• Fall 2014 hours:
    M-Th: 9am-7pm
    F: 9am-5pm
    Sa-Su: 1-5pm
  •  
  • 200 South Library (map)
  •  
  • (217) 333-2220

Francophone Resources

Francophone literature and culture by area

What is "francophonie?"  "Francophonie" is a French term that refers to the use of the French language in countries and regions outside of France itself.

A world map that highlights the Francophone countries

Please direct all comments or requests for information to Paula Carns, Librarian for French Language and Literature (333-0076) • pcarns@illinois.edu


General Resources


Literature

Bibliographies

Subject Guide to Francophone Literature and Francophone Studies

NYU libraries' subject guide to Francophone literature; also lists resources for broader research in Francophone studies. Includes an annotated bibliography of reference sources in various categories: directories, literature dictionaries, biographical information, dissertations, periodicals, web and other electronic resources, etc.

Bibliographie der französischen Literaturwissenschaft. Annual. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann, 1956--.

Edited by Otto Klapp until 1985 and since by Astrid Klapp-Lehrmann, Bibliographie der Französischen Literaturwissenschaft is published annually and lists books, journal articles, essays in books, conference papers, and book reviews on all topics of French-language literature. Each volume includes, at the front, a complete list of acronyms and abbreviations (Sigles et Abreviations) and, at the back, two indices. Index Nominum lists the names of authors and the Index Rerum lists subjects (including authors). The bibliography proper is organized chronologically by period and begins with a section of Généralités and closes with one on "French Literature Outside of France."

Bibliographie des auteurs africains de langue française. 4e édition. Etablie par Thérèse Barratte-Eno Belinga, Jacqueline Chauveau-Rabut, Mukala Kadima-Nazuji. Paris: F. Nathan, 1979.

Citations are arranged alphabetically by author under the country of the author's nationality. Includes indexes of authors, recordings, and publishing houses.

Back to Literature

Literary Histories

Jack, Belinda. Francophone Literatures: An Introductory Survey. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 1996. 305 pp.

Brief overviews of the histories of Francophone literatures in Europe and North America, the Creole Islands, North Africa and the Near East, and Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Includes a select bibliography and an index of authors, titles, places, and organizations.

Joubert, Jean-Louis et al. Les littératures francophones depuis 1945. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 382

A history of Francophone literatures from 1945 to 1985, this volume offers a brief introduction to the use of the French language worldwide, particularly in literary works, then discusses modern Francophone literature in separate sections about the following areas: Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, the Creole islands (the French Caribbean, French Guyana, and Indian Ocean islands), the Mediterranean (the Maghreb and the near-East), and Europe and North America.

Back to Literature

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Dictionnaire des lettres françaises: Le XXe siècle. Encyclopédies d'aujourd'hui. Paris: Librairie Générale française, 1998. 1170 p.

Over 1800 entries on 20th-century French-language authors, institutions (such as l'Académie française), regions, publishing houses, and journals. The entries on authors emphasize their main works and include a list of works with publication dates. Entries are arranged alphabetically.

Mitterand, Henri, dir. Dictionnaire des oeuvres du XXe siècle: Littérature française et francophone. Paris: Dictionnaires Le Robert, 1995. 621 p.

Includes entries for 1547 French-language works and 57 literary journals from 1901 to the date of publication, as well as 73 entries on literary movements and genres (e.g. Littérature engagée, le Nouveau Roman, le Roman policier, Littérature francophone des Antilles). All genres are represented: poetry, novels, theater, essays, pamphlets, etc. Arranged alphabetically, with indexes of authors and titles and a chronology of the 20th century that treats French and foreign politics, literature, science, architecture, sculpture, painting, music, cinema, and miscellaneous events of note.

Demougin, J., ed. Dictionnaire de la littérature française et francophone. Paris: Larousse, 1987.

Excellent but succinct sketch of all types of authors, including their major works and dates of publication. Also includes entries for countries and regions which produce Francophone literature and for major works, characters, key literary terms, movements, and concepts, literary reviews and journals, as well as literary institutions such as academies and major prizes.

Littérature française. Ed. by Claude Pichois. 16 vols. (Le moyen âge - 1970). Paris: Arthaud, 1968-1978.

Offers a "modern and complete interpretation" of French writing as well as African, Belgian, Canadian, Swiss, and others. This collection is large enough to include lesser-known or forgotten writers in addition to the "literary heavies." The first part of each volume presents the cultural life of the era, including political, economic, and artistic events. The second part considers the era's writing within this larger cultural context, and the third discusses the authors of the period. Each volume also includes biographical dictionaries, lengthy bibliographies, illustrations, and cultural, social, and literary timetables.

Babel Guide to French Fiction in Translation. By Ray Keenoy, et al. London: Boulevard Books, 1996.

Over 100 reviews of representative works from France, Québec, Switzerland, Morocco, Algeria, Mauritius, and Haiti published and translated since 1950. There is no index; authors are listed alphabetically by region. The back of the book contains a database of fiction in French translated and/or distributed in the UK, since 1900, including authors from France, Belgium, Switzerland, Québec, Haiti, West and North Africa, and Mauritius.

Hawley, John C., ed. Encyclopedia of Postcolonial Studies. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.

This encyclopedia provides a "panoramic snapshot of the ongoing transformation" of world literatures. The volume includes alphabetically-arranged essays of varying lengths devoted to topics and individuals "central to the discussion of postcolonial studies," including Francophone literature and authors. The entries include brief bibliographies for further reading.

Back to Literature

Anthologies

Joubert, Jean-Louis, dir. Littérature francophone: Anthologie. Paris: Nathan, 1992. 448 pp.

A general anthology of French-language literature from the 16th through the 20th centuries. The text opens with a brief overview of the origins of the French language and how it spread to various regions around the world. At the head of each section, there are introductions to and chronologies of the century it represents. While the sections on the 16th through 19th centuries present mainly excerpts of texts written by French and European authors, the bulk of the volume is dedicated to 20th-century works and includes essays on the literatures of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, islands of the Indian Ocean, the Maghreb, the Near East, Asia and the Pacific, North America, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Switzerland. Excerpts of dozens of works from around the world follow, under sections entitled "La prise de la parole," "L'écriture du réel," "Modernités," "Voix de femmes," "Théâtres francophones," and "Poésie de toute la francophonie."

Thompson, Peter S. Littérature moderne du monde francophone: Une anthologie. Chicago: National Textbook Company, 1997. 159 pages.

Intended as an introduction to modern Francophone literature for high school and college students at intermediate to advanced levels, this work offers 36 selections from various regions, including Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and the Middle East, the Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia, the South Pacific, the Caribbean, North America, and Europe. The texts represent various genres (some in excerpted form, but all in the original words of the authors, which are often glossed in footnotes): poetry, novels, plays, short stories, and poems in prose. Well-known writers as well as newer, less famous writers are represented. Each text is accompanied by a biographical introduction of the author, pre-reading activities, comprehension exercises, and topics for discussion or composition. An "Au professeur" section assigns levels of difficulty to the selections and gives further suggestions for how to use the texts in class. Also includes a map of the Francophone world.

Vary, Andrée and Claire Brouillet. Contes et légendes du monde francophone: A Collections of Tales from the French-Speaking World. Chicago: National Textbook Company, 1997. 114 pages. Black-and-white illustrations.

Sixteen tales and legends from Francophone countries around the world (Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, Gabon, the Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Reunion Island, Mauritius, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Saint Barthelemy, Haiti, Louisiana, Quebec, Corsica, and Switzerland) have been retold here in an informal written style with simplified verb tenses for use in intermediate-level French classes. Each story is preceded by a brief introduction and pre-reading activities and followed by comprehension questions and in-class activities. Several words are glossed in footnotes and there is a list of vocabulary at the end of the book. Includes a bibliography of dozens of sources for Francophone legends.

Berranger, Marie-Paule, dir., with Danielle Deltel. Littératures francophones III: Poètes d'Outre-Mer.Cahiers RITM 17. Paris: Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires sur les Textes Modernes de l'Université de Paris X, 1996.

A series of essays and collection of poems that, together, help explain and demonstrate the use of French and Creole in selected 20th-century poetry from the Caribbean (by Monchoachi, Roger Parsemain, Georges Desportes, Claude Jean-Vincent, and Ernest Pépin), Reunion Island (by Boris Gamaleya and Jean-Claude Carpanin Marimoutou, and Africa (by Cristiane Rémion-Granel). Each poet's work is preceded by bio-bibliographical information. The volume includes a brief bibliography of anthologies of poetry from French Overseas Departments.

Brahimi-Chapuis, Denise and Gabriel Belloc. Anthologie du roman maghrébin, négro-africain, antillais, et réunionnais d'expression française de 1945 à nos jours. [Paris] : CILF, 1986. 255 pp.

A thematically organized collection of texts published from 1945 to the mid 1980s with commentary on each of the works represented. Themes from works published between 1945 and 1962 include childhood, colonialism, "mixed"-race couples, the relationship between the colonized and the Western world, and political conflicts. Themes from the work published beginning in 1962 include independence and political revolution, women and couples, social problems, "other struggles," and national identity and a return to tradition. The nationality of each author is noted with the commentary on his or her work and there are bio-bibliographical notes on all the authors at the end of the book.

Back to Literature

Authors

Biography and Genealogy Master Index UIUC

This online database is a first stop index tool for learning where to look for biographical material on people from all time periods, geographical locations and fields of endeavor. Biography and Genealogy Master Index indexes any print product that includes biographical information on multiple persons. It also acts as an index to other indexes.

Contemporary Authors FT UIUC

A bio-bibliographical guide to current writers in fiction, general nonfiction, poetry, journalism, drama, motion pictures, television, and other fields. Provides complete biographical and bibliographical references for more than 90,000 authors in the U.S. and around the world.

Beaumarchais, Jean-Pierre de, Daniel Couty, and Alain Rey, eds. Dictionnaire des écrivains de langue française. Paris : Larousse, 2001. 2 vols. 2253 pp. total.

This revised, updated work includes all the French and Francophone authors from the 1987 Dictionnaire des écrivains de langue française and focuses on them and their works, adding new information as applicable. The work contains thousands of detailed entries, arranged in alphabetical order. At the end of the second volume are lists of the members of the Académie française and the Académie Goncourt from the inceptions of these institutions, as well as lists of the French winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature, the Prix Goncourt, the Prix Femina, and other major awards for literature. There is also an index of nearly 14,000 works cited or discussed at length in the dictionary.

Garcin, Jérôme, dir. Dictionnaire des écrivains contemporains de langue française par eux-mêmes. Paris: Mille et une nuits, 2004. 417 pp.

Includes approximately 350 biographical entries about 20th-century Francophone authors, written by these authors themselves. This edition includes about 100 new authors, added since the first edition published in 1988. The index makes it easy to find the entry for a particular author.

Hamon, Philippe and Denis Roger-Vasselin, dir. Le Robert des grands écrivains de langue française. Dictionnaires Le Robert, 2000. 1521 pp.

Contains approximately 150 biographical entries on French/Francophone authors. Each entry includes a critical introduction to the author's work as a whole, a chronological presentation of his or her life and work, a description of the author's style, detailed analysis of one or more specific texts, a selection of quotations from the author, and a bibliography. The volume concludes with indexes of proper names and titles.

Makward, Christiane P. and Madeleine Cottenet-Hage. Dictionnaire littéraire des femmes de langue française: De Marie de France à Marie NiDiaye. Paris: Karthala, 1996.

This work offers 200 analyses of Francophone women writers written by French and North American critics as well as around 900 bibliographies of authors written by the editors themselves. Authors from the 12th century through the 20th century and from all areas of the Francophone world are included. The dictionary is arranged alphabetically by author, from the 18th-19th century French memorialist the Duchess d'Abrantes and Lebanese-American U of I professor emerita Evelyne Accad to Algerian novelist Hafsa Zinai-Koudil and French poet, essayist, and translator Céline Zins. Only authors who have published at least two literary works (poetry, theater, novels, narrative fiction, or autobiography) have been included; entries vary greatly in length and detail.

Back to Literature

Literary Theory

Francofonía

Free online from the University of Cadiz, this journal offers criticism on French-language literature.

Salhi, Kamal, ed. Francophone Post-Colonial Cultures: Critical Essays. Lexington Books: Lanham, MD, 2003. 471 p.

This collection provides a variety of current critical approaches to the literatures of several Francophone regions: North Africa and the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, North America, Europe, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Ocean. Appendices offer summaries of selected creative and critical works and a guide to selected terms and figures. There are also an extensive selected bibliography; an index of proper names, titles, regions, and terms; and notes on the contributors.

Beniamino, Michel. La Francophonie littéraire: Essai pour une théorie. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999. 462 p.

A study of linguistic and literary theory as it relates to the Francophone world. Discusses the history of Francophone literature, including its origins, its relationship to colonial writing, the choice of language used by authors, and literature as a reflection of national identity. Includes an index of proper names.

