RACIAL AND ETHNIC FAMILIES
A Guide to Library Resources for Educational Policy Studies 421 (AFRO 421, HDFS 424, and SOC 421)
- American FactFinder (US Census Bureau) In the Quick Start search box enter a racial or ethnic group (Asian, Polish, White, etc), select Population Groups beneath the search box, and click Go. On the results page, use the Topics on the left hand side to narrow the results. You can narrow by Year to view the most recent information. Use the links under Topics on the left to find information by subject including education, employment, housing and relationships. Definitions of race categories used in the US Census and FactFinder can be found in the Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin 2000 and Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin 2010. The American Community Survey provides data on how communities are changing. Use the FactFinder Glossary to find definitions of terms used in the database.
- FedStats Statistics from over 100 U.S. government agencies. Use the Topics Links A-Z to browse by subject.
- Statistical Abstracts of the United States A compilation of important and useful data from several government agencies on a wide range of topics. The web version has selected features, including USA Statistics in Brief and State Rankings. The Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library has a print copy of the most recent edition in the Reference Collection (317UN3S).
- U.S. Census Bureau Provides a wide range of information about the population. The People section includes information on education, families and living arrangements, fertility, income, marriage and various other subjects.
- The Almanac of American Education, 2008 (Education Reference 370.973021 Ed8331) Compare statistics by national, state, and county.
- The Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac, 2011 (Education Stacks Q. 378.73 C468) Variety of data about the most important trends in higher education.
- Digest of Education Statistics (published by NCES) Compilation of American education statistics from prekindergarten through graduate school. It’s possible to view the full text or tables by year, level of education and / or education topics.
- National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Great starting place for various statistics about education in the United States. NCES Fast Facts organizes data by topic and education level. Look at each area and their sub-categories. NCES Surveys & Programs has links to more detailed reports about specific subjects or education level. Common Core of Data collects information about public schools, school districts and state education agencies. The Condition of Education is an annual report that discusses important developments and trends in education.
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics: Education Includes data from over 200 countries and territories and covers all education levels (prekindergarten to university). Also available in print, Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library reference collection 370.21 G512.
Families, Marriage & Divorce
- Data on Marriage and Divorce (US Census Bureau) Excellent information about marriage and divorce from the American Community Survey (ACS), Current Population Survey (CPS), Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), and the Decennial Census.
- Families and Living Arrangements (US Census Bureau) Characteristics of households and families with detailed tables. Data is collected annually.
- National Center for Health Statistics Includes information about health and insurance, but also has information about marriage and divorce. Easiest way to access the information is through FastStats: Statistics by Topic and by searching the website.
- National Survey of Family Growth Provides statistics and datasets about family life, marriage, divorce, and related health issues. Offered by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Data about income, spending, unemployment, and employment.
- Current Population Survey The CPS is a joint effort between the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of the Census to collect, analyze and disseminate information on labor force characteristics in the United States for policy makers, legislators, researchers and students. The site is searchable and also provides links to related surveys and supplements.
Diversity in Other Countries
- CIA: The World Factbook Wide range of information and statistics about countries around the world.
- Demographic Yearbook Annual comprehensive collection of international demographic information for 250 geographic areas of the world. Topics covered include population, natality, mortality, marriage and divorce.
- Library of Congress: Country Studies Diversity information of all types, e.g., race, ethnicity, language, religion, etc., for individual countries outside the United States.
- United Nations Statistics Division Start here first for international statistics. The UN collects, analyzes and disseminates a wide range of statistical information to the general public. Links to information on statistical methods, links to data and reports, and other sources. See the site, UNdata , for UN statistical databases.
Racial / Ethnic Specific Statistics
- The American Community – American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2004 (US Census Bureau) Provides information about demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics.
- The American Community – Asians: 2004 (US Census Bureau) Provides information about demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics.
- The American Community – Pacific Islanders: 2004 (US Census Bureau) Portrait of the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population in the United States. Provides information about demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics.
