Nightshade, Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.)
Clinical signs vary with irritant effect caused by the intact glycoalkaloid or saponin, and the nervous effects of the alkaloid. Irritant effects include hypersalivation, anorexia, severe gastrointestinal disturbances, with diarrhea that is often early and hemorrhagic. The nervous effects include apathy, drowsiness, depression, confusion, progressive muscular weakness, numbness, dilated pupils, trembling, labored breathing, nasal discharge, rapid heartbeat, weak pulse, bradycardia, central nervous system depression, and incoordination, often accompanied by paralysis of the rear legs. Coma may occur without other nervous signs. High doses may cause intestinal stasis and constipation. Hemolysis and anemia, possibly a result of saponins, have been reported, with renal failure in severe cases. Terminal signs include unconsciousness, shock, paralysis, coma, circulatory and respiratory depression, and death. The course varies from sudden death to 3-4 days of illness which may terminate in death or recovery. in less acutely poisoned animals, there may be yellow discoloration of the skin in unpigmented areas, weakness, incoordination, tremors of the rear legs, anemia, rapid heart rate and bloat.
| Description | Distribution | Conditions of poisoning | Control | Toxic principle |
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