Somdah, Marie-Ange, director. Identités postcoloniales et discours dans les cultures francophones.Vol 1. Paris : L'Harmattan, 2003. 160 p.

A collection of seven texts that present various perspectives on postcolonial identity in the Francophone world. These essays treat works from Mauritius, the Maghreb, sub-Saharan Africa, and French Polynesia as examples of explorations of complex identities in the postcolonial era. The director of the work briefly describes the topic of each essay in her introduction to the volume; she is also the author of the final essay on questions of identity in Africa. Most of the essays are followed by short bibliographies (the other includes footnotes that cite sources). The book concludes with notes on its contributors.

Jouanny, Robert. Espaces littéraires d'Afrique et d'Amérique (Tracées francophones 1). Paris: L'Harmattan, 1996. 303 p.

A collection of essays by Robert Jouanny, a professor at the Sorbonne and the director of the Centre international d'Études francophones. The essays treat Francophone literature from Sub-Saharan Africa and the French Caribbean and focus on such well-known authors as Senghor, Eluard, Saint-John Perse, Fanon, Césaire, and Condé. Features, in particular, discussions of the work of immigrant poets living in New York and Paris as well as Haitian literature. Includes an introduction by B. Baritaud to the life and work of Jouanny and a selective bibliography.

Moura, Jean-Marc. Littératures francophones et théorie postcoloniale. Ecritures francophones. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2005. 174 p.

Written by a professor of general and comparative literature, this text examines postcolonial theory from four different, complementary perspectives (literary history, linguistic analysis, cultural studies, and poetics) in order to determine its potential to deepen our understanding of Francophone literature. In his introduction, Moura explains that, while Francophone literatures have unique origins and diverse characteristics, postcolonial theory can help point out certain commonalities in the motivations and styles of authors from various Francophone cultures (pp. 2-3). He proceeds to discuss French as an international language and its relationships to Portuguese, Spanish, and English; the postcolonial Francophone literary corpus and procedures for analyzing it; the adaptations of the French language by Francophone authors; the study of postcolonial poetry; and cultural studies. Includes bibliographical references and an index of authors cited or mentioned in the text.>

Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.

An influential work by this world-renowned literary and cultural critic, Culture and Imperialism discusses the relationships between imperial conquest, the cultures of the colonizers and the colonized, and the literature that reflects these interacting cultures. Upon publication, this seminal book was lauded by the Philadelphia Inquirer as "[r]ough-and-ready scholarship from today's street fight in the humanities." Said focuses his discussion on the empires acquired by Britain, France, and the U.S.A., because he sees several parallels between the histories of these particular imperialist quests and believes that the idea of overseas rule has a certain "privileged status" in these three countries. He examines both Western imperialism and Third World nationalism and how they "feed off each other." He notes, however, that this dynamic is more complicated than a simple "binary opposition," as people's cultural identities are not static and individuals cannot always be clearly divided into groups of "us" and "them"("Introduction" pp. xxiii-xxiv). The text includes analyses of several works by authors living in colonized regions. This work is important reading for scholars interested in postcolonial studies, especially in Anglophone and Francophone regions.

Williams, Patrick, and Laura Chrisman, eds. Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader.New York : Columbia University Press, 1994.

Includes texts written between the 1950s and 1992 that represent varying positions on post-colonialism, "a range of approaches to the topics," "varying levels of complexity" -- in order to lend the book accessible to a wide group of readers -- and "a range of locations: metropolitan/overdeveloped world and colonial/developing world; academic/institutional and cultural/political." The text is divided into six thematic parts:"Theorising Colonised Cultures and Anti-Colonial Resistance," "Theorising the West," "Theorising Gender," "Theorising Post-Coloniality: Intellectuals and Institutions," "Theorising Post-Coloniality: Discourse and Identity," and " Reading from Theory." Several well-known pioneers of post-colonial theory are represented, including Léopold Sédar Senghor, Frantz Fanon, Edward Said, and Aimé Césaire; their writings are complemented by those of contemporary theorists. The volume concludes with a ten-page bibliography and an index of places, critical movements, subjects, authors, and selected titles.

Adam, Ian, and Helen Tiffin, eds.  Past the Last Post: Theorizing Post-Colonialism and Post Modernism. New York : Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991.

The texts in this volume have been chosen and arranged in order to "characterise post-modernist and post-colonial discourses in relation to each other, and to chart their intersecting and diverging trajectories."An introduction by one of the co-editors, Helen Tiffin, provides an initial explanation of this dynamic:"Post-modernism is Europe's export to what it regards as 'margins.' By contrast, post-colonial writing [...] moves from colonised, formerly colonised, and neo-colonised areas - from African countries, Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, India, New Zealand - towards Europe, or more recently, towards the United States." (p. ix) Tiffin's introduction points out the connections between various essays in the work, which include criticisms of works by Aimé Césaire and fellow Caribbean writers Lamming and V. S. Naipaul, Merle Hodge, Salman Rushdie, and Jerzy Kosinsky. Although this workdiscusses Anglophone as well as Francophone literature, it is worthwhile for scholars of Francophone literature to consult this volume in order to gain a better understanding of modernism, post-modernism, and post-colonialism and their implications for the 21st century. Includes works cited following each essay, notes on the contributors (all of whom are teachers/professors and/or authors of books and articles on critical theory), and an index of authors and topics.

Centre d'études francophones Université Paris XIII. Le roman colonial. Itineraires et contacts de cultures, Vol. 7. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1987. 217 p.

The first of two issues of the Itineraires et contacts de cultures series to focus on French colonial novels, this volume consists of an introduction by Martine Mathieu, six articles, and three short "documents" related to this genre, which was in vogue between 1870 and the 1950s. As Mathieu notes, le roman colonial is generally considered a minor genre, and is often disparaged because of its blatant propagandizing on behalf of the colonizers. However, studying these novels does give us clues about the clashes between colonizing and colonized cultures and helps us better understanding the history of the French presence in the DOM-TOMs (départements et territoires d'outre-mer). The articles in this issue include discussions of novels by Pierre Loti, colonial writing in Algeria, and the assimilation of the "Other" in novels about Madagascar, as well as three different readings of one text from Reunion Island. The "documents" include excerpts of colonial writing from 1926, 1929, and 1931. The aim of this volume is to give scholars the opportunity to reconsider these dated primary texts from the new perspectives of the postcolonial era.

Université Paris-Nord Centre d'études littéraires francophones et comparées. Le roman colonial (suite). Actes du colloque des 10 et 11 septembre 1987. Itineraires et contacts de cultures, Vol. 12. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. 157 p.

These papers, collected from a conference on the "Roman colonial," treat French colonial novels by Jules Verne, Georges Simenon, Felix Couchoro, Léon Debertry, Marius and Ary Leblond, Victor Segalen, Marguerite Duras, and others. Regions represented in these novels include Sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb, Central America, French Polynesia, the French West Indies, Reunion Island, India, and Indochina. Like the above work (Le roman colonial, Itineraires et contacts de cultures, Vol. 7), this volume is intended to show that rereading colonial novels from a postmodern, postcolonial perspective can teach us about how cultural identities were questioned and constructed in colonized areas and can help us understand conflicts and contradictions of which the original authors themselves may not have been fully aware.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP


Language & Linguistics


Barrat, Jacques, et Claudia Moisei. Géopolitique de la Francophonie: Un nouveau souffle? Paris: La documentation française, 2004.

This work examines the ever-changing role of the French language in culture, economics, and politics. While many lament that French is losing ground to English and Spanish, Barrat and Moisei maintain that the influence of French remains strong and discuss how organizations like l'Organisation de la Francophonie and l'Alliance française can continue to promote the use of French around the world.

Walter, Henriette. Le français d'ici, de là, de là-bas. [Paris] : JC Lattès, c1998. 416 pp. with black-and-white maps.

This study of the use of French in various regions invites readers on "a trip around the world," exploring the history of French and its divergent evolutions in Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Uses historical and literary anecdotes, word plays, and word games to show how French has been adapted by various cultures throughout the centuries. Includes indexes of proper names, people, places, languages, and concepts; a glossary of words and expressions, which notes where these terms are used as well as standard French equivalents for them; and lists of the dozens of maps, word games, and highlighted (boxed) texts found throughout the book.

Robillard, Didier de and Michel Beniamino, directors. Le français dans l'espace francophone: Description linguistique et sociolinguistique de la francophonie. 2 vols. Paris: Honoré Champion Éditeur, 1993.

A collection of essays from specialists in linguistics and sociolinguistics, this work is an exploration of what is meant by the notion of francophonie itself. Volume I includes sections on Francophonie in several regions worldwide (America, the Indian Ocean, Africa, the Mediterranean, the Pacific, and Europe) as well as articles on linguistic theory, the appropriation of French as a second language, and Francophonie as it relates to literature. Volume II offers additional articles on Francophonie in Africa, America, the Pacific, and Europe, as well as articles on Francophonie in the Maghreb and India and discussions of the history and legal aspects of Francophonie, comparisons between the global uses of French, Spanish, and English, the demographics and identity issues of Francophone peoples, and linguistic communities. Includes indexes of concepts and of proper names.

Corne, Chris. From French to Creole: The Development of New Vernaculars in the French Colonial World. London: Univ. of Westminster Press, 1999. 263 pp. with a black-and-white map.

Examines the evolution of French Creole languages in New Caledonia, Réunion, Louisiana, the French Caribbean and French Guyana, Mauritius, and the Ivory Coast. Includes a bibliography and an index of people, places, and topics.

BACK TO TOP


Culture

Maps & Facts

Découvrez la France dans le monde

Maps that show French Overseas Departments ("DOM"s) and Territories ("TOM"s), as well as other regions where French is spoken in Africa, America, and Europe.

French-Speaking Countries weblinks

An annotated list of links about Francophone countries worldwide. Includes maps, historical information, and information on travel and tourism.

Organisation internationale de la Francophonie

Maps, articles, and facts on the 49 States and governments that are members of this Francophone organization, as well as information on a few other Francophone States.

L'Année francophone internationale 2006. Paris, Québec: CIDEF-AFI, 2005. 414 pp.

The 15th issue of L'Année francophone internationale, this edition offers current information and statistics on Francophone countries and regions in Europe, North America, the Caribbean and Guyana, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb, the Near East, the Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Also includes essays on themes such as important dates and figures in the history of francophonie, the status of French in the world, multilateral cooperation in French-language education, and a brief section on Léopold Sédar Senghor, upon the centennial of his birth. At the end of the volume are reports from various Francophone associations and contact information for several others.

History

Aldrich, Robert and John Connell. France's Overseas Frontier: Départements et territoires d'outre-mer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. 357 pp. with black-and-white maps.

The authors' aim was to offer "the first full-scale academic treatment" of France's overseas empire, the départements et territoires d'outre-mer (or DOM-TOMs, including the French West Indies; French Guyana; Réunion, Mayotte, and other islands of the Indian Ocean; the North American islands Saint-Pierre and Miquelon; several islands in the Pacific Ocean; and Antarctica), giving basic information on the "history, politics, and contemporary socioeconomic structure" of these regions. This is not an in-depth study, but rather an overview of these topics, as well as an examination of the DOM-TOMs "in a theoretical sense," in order to determine "whether the DOM-TOMs represent the 'failure' or the 'end' of French decolonisation or quite different paths of decolonisation from the more usual one towards independence." Includes a dozen maps, statistical tables, a bibliographical essay, a glossary of French and English terms and acronyms, and an index of individuals, places, and topics. 

BACK TO TOP


Websites

Organisation internationale de la Francophonie . Last accessed 19 April 2013.

The official of the International Organisation of Francophone countries.

ClicNet: Pays et communautés francophones

Lists web resources on several Francophone countries and on Francophonie in general.

French @ Lehman, CUNY
Site maintained by Thomas C. Spear. Copyright 1996-2005. Lehman College, CUNY. Last accessed 10 Sept. 2005

A gateway to an impressive variety of online Francophone resources, offering a list of "best sites," information on upcoming conferences and colloquia, "fun" sites (comic strips, film, food, music, sports, etc.), electronic discussion lists, literature and libraries, museums and fine arts, Francophone news sites, search engines, and links to information about the following regions: Africa; Europe, including France; islands of the Caribbean, Haiti, Indian Ocean, and Pacific; Louisiana; and Canada. Also gives links to French-language associations, bookstores, libraries, theater, and more in New York City

Les grandes dates de la Francophonie

Traces milestones in Francophone history chronologically from 1880 to 2001.

Ile en ile
Linked from French @ Lehman, CUNY. Site maintained by Thomas C. Spear. Copyright 1998-2005. Lehman College, CUNY. Last accessed 10 Sept. 2005.

A rich resource on the Francophone islands of the Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific, these pages offer biographical information on authors; bibliographies; online texts; audio and video clips; a chronology of historical events and literary developments in the Caribbean from pre-Columbian times through the 20th century; and links to Francophone publishing houses, bookstores, press, and media.

