the topic of sex and culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History Volume 5: The Nineteenth Century

Gives an introduction to key themes and topics relating to love and sex in the nineteenth century.

Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History Volume 6: The Modern World

Provides entries on the many aspects of sexuality and the roles that love has played in world cultures throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It includes bibliographies of important books and articles as well as annotated websites.

Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation 

Details the invention and evolution of important advances in military technology from prehistory to the present.

Encyclopedia of Modern Asia 

A six-volume survey of modern Asia, defined as extending from Japan in the east to Turkey in the west, and from Kazakhstan in the north to Indonesia in the south. Presents entries covering such subjects as countries, cities, regions, natural features, religions, social issues, languages, people, events, customs, politics, and economics.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy 

Presents a wide range of information on philosophical subjects.

Encyclopedia of Population 

Provides coverage of demographic topics both in the core field and in neighboring disciplines. Encompasses the large-scale changes in emphasis and research directions in population studies during the last 20 years. Topics covered include: rapid demographic expansion in poor countries, low fertility rates, immigration, problems of old-age support, and the environmental impact of dense population.

Encyclopedia of Privacy 

Overviews various aspects of privacy throughout U.S. history, including significant legal cases, events, laws, organizations, individuals, technology, and terms.

Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work Volumes 1 and 2 

This 2-volume set is the first to treat in an inclusive reference what is usually considered a societal failing and the underside of sexuality and economic survival. The A-to-Z encyclopedia offers wide-ranging entries related to prostitution and the sex industry, past and present, both worldwide (mostly in the West) and in the United States.

Encyclopedia of Public Health 

Aimed at the non-specialist reader interested in health and medicinal issues, the encyclopedia examines a broad range of topics such as environmental health, drug abuse, epidemiology, nutrition, demographics and diseases. Includes overviews, definitions and biographical entries.

Encyclopedia of Race and Racism 

Examines the anthropological, sociological, historical, economic, and scientific theories of race and racism in the modem era. Delves into the historic origins of ideas of race and racism and explores their social and scientific consequences. Includes biographies of significant theorists, as well as political and social leaders and notorious racists.

Encyclopedia of Racism in the United States

This set covers the period from colonial times until today and all the groups discriminated against at one time or another: Arabs and Muslims, who are the most recent targets, blacks, Asians, the indigenous, Latinos, European immigrants, and Jews. More than 450 essay entries present key terms, organizations, movements, incidents, forums, texts, individuals, legislation, theories, and the like.

Encyclopedia of Rape

Covers the historical scope and magnitude of the issue in the United States and globally. It provides informed perspectives on the key dimensions of the topic, from concepts, social movements, offenders, high-profile cases, legislation, influential activists, landmark texts, and victimology to representations in literature and art.

Encyclopedia of Russian History 

Provides a comprehensive discussion of Russia's people, politics, economics, religion, and social systems. Entries span the period from the earliest beginnings of the Russian nation to the rise and fall of the Soviet Union.

Encyclopedia of Scientific Principles, Laws, and Theories 

This resources describes famous scientific concepts, principles, laws, and theories in the areas of astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, mathematics, medicine, meteorology, and physics.

Encyclopedia of Semiotics 

Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Culture Society History 

Addresses issues of sex and gender at the personal and the social level; examines issues of identity, status, class, ethnicity, race, and nation; of sexuality and the body; of social institutions and the structures of representation. Topics include changing conceptions of "the feminine," the family and masculinity, religion, morality, cultural images, medical practice, public health, economy, society, and many more.

Encyclopedia of Social Work 

Encyclopedia of Sociology 

This classic reference has been updated to reflect many changes in society and in the field of sociology in recent years. Articles covering core issues such as race, poverty, violence, economics, pregnancy, abortion, privacy, and epidemiology.

Encyclopedia of the Crusades 

Explores the time of the Crusades, around 1095 to 1291 C.E., and includes entries on events and people involved.

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment 

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages 

Encyclopedia of War and Ethics 

Looks at the ethics of war making from a variety of perspectives and considers the views of historic and contemporary thinkers on ethical matters.

Encyclopedia of White-Collar Crime 

Covers the history and current state of major corporate and other forms of white-collar crime.