- Black Americans: A Statistical Source Book, 2009 (Main Reference 305.896073 B5622) Provides data and tables focusing on demographics and populace characteristics; vital statistics and health; education; government, elections, and public opinion; crime, law enforcement and corrections; labor & employment; income, poverty, and wealth.
- The Black Population: 2010 (US Census Bureau) Provides information about demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics.
- Hispanic Americans: A Statistical Source Book, 2009 (Main Reference 305.8680021 H629) -Provides data and tables focusing on demographics; social characteristics; household and family characteristics; education; government and elections; the labor force, employment and unemployment; earnings, income, poverty and wealth; crime and corrections; and special topics.
- The Hispanic Population: 2010 (US Census Bureau) Provides a snapshot of the Hispanic or Latino population.
- Profiles on Legal Permanent Residents: 2010 (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) Legal permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the U.S. View data by region or country.
- The White Population: 2010 (US Census Bureau) Discusses the distribution of the white population at the national level and at lower levels of geography.
Religious and Other Group Specific Statistics
- American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) A nationally representative survey of U.S. adults that tracks changes in religious loyalties over time.
- Association of Religion Data Archives Formerly American Religious Data Archive. Compiles statistics, maps, and directories on religious activities around the world, with an emphasis on the United States.
- Pew Research Center A “fact tank” that conducts public opinion polling and social science research. Provides data and some statistics about religion. Use the Topic Index or their Advanced Search to find information of interest.
HINT: The US Census Bureau releases many reports about racial ethnic groups. You can find these reports by searching Google. Many of these reports are PDFs and you can limit your search by file type. For example, Hispanic US Census filetype:pdf . Change the racial ethnic group to match your research needs and add other keywords if necessary (e.g. marriage, education, etc.)
Reference resources are sources of solid background info about ethnic groups. All books are located in Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library reference collection unless otherwise noted.
- Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, 2004 (304.8 En192 + online)
- Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies, 2008 (305.8003 C338e2008)
- Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, 2008 (Q. 305.8003 En196)
- Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans, 2011 (305.800973 M91922)
- Multiculturalism in the United States : a comparative guide to acculturation and ethnicity, 2005 (Main Stacks, 305.800973 M9192005)
- Statistics Sources, 2010 (016.31 ST2)
Diversity in Other Countries
- Encyclopedia of the World’s Minorities, 2005 (Undergrad GN495.4 E63 2005)
Racial / Ethnic Specific Resources
- American Indian Chronology : Chronologies of the American Mosaic, 2006 (History Reference 970.00497002 W585a)
- The Arab Americans, 2006 (Education Stacks 973.0497 K189a)
- Asian American History and Culture, 2010 (Q. 973.0495 As4214)
- Encyclopedia Latina: History, Culture, and Society in the United States, 2005 (E184.S75 E587 2005)
- Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, 2006 (online)
- Encyclopedia of African American Education, 2010 (371.82996 En192 and online)
- Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today, 2010 (Undergrad E184.A75 E53 2010)
- Encyclopedia of Muslim American History, 2010 (Q. 973.088297 En196)
- Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, 2006 (Undergrad Reference E76.2.W352006)
- Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora, 2008 (History Reference 305.896003 En199)
- The Indigenous World, 2011 (305 IW1 2011)
Online Reference Collection
Start by keyword searching larger collections of encyclopedias, dictionaries and handbooks. It’s also possible to browse an specific online reference source by subject. Suggestions of specific reference sources are listed after the collection name.
- ABC-Clio E-Book Collection — Immigration and Asylum: From 1900 to the Present
- Credo Reference —
- Gale Virtual Reference Library — African American Almanac, Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World
- Oxford Digital Reference Bookshelf — Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States
Scholarly journal articles are one of the primary means of communicating research ideas. They are an important component of academic research and give you some insight into ongoing debates and scholarly conversations about your topic. You can find articles through database searches.
Finding articles is a two-step process:
- First, search for the topic you are interested in by using one of the article databases listed below. If you get stuck, ask your professor or a librarian for help getting started.