Réseau France Outre-Mer

Online link to Francophone radio and TV news.

BACK TO TOP


 

French Canadian, Acadian, & Cajun

BACK TO TOP

Literature

(French Canadian literature is classified under Dewey Call # 847.)

BACK TO TOP

Bibliographies

Canadian National Library

Search the bilingual catalog of the Canadian National Library and Archives (based in Ottawa, Ontario) online.

Canadiana. Ottawa.

Kandiuk, Mary. French-Canadian authors : a bibliography of their works and of English-language criticism. Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1990. 222 pp.

The detailed entries on 36 influential French-Canadian authors in this work cite texts by and about each author as well as reviews of their books. Includes indexes of critics and editors and the addresses of dozens of Canadian publishers, including publishers of periodicals and of English language monographs.

Back to Literature

Literary History & Criticism

Corzani, Jack, Léon-François Hoffmann, and Marie-Lyne Piccione. Littératures francophones II. Les Amériques: Haiti, Antilles-Guyane, Québec. Paris: Belin, 1998. 319 pp.

This volume is divided into three parts, on Haiti, the French Caribbean and Guyana, and Québec. Each part begins with a general introduction to the history of the region in question, then proceeds with an analysis of the evolution of its literature. There are brief bibliographies and chronologies at the end of each part. The work also includes bio-bibliographical notes on major authors, indexes of literary works and authors, and a table of works cited in order of their appearance in the text.

Lemire, Maurice, dir. La vie littéraire au Québec. Vols I (1764-1805) and II (1806-1839). Sainte-Foy: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1991-1992.

This literary history of Quebec is organized not by authors or works, by rather by reflections on the major developments that have influenced the evolution of Québécois literature beginning in the 18th century. Volume I discusses Quebec's literary heritage from 18th-century European literature, religious scholars, and historians; the general social conditions in 18th-century Quebec (population, literacy, relations between social classes, and the status of the French language); the individuals and main groups that influenced emergent Québécois literature (laymen and clergy, the British, Canadians, and new associations and theater groups); the infrastructures of printing, newspapers, bookstores, and libraries; specific literary genres; and the reception of press and literature by the public and critics. Volume II treats general social and literary conditions in Quebec between 1806 and 1839; the age of Romanticism; the individuals and groups that influenced literature of this period; the rise of literacy; the ideology discussed in this literature; imagination and subjectivity; and the reception of various forms of Canadian literature in Canada and abroad. Each volume includes a chronology of the period, a bibliography, an index of people, an index of works, and an index of periodicals.

Maugière, Bénédicte, ed. Cultural Identities in Canadian Literature / Identités culturelles dans la littérature canadienne. New York: Peter Lang, 1998. 230 pp.

A collection of 17 French- and English-language essays that discuss the roles of varied cultural identities in Canadian literature. The authors studied as well as the contributors to this collection come from diverse regions worldwide (Europe, Africa, Asia, Russia, Acadia, Quebec, Haiti, and others) and thus reflect contemporary Canada's rich cultural heritage. Some of the topics treated include Ukranian-Canadian plays, contemporary Acadian and Africadian poetry, Laberge's feminist existentialism, contemporary romans du terroir, works by several Canadian women writers (Atwood, Ouvrard, Blais, Tosetevin, Scotts), the aesthetics and politics of "Franglo théâtre," Laferrière's poetry on the immigrant condition, the Ontario Protestant novel, and comparisons of "ethnic"/"immigrant" writings. Notes on the contributors are included.

Back to Literature

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Boivin, Aurélien. Dictionnaire des oeuvres littéraires du Québec. 7 vols. Saint-Laurent: Fides, 1978-2003. Illustrated.

Each of these seven large volumes treats a specific time period in Québécois literary history. The first volume covers the first written French-Canadian literature up to 1900; the last treats works published between 1981 and 1985. Included in each volume are an introduction to and a chronology of the time period and its literature, entries on specific works and authors, a general bibliography, a list of contributors, and an index.

Chartier, Daniel. Dictionnaire des écrivains émigrés du Québec 1800-1999. Québec: Editions Nota bene, 2003.

This volume provides biographical and bibliographical information on 628 writers who emigrated to Québec during the 19th and 20th centuries. Photographs of the covers of many influential works are included. The introduction offers general background information on literature by Québécois immigrants. Appendices provide statistical information on immigrants and their works, a list of authors organized by their countries of origin, a history of publishers, information on the religious backgrounds of authors included, and a chronology of immigrant literature published between 1808 and 2002.

Benson, Eugene and William Toye, eds. Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

This volume includes French Canadian literature as well as English-language works, providing biographical information on authors, survey articles on topics such as specific genres, and entries on individual titles.

Strickland, David. Dictionnaire de citations de la littérature québécoise. Montréal: La Presse, 1974.

Quotations from Québécois authors are listed under an alphabetically-arranged selection of topics. Unfortunately, there is no index of authors. Given the publication date, this volume will not be useful for current quotations.

Back to Literature

Anthologies

Vary, Andrée and Claire Brouillet. Contes et légendes du Québec. Chicago: National Textbook Company, 1998. 140 pp. Black-and-white illustrations.

Intended for intermediate-level students of French, this collection retells 15 Québécois tales from four centuries in contemporary, everyday French, using simple verb tenses, syntax, and vocabulary. Includes brief introductions about Québec and its oral literature, as well as pre-reading activities, comprehension exercises, discussion questions, and in-class activities. There is a list of vocabulary at the end of the book.

Dorion, Gilles. Les meilleurs romans québécois du XIXe siècle. [Saint-Laurent, Québec] : Fides, 1996. 1092 pp.

This anthology includes the full text of the following six novels: Philippe-Ignace Aubert de Gaspé's L'influence d'un livre, Joseph Doutre's Les fiancés de 1812, Eugène L'Écuyer's La fille du brigand, Patrice Lacombe's La terre paternelle, Georges Boucher de Boucherville's Une de perdue, deux de trouvées, and Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau's Charles Guérin. Each text is preceded by background information about the novel and its author.

Dionne, René. Anthologie de la littérature franco-ontarienne des origines à nos jours. Tome I: Les origines françaises (1610-1760), Les origines franco-ontariennes (1760-1865). Sudbury: Prise de Parole, 1997. 592 pp. with black-and-white maps.

This work includes biographical information on dozens of French-Ontarian authors of the 17th-19th centuries and excerpts from their writing. Dionne selected these texts as representative of the French-Ontarian canon and instructive for students and teachers looking for information on the historical and literary origins of the province. Many of these texts are little-known and/or rare, and thus hard to find elsewhere. Includes bibliographical references and maps of eastern Canada.

Back to Literature

Authors

Littérature québécoise

This website includes the dossiers of 260 Québécois authors, searchable by alphabetical order by all of the authors' last names, but also by the following categories: biographie, essai, littérature jeunesse, nouvelle, poésie, récit, roman, and théâtre.

Hamel, R., ed. Dictionnaire des auteurs de langue française en Amérique du Nord. Montréal: Fidès, 1989.

Alphabetically-arranged bio-bibliographical entries on around 1600 authors from Canada and the U.S., including writers from Quebec, Acadia, Ontario, western Canada, and French-speaking enclaves of the United States, such as Louisiana. Includes a list of reference works ("Instruments de travail") on French-Canadian and Franco-American literature as well as recommended critical readings at the end of the entries on many authors.

Guérin, M.A. Dictionnaire Guérin des poètes d'ici de 1606 à nos jours. Edited by Réginald Hamel. Montréal: Guérin, 2005.

This dictionary contains entries on over 1300 Québecois poets and covers the 17th through 21st centuries. Each poet has a full page entry with a photograph and a short selection from a poem by each author. Information given includes full name, pseudonyms, dates of birth and death (when necessary), occupation, academic affiliations and degrees, prizes, essential works, critical reception and bibliographical references.

Légaré, Yves, ed. Dictionnaire des écrivains québécois contemporains (1970-1982). Montréal, Québec: Québec/Amérique, 1983. 399 pp. with black-and-white photographs.

Bio-bibliographical entries on hundreds of Québécois authors who published at least two works between 1970 and 1982. Often a photograph of the author is included with the entry about him or her. The entries are factual, rather than evaluative or analytical, but this work serves as a quick reference guide to authors of the time period.

Back to Literature

Genres, Themes & Motifs


Ancelet, Barry Jean. Cajun and Creole Folktales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. World Folktale Library. Vol. I. New York: Garland, 1994. 224 pp.

This annotated collection includes an introduction to the context, repertoire, language, and storytellers of the author's study of these folktales from Louisiana. The tales themselves are included in Cajun/Creole French and side-by-side English translation and are divided into the following categories: animal tales, magic tales, jokes, lies and tall tales, Pascal stories (about a boy named Pascal), legendary tales, and historical tales. There are a bibliography and indexes of tale types, motifs, and narrators.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP


Language & Linguistics

(Resources for the study of French Canadian linguistics are classified under Dewey Call # 447.)

Dictionaries

Meney, Lionel. Dictionnaire Québécois français: pour mieux se comprendre entre francophones. Montréal: Guérin, 1999. 1884 pp.

This dictionary is intended to be a descriptive "differential" study of Québécois French and French as spoken in France, which does not treat Québécois French as "wrong," as do some studies, but rather aims to present the differences between these two forms of French objectively. Entries for Québécois words and expressions are presented in alphabetical order, with explanations of usage and equivalents in "standard" French. The introduction provides notes on the pronunciation, grammar, and lexicon of Québécois French. Includes a bibliography of lexicographical sources and of the linguistic corpus studied (journals, reviews, magazines, poetry, songs, novels, theater, and other cultural sources).

Poirier, Claude, dir. Dictionnaire historique du français québécois. Monographies lexicographiques de québécismes. Sainte-Foy: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, 1998. 640 pp. with black-and-white maps.

The entries for the québécismes in this scholarly dictionary include pronunciation and parts of speech, primary definitions, secondary usages, quotations in which each québécisme has been used (with full citations of all sources), and notes on the origin and evolution of the usage of each term over time. Includes a lengthy introduction on the purpose and methodology of the team that compiled the dictionary, a bibliography of sources cited, and an index of individual terms which includes a number of québécismes that appear in certain definitions but do not have entries of their own.

Dugas, André and Bernard Soucy. Le dictionnaire pratique des expressions québécoises: Le français vert et bleu. Montréal: Les Éditions Logiques, 1991. 299 pp.

The expressions in this "colorful" dictionary are alphabetized by the verb which dominates each expression, from"abandonner la partie" and "abandonner qqc de guerre lasse" to "vouloir tirer des pets d'un âne mort" and "watcher (se) le cul." Explanations or equivalents of each expression are given in standard French. Includes an introduction, a bibliography (with abbreviations of these sources, which are cited in the entries), and an index.


DesRuisseaux, Pierre. Dictionnaire des proverbes québécois. Montréal : L'Hexagone, 1991.

Describes 700 proverbs still in use in Québec, regardless of their national origin. Organized alphabetically by key words of the proverb, with an index allowing access by recurring themes.


Cormier, Yves. Dictionnaire du français acadien. Québec: Fides, 1999. 440 pp. with black-and-white maps.

Offers definitions and many examples of the usage of terms particular to the Francophone provinces of eastern Canada and to the Cajun area of southern Louisiana. Many of these terms differ from Québécois French, so this dictionary serves as a valuable complement to those cited above.

Valdman, Albert et al. Dictionary of Louisiana Creole. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1998. 656 pp.

The bulk of this volume consists of alphabetized entries for Louisiana Creole words and expressions, with explanations given in English. Also includes observations on the language, bibliographical references, and English-Louisiana Creole and French-Louisiana Creole indexes that enable users to find Creole terms from their English and French equivalents.

Return to Language & Linguistics

Language Guide (Québécois)

Scheunemann, Britta. French adaptation by Jean-Charles Beaumont. Le québécois de poche. Chennevières-sur-Marne, France: Assimil, 1998. 101 pp. with black-and-white illustrations.

A fun guide to Québécois French that offers information on pronunciation and on some of the basic differences between Québécois French and French as it is spoken in France. Dozens of Québécois words and expressions are presented in categories such as "Le pays et ses habitants," "Toé, moé, nous et vous autres," and "Pouces, pieds et livres." Explanations of these terms and/or their equivalents are given in standard French. Includes an index of terms ("lexique") at the end of the book.

Return to Language & Linguistics

Regional Usage (Acadia)

Motapanyane, Virginia. Acadian French. Languages of the World. Munich: Lincom Europa, 1997. 67 pp.

A study of the history, phonology, morphology, and syntax of French as it is spoken in the eastern provinces of Canada, notably in New Brunswick. Includes bibliographical references.

Dubois, Lise and Annette Boudreau, dirs. Les Acadiens et leur(s) langue(s): quand le français est minoritaire. 2nd ed. Moncton, New Brunswick: Editions d'Acadie, 1996. 324 pp.

The acts of a conference on the use of French in Acadia, these 20 papers discuss such topics as the origins of Acadian French, several of its specific characteristics, recent language trends in Acadia, and the relationship between speakers and their mother tongue, etc.

Return to Language & Linguistics

Slang (Cajun)

LaFleur, Amanda. Tonnerre mes chiens! A glossary of Louisiana French figures of speech. Ville Platte, LA: Renouveau Publishing, 1999. 202 pp. with a black-and-white map.

Contains over 1,200 expressions from South Louisiana and provides English-language explanations of their meanings and their origins as well as comparisons with similar French-language expressions from other countries. Organized by topic, this book is a fun resource for teachers and students interested in Cajun language and culture.

Return to Language & Linguistics

BACK TO TOP


Culture

History & Popular Culture (Québécois & Cajun/Creole)

Gagnon, Alain-G., compiler. Québec. World Bibliographical Series Vol. 211. Clio Press: Oxford, England, and Santa Barbara, California, 1998. 350 pp.

An annotated bibliography of works on various aspects of Québécois history and culture, this volume is organized into the following categories: geography, flora and fauna, history, biography, religion, population, aboriginal inhabitants, ethnic minorities, emigration and immigration, women, language, health and welfare, social trends, politics, identity and political culture, nationalism, secession, ideology, constitution and federalism, administration and government, foreign relations, political economy, finance and banking, trade, business and industry, resources, transport, labour, environment, education, science and technology, literature, arts, sport and leisure, libraries and museums, the publishing industry, mass media, general periodicals, and general reference works. Includes indexes of authors, titles, and subjects, and a black-and-white map of Québec.

Chamberland, Roger and André Gaulin. La chanson québécoise. De La Bolduc à aujourd'hui. Québec: Nuit blanche, 1994. 593 pp.

Provides the lyrics for many of the best-known Québécois songs from the 1930s to the early 1990s. Includes an introduction to 20th-century Québécois music, short biographies of the songwriters, bibliographies, and indexes of songs by title, songwriter, composer, and performer.

Coulombe, Michel and Marcel Jean. Le dictionnaire du cinéma québécois. Montréal: Boréal, 1999. 717 pp. with black-and-white photographs and illustrations.

Nearly 800 entries on directors, screenwriters, actors, producers, and technicians, as well as on themes such as movie theaters, festivals, ciné-clubs, censorship, animated films, experimental cinema, gay cinema, distribution, and more. Also provides abridged credits for over 400 films and a bibliography.

Griolet, Patrick. Cadjins et créoles en Louisiane: Histoire et survivance d'une Francophonie. Paris: Payot, 1986. 387 pp. with a black-and-white map.

Traces the history of French language and culture in Louisiana from the late 17th century to the late 20th century and explores various aspects of contemporary Francophone culture in this region, discussing music, dance, tales, legends, and vocabulary. Includes a bibliography, glossary of Cajun terms, and index of proper names.

BACK TO TOP

Websites

Montreal cam

Online video images and animations of several important parts of the city (the Biodome, centre-ville, Vieux-Montréal, le Vieux-Port.)

Bonjour, Québec!

The government of Québec's official website for tourism, with links to information on tourist areas in the province, events, and attractions.

La toile du Québec

Access to sites in many categories of art and culture, including visual arts, cinema, literature, music, and more.

A Brief Guide to Acadiana

Links to sites related to Cajun literature, music, food, and more.

Liberation Journals Index

An analytic, searchable, online index covering several Pan-African periodicals published before, during, and after World War II, as well as the Québécois journal Liberté.

BACK TO TOP

 


 

Caribbean & French Guyana


 

Literature

Bibliographies

Goslinga, Marian. Caribbean Literature: A Bibliography. Area Bibliographies, No. 15. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998. 469 pp. Black-and-white map.

Organized geographically and topically, this bibliography includes 3,500 entries encompassing the following areas: general reference and critical works; the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, the English-speaking Caribbean, the French-speaking Caribbean, and the Dutch-speaking Caribbean. Within the section on the French-speaking Caribbean, there are citations for general works, and works about Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, and Martinique. Entries include bibliographies, anthologies, history and criticism, and individual authors. There are indexes of authors and titles at the end of the volume.

Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth and Olga Torres-Seda, compilers. Caribbean Women Novelists: An Annotated Critical Bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in World Literature, Number 36. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 427 pp.

The bulk of this volume consists of author bibliographies, arranged alphabetically by last name, which include the country from which each author comes and usually other brief biographical information, as well as annotated citations of her work. Also provided are a bibliography of general works; indexes of novels, critics, and themes and key words; and an appendix on literature in the Netherlands Antilles.

Personal de la Biblioteca Regional del Caribe. Current Caribbean Bibliography (Bibliografía actual des Caribe / Bibliographie courante de la Caraïbe).Vol. 1-23. Hato Rey, Puerto Rico: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, 1951-1973.

Published annually from 1951 to 1973 in order to facilitate access to Spanish-, French-, and English-language publications from the Caribbean, this cumulative bibliography reproduces information from catalog cards submitted by 19 libraries in the U.S. and the Caribbean and organizes these citations under dozens of broad subject headings, such as Public Administration, Agriculture, Anthropology, etc. These categories are presented in alphabetical order according to their Spanish wording and the English equivalents of these terms are given in the Index of Subject Headings. An author and titles (and later, subject headings) index in each volume refers users back to the entry numbers of works they seek. This publication was discontinued after 1973, apparently due to the high cost of computer compilation at the time, and technical problems related to it. This work remains useful for those interested in retrospective works of the Caribbean.

Literary Histories & Criticism

Nesbitt, Nick. Voicing Memory: History and Subjectivity in French Caribbean Literature. New World Studies. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003. 258 pp. with black-and-white illustrations.

Interprets the vision of French Caribbean history as represented in works by Césaire, Maximin, Glissant, Condé, and other influential Caribbean authors, arguing that their literature demonstrates a particular historical self-consciousness which differs greatly from that of European theorists such as Hegel or Sartre. The introduction offers a "genealogy of Antillean historical experience," while the chapters which follow focus on particular writers and theorists. Includes a bibliography and an index of proper names, titles, and topics.

Schon, Nathalie. L'auto-exotisme dans les littératures des Antilles françaises. Paris: Karthala, 2003. 326 pp.

This work examines the ambiguous status of Martinique and Guadeloupe as départements d'outre-mer and island groups with colonial economic and cultural structures. The author argues that this ambiguous status leads to a sense of "auto-exotisme" for Caribbeans--the sense of being "exotic," or somewhat alien, to themselves--which is reflected in contemporary Caribbean literature. Schon bases her study on sociological, psychoanalytic, and literary theory in order to discuss the question of individual identity in an ambiguous cultural environment. She presents the "genesis of auto-exotisme" in the Caribbean from the 17th through early 19th centuries and a new, conscious awareness of this sentiment in the 19th and 20th centuries. She includes commentary on works by Daniel Thaly, René de Bonneville, Saint-John Perse, Joseph Zobel, and Michèle Lacroisil, as well as discussion of themes and literary movements, such as Creole writing and writing by women. The volume concludes with a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

Ménil, René. Antilles déjà jadis, précédé de Tracées. Paris: Jean Michel Place, 1999. 319 pp.

Tracées, originally published in 1981, is subtitled Identité, négritude, esthétique aux Antilles and consists of essays about life and literature in the Caribbean from the 1930s up to 1980. The word "tracée" is a Caribbean term for a path through a tropical forest, or for the region around such a path; the author envisions these collected essays as a rambling exploration of Caribbean literary developments, themes and styles. Antilles déjà jadisis a continuation of the "path" formed by Tracées. These more recent essays are reflections on créolité as it relates to history, geography, race, custom, and tradition. This section discusses folklore, realism, and works by Aimé Césaire and Julio Cortázar. It concludes with a brief commentary on "modernity" at the end of the 20th century. Taken together, these essays provide an often lyrical overview of major literary movements in the Caribbean.

Yelles, Mourad. Les miroirs de Janus: littératures orales et écritures postcoloniales (Maghreb-Caraïbes). Alger: Office des publications universitaires, 2002. 327 pp.

Yelles examines the relationships between oral and written literature, the masculine and the feminine, tradition and modernity, and literature from the Maghreb and Francophone literature in general. The first section of this study looks at the origins and development of North African literature, while the second section looks at oral and written literature in the Maghreb and in the Caribbean, focusing in particular on the work of Mohammed Dib, Rabah Belamri, Habib Tengour, Nourredine Saadi, Frantz Fanon, Jacques Roumain, René Depestre, and Daniel Boukman. Includes bibliographical references.

Little, J.P. and Roger Little. Black Accents: Writing in French from Africa, Mauritius, and the Caribbean. Proceedings of the ASCALF Conference held in Dublin, 8-10 April 1995. London: Grant and Cutler, 1997. 286 pp.

These French- and English-language papers from the Association for the Study of Caribbean and African Literature in French (ASCALF)'s 1995 conference are organized into sections on the Caribbean, Mauritius, and West Africa. The papers on French Caribbean literature discuss the journal of the daughter of a plantation owner writing about her life in Martinique in the early 20th century, language choices in Caribbean theater, the poetry of Aimé Césaire, and Maryse Condé's literature as a "quest for self." The essays on literature from Mauritius treat questions of race in Marie-Thérèse Humbert's À l'autre bout de moi and the problems of fatherhood in works by Loys Masson. Includes a general introduction by the editors, notes on the contributors, and an index of proper names.

Maximin, Colette. Littératures caribéennes comparées. Pointe-à-Pitre: Jasor, 1996. 419 pp.

Explores the commonalities between literatures of the French Caribbean, French Guyana, and Belize, tracing aspects of the content and narrative structures of various Caribbean works back to African and European folklore and traditions, which were passed on to, and influenced in their turn, by the cultures of the Americas. Includes an index of works cited and a selective bibliography.

Corzani, Jack, Léon-François Hoffmann, and Marie-Lyne Piccione. Littératures francophones II. Les Amériques: Haiti, Antilles-Guyane, Québec. Paris: Belin, 1998. 319 pp.

This volume is divided into three parts, on Haiti, the French Caribbean and Guyana, and Québec. Each part begins with a general introduction to the history of the region in question, then proceeds with an analysis of the evolution of its literature. There are brief bibliographies and chronologies at the end of each part. The work also includes bio-bibliographical notes on major authors, indexes of literary works and authors, and a table of works cited in order of their appearance in the text.

Rouch, Alain and Gérard Clavreuil. Littératures nationales d'écriture française: Afrique noire, Cara?bes, Océan Indien: Histoire littéraire et Anthologie. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 511 pp.

This volume is organized into sections by country, with a brief introduction to the literary history of each country preceding several excerpts of works by authors from that country. Guadeloupe, French Guyana, Haiti, and Martinique are all represented. Bio-bibliographical information on each author is included with the selection from his or her work. At the end of the book are a bibliography and an index of authors with the names of their countries so that readers can refer back to the appropriate section of the anthology.

Arnold, A. James, ed. J. Michael Dash, subed. A History of Literature in the Caribbean . Vol. 1: Hispanic and Francophone Regions.Comparative History of Literatures in European Languages. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1994. 579 pp.

The second half of this volume is dedicated to the history and criticism of the Francophone Caribbean literatures of Haiti, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guyana. It includes an introduction to the literary history of these places as well as essays on language, popular and literate cultures, the islands and territories themselves, and literary genres published there (the novel, poetry, theater, and essays). There is an index to the names of writers and significant historical figures at the end of the book.

Condé, Maryse, dir. L'héritage de Caliban. [Pointe-à-Pître (Guadeloupe)] : Editions Jasor, c1992. 287 pp.

A collection of 19 French- and English-language studies of Caribbean literature, written primarily by professors of French and Francophone literature working in North American universities, who therefore offer "le regard de l'Autre" on Caribbean culture. Topics of the articles include poetics and identity; "female genesis" in Mémoire d'une amnésiaque and Moi, Tituba sorcière; Creolization versus Francophonie in the works of Glissant; Glissant's poetry about the human body; women writers and the myth of authenticity; questions of narrative mastery in works by Zobel and Schwarz-Bart; Maximin's Caribbean discourse; and more. Includes a brief preface, notes on the contributors, and a list of works cited.

Kyiiripuo Kyoore, Paschal B. The African and Caribbean Historical Novel in French: A Quest for Identity. Francophone Cultures and Literatures, Vol. 3. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. 214 pp.

Close readings of six African and Caribbean historical novels that treat these works from a post-colonial perspective, stressing the importance of the Negritude movement and how it can help us understand the significance of novels such as these. The author points out ways in which African and Caribbean historical novels differ from classical 19th-century European historical novels, and he champions the cause of an Afrocentric approach, rather than a traditional Eurocentric approach, to Francophone African and Caribbean literatures. Includes a bibliography of primary and secondary sources and an index of names of individuals, places, and terms related to Francophonie and to African and Caribbean cultures.

Antoine, Régis. La Littérature franco-antillaise: Haïti, Guadeloupe et Martinique. Paris: Karthala, 1992. 381 pp.

Examines the history of French Caribbean literatures and cultures by studying groups of people (native West Indians, fugitive slaves, plantation owners, missionaries...), individual historical figures and authors (Césaire, Saint-John Perse, and several others), and social and literary movements (such as slave rebellions, anthropological theory, Marxism, surrealism, exoticism, and finally, modernism). Organized in a roughly chronological manner, this study provides a helpful overview of several key aspects of the evolution of the literatures of Haiti, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. Includes an index of authors cited.

Rice-Maximin, Micheline. Karukéra: Présence littéraire de la Guadeloupe. Francophone Cultures and Literatures, Vol. 9. New York: Peter Lang, 1998. 197 pp.

Focuses on several authors who have written about Karukéra (i.e. "the island of beautiful waters," Guadeloupe) and examines how their works fit into the history of the "marrons" (fugitive slaves). Discusses several archetypal characters in order to demonstrate how this literature is rooted in storytelling traditions that "still haunt the collective memory" ("Introduction," p. 4). The book also touches on the literatures of French Guyana and Martinique and how they relate to the literary history of Guadeloupe.The main body of the text is divided into three parts: "l'écriture du passé" (the writing of the past), which explores the relationship between the landscape and the people of Guadeloupe; "l'écriture de l'histoire" (the writing of stories/history), which studies the roles of women, the "forgotten century" (the period between 1848 and 1946, which is not often the focus of scholarship on Guadeloupe), and the literature of day-to-day life on the islands; and "l'histoire d'une écriture," which treats Creole oral and written literature, literature of the métis (islanders of blended ancestry), and symbolism in Caribbean literature. Includes a bibliography of primary and secondary works and literary reviews, as well as an index of proper names, titles, and topics.

Back to Literature

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Balderston, Daniel and Mike Gonzalez. Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature: 1900-2003. London: Routledge, 2004. 666 pp.

Over 1,200 alphabetically arranged entries on authors, critics, major works, magazines, genres, and literary movements. Some entries are short, factual articles, while others are longer essays that offer an in-depth treatment of major figures, themes, literary movements, and national literatures. Includes an introduction, chronology, bibliography, and index. Also available online.

Back to Literature

Anthologies

Giguère, Ronald Gérard. Ecrivains noirs d'Afrique et des Antilles. American University Studies Series XVIII, African Literature, Vol. 2. New York: Peter Lang, 1997. 304 pp., with black-and-white maps.

Offers brief biographies of ten authors from Francophone Africa and the Caribbean as well as excerpts from and analyses of several of their works. Discussion questions at the end of each chapter may be used with intermediate or advanced students of French; this work thus provides students with a practical introduction to Francophone literature. Includes a bibliography of works by and about each author presented as well as a glossary for student reference.

Jonassaint, Jean. Des romans de tradition haïtienne: Sur un récit tragique. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2002. 365 pp.

A two-part work that consists of, first, a systematic study of 25 of the most important works from the corpus of Haitian literature published from 1901 to 1960, along with lesser-known works from the "counter-corpus" and, second, an anthology of excerpts from ten of these works. The tragic themes of this written literature are studied in comparison with classic Greek tragedy and with traditional Haitian oral literature. Includes a bibliography of primary works, works on Haitian literature and culture, literary history and theory, and miscellaneous related works. There is also an index of the authors cited or mentioned throughout the study.

Rouch, Alain and Gérard Clavreuil. Littératures nationales d'écriture française: Afrique noire, Cara?bes, Océan Indien: Histoire littéraire et Anthologie. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 511 pp.

This volume is organized into sections by country, with a brief introduction to the literary history of each country preceding several excerpts of works by authors from that country. Guadeloupe, French Guyana, Haiti, and Martinique are all represented. Bio-bibliographical information on each author is included with the selection from his or her work. At the end of the book are a bibliography and an index of authors with the names of their countries so that readers can refer back to the appropriate section of the anthology.

Brahimi-Chapuis, Denise and Gabriel Belloc. Anthologie du roman maghrébin, négro-africain, antillais, et réunionnais d'expression française de 1945 à nos jours. [Paris] : CILF, 1986. 255 pp.

A thematically organized collection of texts published from 1945 to the mid 1980s with commentary on each of the works represented. Caribbean authors included are René Depestre, Edouard Glissant, and Simone Schwarz-Bart. Themes from works published between 1945 and 1962 include childhood, colonialism, "mixed"-race couples, the relationship between the colonized and the Western world, and political conflicts. Themes from the work published beginning in 1962 include independence and political revolution, women and couples, social problems, "other struggles," and national identity and a return to tradition. The nationality of each author is noted with the commentary on his or her work and there are bio-bibliographical notes on all the authors at the end of the book.

Back to Literature

Authors

Chancé, Dominique. L'auteur en souffrance: Essai sur la position et la représentation de l'auteur dans le roman antillais contemporain (1981-1992). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2000. 224 pp.

A letter "en souffrance," in psychoanalytical terms, means a letter that has not been delivered; so Chancé's use of the term in relation to Caribbean authors means not so much that they are "suffering" as that they have not been heard by the ideal reader they seek to reach. Chancé examines the ways in which Caribbean writers such as Chamoiseau, Confiant, Glissant, Condé, and Maximin create texts that synthesize aspects of oral and written literature as well as the Creole and French languages in order to lend their narrators authority as storytellers, in an attempt to better communicate with this long-sought ideal reader. Includes an interview with Chamoiseau from 1997; a bibliography of literary and linguistic theory, anthropology, history, sociology, literary journals, and conferences; and an index of proper names.

Marty, Anne. Haïti en littérature. Paris: Servédit, 2000. 222 pp.

This work has three parts: a study of the history and main ideas of Haitian literature from 1804 through the late 20th century, a dictionary of modern Haitian authors, and interviews with six of these authors (Roger Dorsinville, Frankétienne, Roger Gaillard, Emile Ollivier, Yanick Lahens, and Hervé Denis). The dictionary of contemporary authors provides brief bio-bibliographies of about two dozen Haitian writers; in the case of major authors, somewhat longer synopses and analyses of their works are given.

Glaser, Marlies and Marion Pausch, eds. "Caribbean Writers : Between Orality & Writing" / "Les auteurs caribéens: entre l'oralité et l'écriture." Matatu No. 12. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1994. 236 pp.

This volume includes: a brief bilingual introduction pointing to the "parallelism of literary and cultural preoccupations" between Anglophone and Francophone Caribbean literatures; a collection of English- and French-language articles on Caribbean poetry, novels, and theater; interviews with six Anglophone and Francophone Caribbean authors; several English-language poems and a short story; and several book reviews of works related to Caribbean literature. Of particular interest are the interview with Patrick Chamoiseau on using elements of the oral tradition to express the complexities of Caribbean culture and the interview with Xavier Orville on how multiculturalism enriches literature.

Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth and Olga Torres-Seda, compilers. Caribbean Women Novelists: An Annotated Critical Bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in World Literature, Number 36. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 427 pp.

The bulk of this volume consists of author bibliographies, arranged alphabetically by last name, which include the country from which each author comes and usually other brief biographical information, as well as annotated citations of her work. Also provided are a bibliography of general works; indexes of novels, critics, and themes and key words; and an appendix on literature in the Netherlands Antilles.

Back to Literature

Genres, Themes & Motifs

Rochmann, Marie-Christine. L'esclave fugitif dans la littérature antillaise. Paris: Karthala, 2000. 400 pp.

A study of the representations of fugitives slaves ("esclaves fugitifs" or "nègres marrons" in French) in novels published in Martinique and Guadeloupe between around 1830 to 1998, this book considers the fates of escaped slaves as they are thrown into a new geographical, social, and symbolic reality by the authors constructing their stories. The first chapter provides historical information on slavery and escape from slavery prior to 1848, when it was abolished in the French colonies. Subsequent chapters offer a more-or-less chronological analysis of how the topic was presented in 19th- and 20th-century literature. There are a bibliography of literary works, criticism, and general works and an index of authors cited.

Rosello, Mireille. Littérature et identité créole aux Antilles. Paris: Karthala, 1992. 202 pp.

Looks at several of French Caribbean literature's main characters and themes (including revolt, assimilation, multiculturalism, exile and return to the homeland, heroism, and suicide). Individual chapters treat "the imaginary canon" ("self-description as self-destruction"), the death of the hero in three different novels, the art of survival in Pluie et vent sur Télumée Miracle, the theme of exile in works by Césaire and Condé, metaphors of revolt, and the mixed racial background of the heroine of Scharz-Bart's La mulâtresse Solitude. Includes an eight-page bibliography.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP


 

Language & Linguistics

Dictionaries

Valdman, Albert, Charles Pooser, and Jean-Baptiste Rozevel. A Learner's Dictionary of Haitian Creole. Bloomington: Indiana University Creole Institute, 1996. 529 pp.

This English-Haitian Creole dictionary provides detailed entries for nearly 8,000 words and expressions. The Haitian Creole-English index gives cross-references back to these explanatory entries. Also includes an introduction to Haitian Creole, observations on its orthography, sound system, pronunciation, and grammar, and a section on numbers in Haitian Creole.

Translation Theory

Arsaye, Jean-Pierre. Français-Créole / Créole-Français de la traduction: Éthique. Pratiques. Problèmes. Enjeux. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2004. 495 pp.

Discusses general issues of translation theory as well as issues specific to translating between French and Creole. Includes examples of texts translated from Creole to French or French to Creole as well as an index of fundamental concepts.

Slang

Lafleur, Marie-Rose. Pa ban gaz! Ne me cherche pas! Kréyol-la, jan lajennès ka palé-y. Le créole tel que le parlent les jeunes. Guadeloupe: Ibis Rouge Editions, 2001. 61 pp. with black-and-white illustrations.

Presents dozens of Creole slang expressions used in the Caribbean, with their translations into French. The expressions are divided into five categories: le faciès (general commentaries on someone's face), le visage en cinq dimensions (les cheveux, le front, les yeux, le nez, les lèvres et les dents), le corps morcelé, le portrait du colonisé, and insults and invectives. Also includes a brief introduction and a conclusion about what this slang teaches us about how young people in the Caribbean view the world.

Proverbs

1000 proverbes créoles de la Caraïbe francophone. Paris : Editions Caribéennes, [1988?] 114 pp. with black-and-white illustrations.

The Creole proverbs in this book are divided into five sections: proverbs common to the French Caribbean as a whole, proverbs from Haiti, proverbs from Guadeloupe, proverbs from Sainte-Lucie, and proverbs from Dominique. Includes French translations of the Creole expressions.

BACK TO TOP


 

Culture

Interdisciplinary Works

Abraham, Marie and Daniel Maragnès, directors. Guadeloupe: Temps incertains. Paris: Editions Autrement, 2001. 271 pp. with black-and-white maps, photographs, and artwork.

A series of reflections on the history and current realities of Guadeloupe, written by over two dozen authors from various professions (journalist, artist, historian, poet, professor, photographer, novelist, librarian, literary critic, philosopher, essayist, economist, political scientist, and architect), included well-known novelists Maryse Condé, Daniel Maximin, and Daniel Picouly. Includes a chronology of Guadeloupe from 1493 to 1999; a bibliography of recent novels and autobiographies, folktales and poetry, essays, histories, guides and dictionaries, and journals; and brief bio-bibliographies of the contributors.

Burton, Richard D.E. and Fred Reno, eds. French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana Today. New World Studies. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995. 202 pp.

Essays on the status of French Caribbean culture at the end of the 20th century, written from a variety of perspectives (sociological, literary, political, linguistic, and feminist). The authors examine the effects of political assimilation into France throughout the latter half of the century on the peoples of these islands, weighing the benefit of an improved economic standard of living with the political, cultural, and psychological losses that have been suffered. The volume raises questions of cultural identity, race, class, the position of women on the islands, the situation of French West Indians living in France, and the relations between French-speaking and English-speaking West Indians. Chapters on French Caribbean literature and on négritude, Antillanité, and Créolité are also included. Concludes with a select bibliography as well as an index of topics and proper names of people, places, and organizations.

Glissant, Edouard. Le discours antillais. Paris: Seuil, 1981. 503 pp.

This highly influential work analyzes the "forces at work in French Caribbean cultures," and particularly in Martinique, from an interdisciplinary perspective, applying principles of literary criticism, political theory, and other social sciences. Examines the passage from an oral tradition to a written literature and the implications of this transition for Creole language and culture. Concludes with reflections on the future of French Caribbean cultural identity. Includes as appendices: demographics and economic statistics from the time of publication, a diagram of diaspora which denotes aspects of African, North American, and Caribbean cultures and their interrelationships; notes on the transcription of Creole in this volume; and excerpts from the dogma of Cham. Also provides a glossary of key cultural terms.

History & General Culture

Abenon, Lucien, Danielle Bégot, and Jean-Pierre Sainton, directors. Construire l'histoire antillaise. Paris Editions du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 2002. 550 pp.

A collection of essays about the history of the Caribbean and history in the Caribbean, this work offers various perspectives on specific events and topics in Martinique, Guadeloupe, Trinidad & Tobago, Cuba, and French Guyana. Subjects include revolts and social movements, slavery, sugar and tobacco crops, marriage and citizenship, sports, Catholicism and Jansenism. Of particular note is Maryse Condé's essay on the historical novel in the Caribbean ("Le roman historique: un rêve contraint. L'histoire est-elle possible?", pp. 309-317). As this volume is a festschrift to historian Jacques Adélaïde-Merlande, the introduction focuses on his work and its implications, and there is a chronological bibliography of his publications.

Fortuné, Félix-Hilaire. Les îles françaises d'Amérique: De la vision géopolitique de Richelieu à l'Union européenne. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2000. 531 pp.

Traces the political history of the French Caribbean from its exploration by Erickson in the 10th century and Columbus in the 15th century through the French colonization of the area in the 16th and 17th centuries, the wars between the English and French in the Caribbean in the 18th century, and the establishment of French departments in the 20th century, to the current status of these islands and their relationship to the European Union. Looks to the possibility of a future change in the political status of the islands, as "Régions d'outre-mer," with increased political autonomy for Caribbeans.

Fortuné, Félix-Hilaire. La France et l'Outre-mer Antillais: Quatre siècles d'histoire économique et sociale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2001. 553 pp.

A study of the past prosperity of the French Caribbean, during nearly four centuries when the region contributed to French economy and influence, and the decline of economic and, consequently, social conditions there in recent times. Discusses developments that are needed in order to reinvigorate the Caribbean economy and to lead to greater economic and social independence for the area.

Bangou, Henri. La Guadeloupe et sa décolonisation ou un demi-siècle d'enfantement. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2001. 230 pp.

A political history of Guadeloupe and its relationship to France from the end of World War II to the beginning of the 21st century, this work traces the islanders' movements for independence and argues in favor of continued engagement on their part. Provides a close analysis of the reactions of the French government to the call for decolonization as well as the reactions of islanders to evolving French politics.

Photographs & Illustrations

Gillot-Pétré, Alain. Voir les Antilles: Guadeloupe-Martinique. Paris: Hachette, 1980. 130 pp. Black-and-white illustrations and maps. Black-and-white and color photographs.

Focuses on the natural beauty of the French Caribbean, rather than the "clichés" of monuments, museums or ruins often found in photoessays. Gillot-Pétré's text offers historical background on the European exploration of the islands and discussions of the diversity of their modern landscapes and people. Includes a general map of the Caribbean and more detailed maps of Guadeloupe and Martinique. Concludes with practical advice for travelers to the region, an index of people, places, and subjects, and a list of the photographers with page number references to their work.

BACK TO TOP

Websites

"Antilles / Caraïbes - Ile en île."
Linked from French @ Lehman, CUNY. Site maintained by Thomas C. Spear. Copyright 1998-2005. Lehman College, CUNY. Last accessed 1 Nov. 2005

This page provides links to information on French Caribbean cuisine, fine arts, language, literature, music, theater, travel and tourism, beliefs and traditions, flora and fauna, genealogy, history, online yellow pages, education, media, online archives, bookstores and publishers, and museums and cultural centers. The literature links include dossiers on authors and their works as well as literary journals specializing in French Caribbean criticism.

Réseau France Outremer--Guadeloupe

Access to radio and television broadcasts from Guadeloupe.

Culture of Guadeloupe

Colby College's online resources on the geography, history, literature, music, and art of Guadeloupe.

Online Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries on Martinique

Maps and facts about Martinique from various online sources, compiled by answers.com.

Haiti links

Several links to sites with general information about Haiti, as well as sites specifically focused on politics, news, history, history, travel, and more. Since this page was last updated in 2001, some of the links no longer function, but most of them are still active.

BACK TO TOP


 

Europe

(Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg & Monaco)

Literature

Bibliographies

Bibliographie de Belgique: liste mensuelle des publications belges ou rélatives à la Belgique, acquises par la Bibliothèque Royale. Bruxelles : H. Manceaux, 1875-.

Also available online.

Bibliographie luxembourgeoise. Also available online.

Bibliographie nationale de la principauté de Monaco, 1761-1986. (Please note: Current publications from Monaco are included in the Bibliographie nationale de France)

Bibliographie nationale suisse. Also available online.

L e livre suisse.

Back to Literature

Literary Histories & Criticism

Bertrand, Jean-Pierre et al, dirs. Histoire de la littérature belge: 1830-2000. Paris: Fayard, 2003. 670 pp.

Presents and discusses events that had major impact on Belgian literature during the 19th and 20th centuries. Includes a chronology of politics and society, Belgian literature, French literature, and the arts in the form of a table. Also provides extensive bibliographical references; notes on the contributors; and indexes of proper names, titles, movements and themes.

Dirk de Geest et Reine Meylaerts (eds.) Littératures en Belgique : diversités culturelles et dynamiques littéraires. Bruxelles: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, 2004. 444 pp.

A collection of essays on Belgian literatures, with sections on literature and language, literature in translation, genres, and literary institutions. The majority of the essays are in French, while a few are in Dutch.

Francillion, Roger. Histoire de la littérature en Suisse romande. Lausanne, Editions Payot Lausanne, 1996.

This four-volume set chronicles the development of literature in French-speaking Switzerland from the settlement of the area in Roman times to the present with an emphasis on the last two centuries. The set aims not only to introduce major authors and their works but also to show the social, religious and cultural forces which influenced them. Reproductions of relevant works of art and original texts punctuate the volumes and give the reader a feel for the various periods.

Wenger, Bernhard. The Four Literatures of Switzerland. 3rd edition. Lausanne: Pro Helvetia. 1988. 79 pp.

Offers background information on the four official languages of Switzerland (German, French, Italian, and Romansch) and brief histories of Swiss literatures from their beginnings to the late 20th century.

Back to Literature

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

The three works cited below provide alphabetized entries on Swiss authors and genres (the first work is in French, the second in Italian, and the third in German, but all contain the same information). Each volume includes photographs of the authors cited, bibliographical references, lists of translations, and an index of authors.

Walzer P.-O., ed. Dictionnaire des littératures suisses. Lausanne: Editions de l'Aire, 1991.

Walzer P.-O., ed. Dizionario delle letterature suizzere. Locarno: Armando Dadò Editore, 1991.

Walzer P.-O., ed. Lexikon der Schweizer Literaturen. Basel: Lenos Verlag, 1991.

Back to Literature

Anthologies

Gorceix, Paul, ed. La Belgique fin de siècle: Georges Eekhoud, Camille Lemonnier, Maurice Maeterlinck, Georges Rodenbach, Charles Van Lerberghe, and Émile Verhaeren. Bruxelles: Éditions Complexe, 1997. 1160 pp.

Includes excerpts of works from the major Belgian authors listed in the subtitle, plus a general introduction to fin de siècle Belgian literature as well as introductions to each of the texts, bio-bibliographical notes on each of the authors, and a selective bibliography.

Friedman, Donald Flanell, trans. and ed. An Anthology of Belgian Symbolist Poets. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992. 301 pp. with black-and-white photographs.

Dozens of poems by various Belgian symbolists, presented in the original French with English translations on facing pages. Includes a general introduction to Belgian symbolism as well as commentaries on the work of each poet.

Boulanger, Mousse and Henri Corbat. Littératures de Suisse romande et Aspects des littératures suisses non francophones: Anthologie et guide. Bordas : Saved S.A., c1988. 301 pp. with black-and-white photographs and illustrations.

This anthology is organized into the following main sections: "Réalités cantonales et régionales," "La littérature narrative," "La littérature poétique," "Le théâtre," "Approche du cinéma suisse romand," "Journal, essai, critique," and "Aspects des littératures suisses non francophones." The first of these sections gives background information on the cantons of Fribourg, Geneva, Jura and Jura bernois, Neufchâtel, Valais, and Vaud. The rest of the sections begin with general introductions and also include introductions to their various sub-sections, which contain excerpts of the primary texts themselves. At the end of the volume are a general bibliography and a list of authors with citations of their works.

Graf, Marion and José-Flore Tappy, eds. La Poésie en Suisse romande depuis Blaise Cendrars. Paris: Seghers, 2005. 309 pp.

Includes works from dozens of Francophone Swiss poets published throughout the 20th century. There is a preface, an afterword, bio-bibliographical notes on the poets represented, and full citations of their volumes of poetry.

Back to Literature

Authors

Polet, Jean-Claude. Auteurs européens du premier XXe siècle: Anthologie en langue française. 2 vols. Patrimoine littéraire. Brussels: De Boeck & Larcier s.a., 2002.

This two-volume anthology of European works includes French-language versions of texts originally published in French and in several other European languages during the early 20th-century. A table of languages enables users to identify which authors represented wrote in each of the various languages and an index of authors facilitates locating selections by each particular author. Bio-bibliographical information on each author is included before the excerpts from his or her work.

Back to Literature

Genres, Themes & Motifs

La littérature belge de langue française : au-delà du réel... Itinéraires et contacts de cultures, Vol. 20. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1995. 187 pp.

A collection of essays edited by Université de Paris-Nord's Centre d'Études littéraires belges de langue française. Papers treat such topics as characteristics specific to Belgian literature, symbolism and surrealism, "magical realism," the fantastic, theater, cinema, and comic books.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP


 

Language & Linguistics

Dictionaries

Thibault, André, ed. and Pierre Knecht, dir. Dictionnaire suisse romand: Particularités lexicales du français contemporain. Genève: Zoé, 2004. 885 pp.

Around 1,000 alphabetically-arranged entries which provide definitions according to Swiss usage as well as several citations as examples. Includes several indexes, such as of: words glossed in the citations; terms used to refer to different ethnic groups in Switzerland (e.g. les Francs-Montagnards, les Lucernois); terms from France, Québec, and Belgium and their Swiss synonyms; Swiss expressions used elsewhere in the Francophone world; and lists of terms grouped by conceptual context. There is also a bibliography of works cited.

Regional Expressions

Cléante. Tours et expressions de Belgique : prononciation, grammaire, vocabulaire. Bruxelles: Duculot, 2000. 160 pp.

Hundreds of Francophone Belgian terms and expressions are presented and explained in the vocabulaire section of this book. The chapters on pronunciation and grammar are much shorter, but also of interest. Many examples of contemporary language usage are provided. A bibliography and index of words and expressions are included.

Bal, Willy et al. Belgicismes: Inventaire des particularités lexicales du français en Belgique. Louvain-la-Neuve: Duculot, 1994. 143 pp. with a black-and-white map.

Alphabetized entries of Francophone Belgian terms and expressions with explanations and equivalents in standard French.

Arès, Georges. Parler suisse, parler français: Guide pratique à l'usage des touristes, congressistes, professeurs invités, traducteurs, annonceurs, exportateurs et auteurs en tous genres. Vevey : Editions de l'aire, c1994. 48 pp.

Francophone Swiss words and expressions are listed in alphabetical order with explanations and examples of usage. Includes a brief preface, appendices on special topics, and a bibliography.

BACK TO TOP


 

Culture & Websites

Belespace: La Culture en Belgique

Links to sites about current cultural events in Belgium, including museums, theater and cinema, as well as information of particular interest to young adults.

Webwatch Belgium

A guide to websites on various topics, such as arts and culture, sports and leisure, and the media.

Suisse-Romande.com

Links to information on music, museums, cinema, photography, and theater in Francophone Switzerland.

Web Resources on Luxembourg

Recommended sites on Luxembourgeois culture, compiled by subject specialists at the Library of Congress.

Web Resources on Monaco

Links to a range of topics, including government and law, arts and culture, sports, the press, and much more.

BACK TO TOP


 

Maghreb

BACK TO TOP


 

Literature

Bibliographies

Déjeux, Jean. Maghreb. Littératures de langue française: Histoire, Sociologie, et Bibliographie. Paris: Arcantère Editions, 1993. 658 pp.

Provides overviews of the histories of Algerian, Moroccan, and Tunisian Francophone literatures, reflections on the relationships between literature and society in the Maghreb, and bibliographies of North African fiction published from 1900 to 1945 and of works of various genres published from 1945 to 1989.

Limb, Peter and Jean-Marie Volet. Bibliography of African Literatures. Scarecrow Area Bibliographies, No. 10. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1996. 433 pp.

This bibliography focuses primarily on 20th-century works in English and French, but also includes some earlier writings and some works in Portuguese, Arabic, and various major African languages. Entries are arranged by language (French literatures are covered on pp. 204-355) and country. Maghreb and sub-Saharan literatures are included. There are indexes of authors, female literary authors, and countries.

D'Ambrosio, Nicola. Bibliographie methodique de la poésie maghrébine de langue française 1945-1989. Fasano, Italy and Paris, France: Schena-Nizet, 1991. 206 pp.

This bibliography contains 1879 entries, organized by country (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and genre (collections of poetry and articles/studies about this poetry). There is an index of the poets, critics, and main themes treated.

Dugas, Guy. Bibliographie de la littérature "marocaine" des Français. Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1986. 121 pp.

A total of nearly 800 citations in the following categories: littérature exotique et coloniale, littérature "marocaine" des Français, quelques auteurs, littérature d'escale et de voyageurs, and roman, recueils de nouvelles, récits. Includes an index of authors' names.

Bibliographie des auteurs africains de langue française. 4e édition. Etablie par Thérèse Barratte-Eno Belinga, Jacqueline Chauveau-Rabut, Mukala Kadima-Nazuji. Paris: F. Nathan, 1979. 245 pp.

Citations are arranged alphabetically by author under the country of the author's nationality. Includes indexes of authors, recordings, and publishing houses.

Literary History & Criticism

Déjeux, Jean. Maghreb. Littératures de langue française: Histoire, Sociologie, et Bibliographie. Paris: Arcantère Editions, 1993. 658 pp.

Provides overviews of the histories of Algerian, Moroccan, and Tunisian Francophone literatures, reflections on the relationships between literature and society in the Maghreb, and bibliographies of North African fiction published from 1900 to 1945 and of works of various genres published from 1945 to 1989.

Ibnlfassi, Laila and Nicki Hitchcott, eds. African Francophone Writing: A Critical Introduction. Oxford, Eng.: Berg, 1996. 215 pp.

A collection of essays on Francophone writing in North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. Includes a chronology of political and historical events, non-fiction and critical works, and key works of fiction from 1817 to 1994 as well as an index of authors, titles, places, and topics.

Mahfoudh, Ahmed. La crise du sujet dans le roman maghrébin de langue française. Tunis: Centre de Publication Universitaire, 2003. 282 pp.

Focuses on three major themes of Francophone North African literature: emigration (or the "depersonalized subject"), modernization (the "subject-object"), and identity (the "composite subject"). Includes bibliography and indexes of main concepts and authors.

Yelles, Mourad. Les miroirs de Janus: littératures orales et écritures postcoloniales (Maghreb-Caraïbes). Alger: Office des publications universitaires, 2002. 327 pp.

Yelles examines the relationships between oral and written literature, the masculine and the feminine, tradition and modernity, and literature from the Maghreb and Francophone literature in general. The first section of this study looks at the origins and development of North African literature, while the second section looks at oral and written literature in the Maghreb and in the Caribbean, focusing in particular on the work of Mohammed Dib, Rabah Belamri, Habib Tengour, Nourredine Saadi, Frantz Fanon, Jacques Roumain, René Depestre, and Daniel Boukman. Includes bibliographical references.

El-Khoury, Barbara. L'image de la femme chez les romancières francophones libanaises (1975-1992). Paris: L'Harmattan, 2004. 301 pp.

A critical study of the image and condition of women in works written primarily during a time of war in Lebanon. The themes of violence, resistance, and survival are therefore prevalent in these works, as well as the taboo issues of excision, prostitution, and the controversy over the wearing of the Muslim veil. El-Khoury examines women's roles in the household, dependent and independent women, different psychological "types," interpersonal communication, women's imagination and self-affirmation, and the messages and visions of women authors. With a preface by Evelyne Accad.

Jegham, Najeh. Lectures tunisiennes de la littérature de langue française. Tunisie : l'Or du temps, 2003. 136 pp.

A collection of nine essays by Jegham on works by various Tunisian authors (Hédi Bouraoui, Chams Nadir, Fawzi Mellah, Hélé Béji, Mustapha Tlili, Amina Saïd, Majid El-Houssi, and Abdelwahab Meddeb), as well as an essay comparing works by different authors. Includes an introduction and conclusion by Jegham, plus a bibliography of selected Tunisian works.

Sid Larbi-Attouche. Paroles de femmes : 21 cléfs pour comprende la littérature féminine en Algérie : essai. Alger : ENAG, 2001. 215 pp. with black-and-white photos.

A "portrait gallery" of 21 Algerian women authors, with photographs of these authors, introductions to their work, and, in some cases, interviews. Bibliographical and biographical notes on each of these women are included at the end of the volume.

Djedidi, Hafedh. Le théâtre tunisien dans tous ses états : essai. Hammam-Sousse, Tunisie : Editions Dar El-Mizen, 2003. 232 pp. with black-and-white photos.

Djedidi's reflections on Tunisian theatre, its history, and its current status. Also includes statistical data on Tunisian theatre, information on Tunisian theatre troops, and a bibliography.

Ben Achour, Bouziane. Le théâtre en mouvement: Octobre 88 à ce jour. Oran: Editions Dar El Gharb, 2002. 270 pp.

Traces major developments in Algerian theatre from October 1988 to around 2000. Discusses themes, plays by women, questions of language, and more.

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopeidas

Killam, D, and Rowe, R., eds. Companion to African Literatures. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Entries on authors, works, languages and themes. The "Guide to Readers" explains the kinds of information provided in each type of entry and lists the language and themed entries included. There are also a country-author guide and a list of titles for suggested further reading.

Achour, Christiane, dir. Dictionnaire des oeuvres algériennes en langue française. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. 383 pp.

Arranged alphabetically by title, short entries treat essays, novels, short stories, tales, autobiographical accounts, theater, poetry, and children's stories. Includes an index of authors.

Anthologies

Joubert, Jean-Louis, ed. Littératures francophones du monde arabe: Anthologie. Paris: Editions Nathan, 1994. 239 pp.

Part of a multi-volume series of anthologies of Francophone literatures, this volume provides a general introduction to French-language literatures in North Africa, including the literatures of Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and "l'Orient." The anthology includes a chronology of historical events and literary developments and excerpts from poems, travel journals, autobiography, short stories, novels, and theater. Includes indexes of authors cited and of genres and literary forms. Intended for use by secondary and college students, the work also offers pedagogical materials such as discussion questions alongside the literary excerpts.

Muzi, Jean. 30 contes du Maghreb. Paris : Castor Poche Flammarion, c2003. 173 pp.

These traditional tales from North Africa are recounted in a simple, accessible style and are recommended for French-speaking children ages 9 and up. These stories may be useful in intermediate-level French classes as well as enjoyable to anyone interested in learning about legends from Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

La vie en rose... nouvelles de femmes algériennes. Alger : ENAG éditions, c2002. 153 pp.

Twenty short stories by 20 different Algerian women authors. Major themes include daily life, violence, love, hope, and despair. The first story in the collection is entitled "La vie en rose," by Sabrinella Bedrane.

Brahimi, Denise, ed. Un siècle de nouvelles franco-maghrébines. [France] : Minerve, 1992. 234 pp.

A collection of 14 short stories written by French and Maghreb authors about life in the Maghreb. Includes a preface by the editor and bibliographical references.

Kaouah, Abdelmadjid, dir. Poésie algérienne francophone contemporaine. Marseille: Autres Temps, 2004. 265 pp.

The first part of this book provides an introduction to the history and current status of Algerian poetry; the second part offers poems by dozens of contemporary Algerian poets, in alphabetical order by the poets' last names. Brief bio-bibliographical notes on each poet are included. There is also a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

Amrani, Djamel et al. Nouvelle poésie algérienne. 2 vols. [Paris] : Marsa, [2001].

These two volumes include contemporary poetry by 11 Algerian poets. There is no commentary included, but this collection offers readers a chance to discover new poets of interest.

Treize écrivains algériens. Les belles étrangères. La Tour d'Aigues : l'Aube ; Alger : Barzakh, c2003. 184 pp.

An anthology of previously unpublished texts, with a photo and brief bio-bibliographical information on each of the authors featured.

Anthologie du nouveau théâtre algérien. [Algiers, Algeria] : Marsa, 2002. 442 pp.

This anthology includes 10 plays: Taxieur, by Alek Baylee; Kéroséne, by Nedjma Hadj et Guy Dermul; Les colliers de jasmin, by Youcef Tahari; Encore un tour, by Amar Oumaziz; La montagne des morts, by Sophie Amrouche; La défunte, by Achour Ouamara; Le paradis des fausses espérances, by Aïssa Khelladi; Algerino, by Nordine Meghasli; Un soir à Paris, by Madjid Ben Chikh; and Les filles de jelfen, by Hamma Méliami.

Martin Granel, Nicolas, Idoumou Ould Mohammed Lemine, and Georges Voisset. Guide de littérature mauritanienne: Une anthologie méthodique. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1992. 204 pp.

This anthology is organized into categories based on written and oral genres. Includes bibliographical references.

Brahimi-Chapuis, Denise and Gabriel Belloc. Anthologie du roman maghrébin, négro-africain, antillais, et réunionnais d'expression française de 1945 à nos jours. [Paris] : CILF, 1986. 255 pp.

A thematically organized collection of texts published from 1945 to the mid 1980s with commentary on each of the works represented. The Maghreb authors included are Tahar Ben Jelloun, Rachid Boudjedra, Driss Chraïbi, Mohammed Dib, Assia Djebar, Nabile Farès, Mouloud Feraoun, Mohammed Khaïr-Eddine, Aïcha Lemsine, Mouloud Mammeri, Albert Memmi, Ahmed Sefrioui, Leïla Sebbar, Mustapha Tlili, and Kateb Yacine. Themes from works published between 1945 and 1962 include childhood, colonialism, "mixed"-race couples, the relationship between the colonized and the Western world, and political conflicts. Themes from the work published beginning in 1962 include independence and political revolution, women and couples, social problems, "other struggles," and national identity and a return to tradition. The nationality of each author is noted with the commentary on his or her work and there are bio-bibliographical notes on all the authors at the end of the book.

Memmi, Albert, dir. Ecrivains francophones du Maghreb: Anthologie. Paris: Seghers, 1985. 351 pp.

Includes excerpts of works by 45 Maghreb authors, with bio-bibliographical notes on each. Annexes list the names and major works of authors born in the Maghreb, authors who wrote in or about the Maghreb although they were born elsewhere, and authors who traveled in the Maghreb during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Dugas, Guy, ed. Maroc: Les villes impériales. Paris: Omnibus, 1996. 1141 pp.

A collection of novels, tales, and narratives about Morocco by a variety of authors, including Pierre Loti, Henry de Montherlant, Tahar Essafi, and Ahmed Sefrioui. With an introduction by the editor, a glossary of Arab terms, and notes on the authors.

Authors

Jay, Salim. Dictionnaire des écrivains marocains. Paris: EDDIF, 2005. 370 pp.

Bio-bibliographical essays on Moroccan authors who have published in Arabic, French, Dutch, and other languages. Includes an introduction by the author.

Hargreaves, Alec G. La littérature beur: un guide bio-bibliographique. New Orleans: CELFAN Edition Monographs, 1992.

This slim (60-page) monograph is an alphabetical listing of approximately 25 authors of 'littérature beur', where 'beur' indicates "les nouvelles générations d'origine maghrébine en France" (p. 5). For each author, a list of titles, a biography, and further references are given.

Déjeux, J., ed. Dictionnaire des auteurs Maghrébins de langue française. Paris: Karthala, 1984. 404 pp.

Bio-bibliographical information about authors published in Algeria between 1880 and 1982, in Morocco from 1920 to 1982, and in Tunisia from 1900 to 1982. In some cases, critical reviews are also included.

Killam, D, and Rowe, R., eds. Companion to African Literatures. Bloomington, IA: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Entries on authors, works, languages and themes. The "Guide to Readers" explains the kinds of information provided in each type of entry and lists the language and themed entries included. There are also a country-author guide and a list of titles for suggested further reading.

Cox, C. Brian, ed. African Writers. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1997. 936 pp. total.

Bio-bibliographical essays on dozens of prominent African authors. Entries are arranged alphabetically; Volume I treats authors whose last names start with A to L; Volume II covers authors whose last names start with M to V. At the beginning of Volume I there are lists of writers by the countries with which they are associated, an introduction to some of the main issues of contemporary African literature, and a chronology from 1830 to 1996. At the end of Volume II there are notes on the contributors and an index of authors, titles, and topics.

Genres, Themes & Motifs

Déjeux, Jean. La poésie algérienne: De 1830 à nos jours. (Approches socio-historiques.) Réédition revue et corrigée. Paris: Editions Publisud, 1996. 108 pp.

A discussion of Algerian poets in their socio-cultural context from 1830 to the late 20th century. Includes an index of individuals and a bibliography.

Orlando, Valérie. Nomadic Voices of Exile: Feminine Identity in Francophone Literature of the Maghreb. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1999. 254 pp.