Environmental Encyclopedia 

Provides in-depth, worldwide coverage of environmental issues. Each article lists the current status, analysis, and suggested solutions to issues whenever possible.

Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine 

Presents current information on alternative and complementary medical practices. Information on recommended therapies for specific disorders and diseases, medicinal uses for plants and herbs, are balanced by conclusions of studies on efficacy and analysis of current levels of acceptance by traditional scientists and doctors.

Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer 

Comprehensive survey of 120 cancers, cancer drugs, traditional and alternative treatments, side effects, and diagnostic procedures.

Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy through Adolescence 

The set, which covers every major body system, is arranged into five main entry types: Diseases and Disorders; Development; Immunizations; Drugs; and Procedures. Emphasizes the health issues affecting children under the age of four.

Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and Nutrition

Covers topics such as dieting and popular diets, dietary concerns, nutritional basics, and the effects of a person's dietary choices on one's health.

Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law 

Considers legal texts focused on the theory and history behind the law and provides practical guides dealing with the law and its everyday effect upon its citizens.

Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders 

Provides clear, complete information on genetic disorders, including conditions, tests, procedures, treatments, and therapies.

Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health 

Provides detailed information on mental disorders and conditions. Also features entries for prescription, alternative and over-the-counter drugs, as well as the various therapies used to treat mental disorders.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America 

Has essays on specific minority and ethnic groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, and language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. The encyclopedia also covers ethnoreligious groups such as Jews, Chaldeans, and Amish.

Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology 

Covers the entire spectrum of psychology, including: notable people, theories and terms; landmark case studies and experiments; applications of psychology in advertising, medicine and sports; and career information.

Gale Encyclopedia of Science 

Covers major areas of science, engineering, technology, as well as mathematics and the medical and health sciences.

Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 

Includes entries on major people, businesses, industries, events, movements, and trends involved in U.S. economic history.

Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Literature

Overviews African American literature from its origins in the colonial period through the present day. Entries are on African American writers, the genres and the geographical and cultural environments within which they have worked, and the social, political, and aesthetic movements in which they have participated.

Greenwood Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights: From Emancipation to the Twenty-First Century
Chronicles the people, laws, and events involved in African-American civil rights history up to the 21st century. It also contains primary documents that played a role in the Civil Rights Movement.

Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Poets and Poetry Volume 1: A-C

This encyclopedia extends from the earliest appearance of poetry in what was to become the United States (and to some extent the Americas at large) to poetry at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Poets and Poetry Volume 2: D-G 

Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Poets and Poetry Volume 3: H-L 

Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Poets and Poetry Volume 4: M-R 

Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Poets and Poetry Volume 5: S-Z 

Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing through World History Volumes 1-3
Covers the history of clothing throughout the world from pre-historic times to 2006. Many cultures are included in this study of clothing within the context of social, political, economic and religious history as they pertain to each time period and place.

Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales Volumes 1-3

Gives students and general readers a broad, multicultural survey of folk and fairy tales from around the world. Entries cover themes and motifs, individuals, characters and character types, national traditions, genres, and a range of other topics.

Greenwood Encyclopedia of Multiethnic American Literature 

An introduction to the diverse range of ethnic American writing. Most of the entries are biographical, and others cover genres, ethnic stereotypes, seminal works, significant places, major historical events, key pieces of legislation, and various other topics that are part of the context of multiethnic America literature.

Grove Music 

Grove Music Online includes the full text of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (1992), and The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (2002). Articles are updated on a regular basis.

Historical and Multicultural History of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States 

Topics and authors take on diverse and often clashing positions, highlighting this issue's complex and highly charged nature. Arranged alphabetically by topic, articles representing racial and ethnic groups' experiences figure prominently, as do the effects of age, class, education, health, religion, and sexual preference on childbearing and -rearing practices, in and out of wedlock. It also includes articles on laws, court cases, political attitudes, prominent activists, and technological advances as they relate to reproductive rights.

Historical Encyclopedia of American Labor Volume 1  and Volume 2 

Entries cover unions, union leaders, labor-related events, important statutes and court cases, and labor terminology.

Historical Encyclopedia of Atomic Energy 

Covers the development of atomic energy in the 20th century. Entries include scientific processes, nuclear accidents, atomic testing, protest movements, and biographical profiles of scientists and government leaders responsible for the development and decisions regarding atomic energy.

Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

Gives detailed and comprehensive coverage of the important political, military, and diplomatic events, places, people, groups, agreements, treaties, and issues that have marked this controversial and complex regional and international conflict.

Immigration in America Today: An Encyclopedia 

This encyclopedia offers an interdisciplinary overview of the complex immigration-related issues that currently face the American government and social agencies.

Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Issues: An Encyclopedia 

More than 170 native peoples around the world are facing life-and-death struggles to maintain environments threatened by oil spills, explosions, toxic chemicals, global warming, and other pollutants. This resource surveys those indigenous peoples and the environmental hazards they face. Each entry focuses on the peoples of a particular country.

International Encyclopedia of Dance 

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics 

International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 

Covers scholarship and fields that have emerged and matured since the publication of the original international edition. Highlights the expanding influence of economics in social science research and features new articles and biographies contributed by scholars from around the world on a wide array of global topics in the social sciences.

International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia Volumes 1 and 2

Evaluates different countries’ relationships with the United States and measures the potential security threats each poses. The contributors consider factors such as the political systems of each state; their human rights records; the ability to maintain security within their own borders; and other factors in order to make their assessments.

Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying 

Covering all aspects of death and dying – biological, medical, social, sociological, psychological, religious, and philosophical – this encyclopedia provides a deep historical and cross-cultural perspective through the ages.

New Catholic Encyclopedia

Has articles on theology, philosophy, history, literary figures, saints, musicians and much more.

New Encyclopedia of Africa 

Addresses the entire history of African cultures from the pharaohs and the ancient civilizations of the south through the colonial era to the emergence of 53 independent countries, some of them newly emergent in world commerce and others deep in conflict. Covers issues facing the continent such as global development, the AIDS crisis, and international terrorism.

Oxford African American Studies Center 

Includes full-text access to many reference sources in African American studies and features bibliographies, interactive timelines and maps, thematic photo essays and image collections, key primary source documents, and selected links to Internet resources.

Oxford Companion to World Exploration 

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium 

Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance 

Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature 

Surveys American literature from the 1600s to the present day. Includes essays on poets, playwrights, essayists, and novelists, as well as major works and essays on literary movements, periods, and themes.

Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome 

Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature 

Covers the entire history of literature in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, including literature in Anglo-Saxon, English, Welsh, Scots, Irish, and Latin. It includes accounts of individual authors and detailed histories of particular themes, movements, genres, and institutions that have impacted the writing or the reading of literature.

Oxford Encyclopedia of Children’s Literature

Documents and interprets the books read by children throughout the world.

Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History 

Includes entries on major people, businesses, industries, events, movements, and trends involved in U.S. economic history.

Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos & Latinas in the United States 

Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures 

Oxford Encyclopedia of Rhetoric 

Brings together expertise in classical studies, philosophy, literature, literary theory, cultural studies, speech, and communications in a comprehensive treatment of the art of persuasion. Emphasizes public speaking, performance, and communication.

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World 

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation 

Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance 

Oxford Encyclopedia of Women and World History 

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture

Entries cover topics and persons in major areas of popular culture: film; music; print culture; social life; sports; television and radio; and art and performance.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law 

Provides current information on important issues, biographies, definitions of legal terms and more. Topics include the Americans with Disabilities Act, capital punishment, domestic violence, gay and lesbian rights, and physician-assisted suicide.

Women's Studies Encyclopedia: Revised and Expanded Edition 

The encyclopedia contains information about women from all fields and disciplines of study. Topics include violence against women, women in public life, and women in specific countries and regions.

Woodstock: An Encyclopedia of the Music and Art Fair

Presents encyclopedic entries on all the performers who played Woodstock, as well as the organizers and decision makers behind the event. Historical chapters trace the history of the festival from its inception and planning to its aftermath.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of National Economies 

Provides readers with a thorough understanding of the current and historical economic development of foreign nations. Arranged by country within broad geographic regions, this title provides analysis of each country's economic environment, reliable statistics on the country's current economic conditions, trends, and key demographics of the nation's citizens.

Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations 
Presents easy-to-understand information on 200 countries and dependencies from around the world. Entries discuss a variety of topics in detail, from banking and securities to climate, from government data to demographic statistics. Also includes biographical essays on national leaders.