- Next, find the actual text of the articles you want by clicking on the Discover button in a database. Many of our journals are online, but some of them are still available only in print. If the journal article you are looking for is not available electronically, you can use the Online Library Catalog to look up the location of the journal for which you have a citation.
- If you know the citation of the articles you want, from bibliographies or suggested readings lists, you can use Journal and Article Locator to determine if we have full-text online or in print.
General Article Databases
- Academic Search Complete
- America: History and Life
- Academic OneFile (InfoTrac)
- Historical Abstracts
- PAIS International with Archive
- PsycARTICLES *
- PsycINFO *
- Social Services Abstracts *
- Sociological Abstracts *
Racial / Ethnic Specific Databases
Religious and Other Databases
Searching Article Databases
Experiment with keywords to search article databases.
- Try words to describe your racial ethnic group: ________ Americans (Asian Americans, Latino Americans, Italian Americans, etc.)
- Try words to describe your research area: health care, insurance, life expectancy, interracial marriage, college enrollment, dropout, employment, income, poverty, etc.
Consider searching for these concepts together. For example, “Asian Americans” and “life expectancy” = some great articles and books.
HINT: The starred (*) databases can be searched at the same time. After entering one database, click on Specific Databases in the center of the page; select the additional databases you would like to search. You will save time by not running individual searches in each database.
Library catalogs are used for two purposes. First, if you know exactly what you are looking for, for example you know the exact title or an author’s name. This works for book titles and journal titles. Second, you can use library catalogs to discover material that might be helpful to you by doing subject and keyword searching.
- Online Library Catalog – Look here to find books, DVDs, magazines or journals containing articles that you need, and many other resources. In addition to the 13 million volumes we have on this campus, you can connect to over 86 other libraries in Illinois and request that books be sent to you.When you find something you want in the catalog, write down the following:
Location – in which library the item is kept (or libraries, if we have multiple copies)
Call Number – this number is essential for finding the item on the shelf
Status – is it available for you to check out?
- WorldCat and Interlibrary Loan – Use these to verify citations for books and request books and articles you cannot find elsewhere. Ordering books and journals via Interlibrary Loan is free and generally fairly quick.
- Diaspora: Journal of Transnational Studies
- Hispanic American Historical Review
- History and Memory
- The Journal of African American History (and its predecessor, Journal of Negro History)
- The Journal of American Ethnic History
- The Journal of American History
- Journal of Asian American Studies
- Journal of Social History
- Journal of Women’s History
Guidelines for citing electronic and print resources are available from the Undergraduate Library’s Citation Styles guide and the Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library’s Style and Writing Guides.
Need help collecting and organizing your citations and producing a list of works cited? Citation management tools can help! The guide “Citation Management Software Overview” helps users choose a citation management tool and provides links to other guides on specific options like Zotero, Mendeley, and EndNote.
Is it Scholarly? Peer-Reviewed? A Research Article?
Consult the Research Articles and Peer Reviewed Journals Guide for definitions and tips for identifying scholarly and peer-reviewed research articles.
Writing an Annotated Bibliography
This Annotated Bibliography Guide explains the purpose of an annotated bibliography, describes the content that should be included in an annotation, and provides examples and additional resources.
Plagiarism is using the words or ideas of another as if they were your own. It can be an intentional or unintentional act, but either way there can be severe consequences. The information in this Plagiarism Guide will help you understand and avoid plagiarism.
Ask-A-Librarian for Help with Your Research
Use the Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library’s Ask-A-Librarian service to contact a librarian via Instant Messenger/chat, email, phone, or in person.
Contact a librarian to request an appointment for an in-depth Research Consultation.
Finding Your Way Around
There are over 25 departmental libraries on our campus, and sometimes it may be difficult to determine where to find the resources you need. For your class, the library that you will be using most is the Social Sciences, Health, and Education Library (SSHEL). We are located in SSHEL North (Room 100) and SSHEL South (Room 101) of the Main Library building. Do no hesitate to come in and ask one of our energetic and helpful information desk assistants.