A study of the notion of difference and problematics of agency in Francophone North African writing by women, which features analyses of works by Tahar Ben Jelloun, Assia Djebar, Leïla Sebbar, Hajer Djilani, and Malika Mokeddem. Includes a bibliography and an index of people, places, and topics.

Brahimi, Denise. Maghrébines: Portraits littéraires. Paris: L'Harmattan-Awal, 1995. 181 pp.

An analysis of the representation of Maghreb mothers and grandmothers, prostitutes, and young women and girls in Francophone literature published by French and Maghreb men and women throughout the 20th century. Includes bibliographical references.

BACK TO TOP


 

Language & Linguistics

Dialects

Duclos, Jeanne et al. Le Pataouète: Dictionnaire de la langue populaire d'Algérie et d'Afrique du Nord. Calvisson [France] : Editions J. Gandini, c1992. 246 pp.

Over 1,000 alphabetized entries on North African words and expressions, with explanations and equivalents in standard French and citations from many North African authors.

Queffélec, A., ed. Alternances codiques et français parlé en Afrique. Actes du Colloque d'Aix-en-Provence--Septembre 1995. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Université de Provence, 1998.

Thirty-two papers on spoken French in Africa, which discuss a total of 13 specific countries, including Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.

Cheriguen, Foudil. Les mots des uns, les mots des autres: Le français au contact de l'arabe et du berbère. Alger: Casbah Editions, 2002. 302 pp.

A study of borrowings between French, Arabic, and Berber languages in North Africa. Includes a bibliography of linguistic criticism, dictionaries and encyclopedias, and primary works that furnished examples for the study.

BACK TO TOP


 

Culture

Film

Serceau, Michel, dir. "Cinémas du Maghreb." CinémAction no. 111, 2e trimestre 2004. 223 pp.

This issue of CinémAction focuses on films of the Maghreb, examining the past and present of Maghreb cinema, its forms, themes, and writers.

L'Association des Trois Mondes. Les cinémas d'Afrique dictionnaire. Paris: Karthala, 2000. 592 pp.

Brief bio-filmographical information on African movie directors; entries are arranged alphabetically by directors' names. Synopses of films are given. Includes indexes of film titles and of the countries of origin of the directors.

Visual Representations

Vogl, Mary B. Picturing the Maghreb: Literature, Photography, (Re)Presentation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2003. 225 pp. with black-and-white photographs.

An analysis of representations of North Africa in text and photographs. Includes a bibliography of primary and secondary sources, a chapter-by-chapter list of photo credits, and an index of proper names and topics.

BACK TO TOP


 

Websites

Afrol News

"The only independent news agency dedicated exclusively to Africa." Available on this site in both English and Spanish.

MaghrebArts

News of current cultural events in cinema, music, theater, media, photography, and visual arts.

Lehman Guide to Francophone Africa websites

Annotated list of websites focused on Francophone Africa. Includes general sites as well as sites on specific countries of the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa, which are listed by country.

Afromix: Algérie

Access to sites on Algerian culture and media, including links to Algerian radio and several online newspapers.

Algériesite--Culture et littérature

Links to several beautiful sites on art and culture. Particularly strong in the visual arts.

Le Guide Routard: Le Maroc

Information on cuisine, geography and climate, Moroccan money, transportation, etc. The section on culture provides facts on the Moroccan people, the press, music, and dance.

Yabiladi (Maroc)

Links to news, multimedia resources (radio, photography, and advertisements, and a television schedule), and cultural information.

La Gazette du Maroc and Aujourd'hui Maroc

These online Moroccan newspapers have features on the economy, society, and culture, sports, etc.

Culture du Maroc

Provides brief overviews of modern Moroccan literature, painting, theater, and cinema as well as links to sites about the languages, religions, artisanry, and holidays of the country.

Tunisian culture

Information on the history, politics, arts, and media (including radio and television) of Tunisia. Click on "Culture" for links to festivals, cinema and theaters, music, and museums.

Le Guide Routard: La Tunisie

Traveler's guide to Tunisia, with practical information on currency, food and drink, lodging, etc., as well as a section on culture that discusses cinema, radio, television, newspapers, museums, and monuments.

Tunisian search engine

Categories covered include arts et culture, alliances instituts, artistes, arts graphiques plastiques, festivals, musées centres culturels, and musique.

La Presse tunisienne

A daily online Tunisian newspaper.

Radio Tunis

Online access to Tunisian radio, including news and live and recorded music. News of current cultural events in cinema, music, theater, media, photography, and visual arts.

BACK TO TOP


 

Sub-Saharan Africa

Literature

Bibliographies

Limb, Peter and Jean-Marie Volet. Bibliography of African Literatures. Scarecrow Area Bibliographies, No. 10. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1996. 433 pp.

This bibliography focuses primarily on 20th-century works in English and French, but also includes some earlier writings and some works in Portuguese, Arabic, and various major African languages. Entries are arranged by language (French literatures are covered on pp. 204-355) and country. Maghreb and sub-Saharan literatures are included. There are indexes of authors.

Bibliographie des auteurs africains de langue française. 4e édition. Etablie par Thérèse Barratte-Eno Belinga, Jacqueline Chauveau-Rabut, Mukala Kadima-Nazuji. Paris: F. Nathan, 1979. 245 pp.

Citations are arranged alphabetically by author under the country of the author's nationality. Includes indexes of authors, recordings, and publishing houses.

Zell, Hans M., Carol Bundy, and Virginia Coulon, eds. A New Reader's Guide to African Literature. 2nd ed. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1983. 553 pp.

Annotated citations of works from and about English-speaking, Francophone, and Lusophone Africa. General reference works, criticism and essays, collections, and works on folklore and oral tradition are cited on pp. 1-125. Works from and about Francophone West Africa, East and Central Africa, and the Indian Ocean islands are listed by country on pp. 225 to 297. The second part of the volume includes biographies of dozens of African authors, arranged alphabetically by authors' names. Includes an index of authors, editors, and critics cited.

Back to Literature

Literary History & Criticism

Chevrier, Jacques. Littérature africaine: Histoire et grands thèmes. Paris: Hatier, 1990. 447 pp. with black-and-white illustrations.

Intended as a resource for students of Francophone literature, this reference work is organized chronologically and thematically to provide a basic understanding of the evolution and movements of French-language African literatures. There are indexes of authors' biographies and of works cited.

Owomoyela, Oyekan, ed. A History of Twentieth-Century African Literatures. Lincoln and London: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1993. 411 pp.

Along with chapters on English-language, Portuguese-language, and African-language literatures, this volume includes chapters on French-language fiction, poetry, and drama and theater, as well as individual chapters on African women writers, the question of language in African literatures, and publishing in Africa. There are notes on the contributors and an index of authors and titles cited.

Ibnlfassi, Laila and Nicki Hitchcott, eds. African Francophone Writing: A Critical Introduction. Oxford, Eng.: Berg, 1996. 215 pp.

A collection of essays on Francophone writing in North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. Includes a chronology of political and historical events, non-fiction and critical works, and key works of fiction from 1817 to 1994 as well as an index of authors, titles, places, and topics.

Rouch, Alain and Gérard Clavreuil. Littératures nationales d'écriture française: Afrique noire, Cara?bes, Océan Indien: Histoire littéraire et Anthologie. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 511 pp.

This volume is organized into sections by country, with a brief introduction to the literary history of each country preceding several excerpts of works by authors from that country. (See the section on "Autres pays" for brief entries on Burundi, Mauritania, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Somalia.)
Bio-bibliographical information on each author represented is included with the selection from his or her work. At the end of the book are a bibliography and an index of authors with the names of their countries so that readers can refer back to the appropriate section of the anthology.

Little, J.P. and Roger Little. Black Accents: Writing in French from Africa, Mauritius, and the Caribbean. Proceedings of the ASCALF Conference held in Dublin, 8-10 April 1995. London: Grant and Cutler, 1997. 286 pp.

These French- and English-language papers from the Association for the Study of Caribbean and African Literature in French (ASCALF)'s 1995 conference are organized into sections on the Caribbean, Mauritius, and West Africa. The essays on West African literature discuss themes such as fathers and sons, female sexuality, Islamism, nationalism, and madness, as well as questions related to contemporary poetry, theater, and music. Includes a general introduction by the editors, notes on the contributors, and an index of proper names.

Rubango, Nyunda ya and Bogumil Jewsiewicki, dirs. Littérature francophone: Université et Société au Congo-Zaïre. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2005. 308 pp.

A collection of essays celebrating the work of Victor Bol, who introduced the study of African literature as an academic discipline in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaïre) in the mid-20th century. The essays examine the status of African literature and how it is researched, criticized, and taught in Zaïre today. The socio-economic and political crises of the area are also discussed.

Back to Literature

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Killam, D, and Rowe, R., eds.  Companion to African Literatures. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Entries on authors, works, languages and themes. The "Guide to Readers" explains the kinds of information provided in each type of entry and lists the language and themed entries included. There are also a country-author guide and a list of titles for suggested further reading.

Nkashama, Pius Ngandu. Dictionnaire des oeuvres littéraires africaines de langue française. Ivry-sur-Seine, France: Editions Nouvelles du Sud, 1994. 745 pp.

Entries are organized alphabetically by authors' last names, and then by the publication dates of each work discussed. The dictionary entries are divided into three main categories: roman-récit-conte, poésie, and théâtre. The volume includes a general introduction to Francophone African literature and indexes of authors and titles.

Back to Literature

Anthologies

Joubert, Jean-Louis, ed. Littératures francophones d'Afrique de l'Ouest: Anthologie. Paris: Editions Nathan, 1994. 255 pp.

Part of a multi-volume series of anthologies of Francophone literatures, this volume provides an introduction to French-language literatures in West Africa, including the literatures of Benin, Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. There is a chronology of historical events and literary developments as well as excerpts from poems, autobiography, short stories, novels, and theater. Includes indexes of authors cited and of genres and literary forms. Intended for use by secondary and college students, the work also offers pedagogical materials such as discussion questions alongside the literary excerpts.

Joubert, Jean-Louis, ed. Littératures francophones d'Afrique centrale: Anthologie. Paris: Editions Nathan, 1995. 255 pp.

Part of the same series of anthologies as Littératures francophones d'Afrique de l'Ouest (see citation above), this volume provides a general introduction to French-language literatures in central Africa, including the literatures of Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Rwanda, Chad, and Zaire. Following a chronology of historical events and literary developments in the area, there are individual sections on each country, which include general introductions to these literatures and excerpts from traditional tales, poems, autobiography, novels, and theater. Includes indexes of authors cited and of genres and literary forms. Intended for use by secondary and college students, the work also offers pedagogical materials such as discussion questions alongside the literary excerpts.

Huannou, Adrien. Anthologie de la littérature féminine d'Afrique noire francophone. Abidjan: Les Editions Bognini, 1994. 347 pp.

Selections from novels, theater, and poetry published by African women writers since 1960. Includes notes on each of the authors represented and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

Rouch, Alain and Gérard Clavreuil. Littératures nationales d'écriture française: Afrique noire, Caraibes, Océan Indien: Histoire littéraire et Anthologie. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 511 pp.

This volume is organized into sections by country, with a brief introduction to the literary history of each country preceding several excerpts of works by authors from that country. Bio-bibliographical information on each author represented is included with the selection from his or her work. At the end of the book are a bibliography and an index of authors with the names of their countries so that readers can refer back to the appropriate section of the anthology.

Brahimi-Chapuis, Denise and Gabriel Belloc. Anthologie du roman maghrébin, négro-africain, antillais, et réunionnais d'expression française de 1945 à nos jours. [Paris] : CILF, 1986. 255 pp.

A thematically organized collection of texts published from 1945 to the mid 1980s with commentary on each of the works represented. African authors included are Seydou Badian, Mongo Béti, Bernard Dadié, Emmanuel Dongala, Cheikh Hamidou Kane, Ahmadou Kourouma, Camara Laye, Henri Lopes, Yambo Ouologuem, Ferdinand Oyono, Sembene Ousmane, and Tchicaya U Tam'si. Themes from works published between 1945 and 1962 include childhood, colonialism, "mixed"-race couples, the relationship between the colonized and the Western world, and political conflicts. Themes from the work published beginning in 1962 include independence and political revolution, women and couples, social problems, "other struggles," and national identity and a return to tradition. The nationality of each author is noted with the commentary on his or her work and there are bio-bibliographical notes on all the authors at the end of the book.

Bourdette-Donon, Marcel. Anthologie de la littérature et des arts tchadiens. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2003. 293 pp. with black-and-white photographs.

This anthology contains 49 bio-bibliographical entries on authors and artists from Chad, with photographs of most and selected representations of their works. Also included are historical and literary introductions to the volume; a chronology; bibliographies of tales and proverbs from Chad, poetry and short story collections, and literary studies; an index of authors cited; and a glossary of literary terms used.

Back to Literature

Authors

Parekh, