eHRAF World Cultures
The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) is a collection of books and articles about different cultures throughout the world. HRAF was originally produced on paper and microfiche (see the Guide to the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)), but all new additions and some of the backfiles are available online:
For a list of which cultures are covered in which format, see HRAF: Microfiche vs. Online Cultures.
Finding eHRAF Material
Once you are in eHRAF World Cultures, you can either run a search or browse subjects, cultures, or text.
- Search: Basic or Advanced searches. Search through all the paragraphs of all the documents for subjects, cultures, or text.
- Browse by Culture/Tradition: A-Z Index, Regions, Countries
- Browse by Subject: A-Z Index, Major Subjects, OCM Code
On the eHRAF homepage, you can run a Basic Search in the search box. This will search all fields within eHRAF. You can also run an Advanced Search by clicking on “ADVANCED Search” near the top of the page.
The Advanced Search page has three sections:
- Add Cultures: Click on “Add CULTURES” to browse a list of cultures and add to your search.
- Add Subjects: Click “Add SUBJECTS” to browse a list of subjects and add to your search.
- Add Keywords: Use Boolean terms (AND, OR, NOT) with multiple clauses using one or more cultures, subjects, and/or terms in the document text.
Browse by Culture
Browsing by culture allows you to look through the full list of cultures available. Do this by clicking on “Browse CULTURES” at the top of the page.
There are three options for browsing by culture:
- A-Z Index: Lists all cultures available in HRAF in alphabetical order. Clicking on the name of the culture will link to a brief description of that culture.
- Region: Lists all the cultures grouped according to area of the world (Asia, Western Africa, etc.).
- Countries: Lists every culture grouped according to country.
Browse by Subject
Browse by subject allows you to look through the full list of subjects available. Do this by clicking on “Browse SUBJECTS” near the top of the page.
There are three options for browsing by subject:
- A-Z Index: Lists all subjects available in HRAF in alphabetical order. Clicking on the subject will link to a brief description including broader and related subjects.
- Major Subjects: Lists all the subjects grouped according to major subjects (Arts, Education and Knowledge, etc.).
- OCM Code: Lists subjects by OCM Code. OCM stands for Outline of Cultural Materials. Researchers at HRAF came up with a number of broad subject categories (like sickness, marriage, kin relations, etc.). They then gave each of these subjects a number code. For example, SICKNESS is number 750; MARRIAGE is 580; and KIN RELATIONS is 602.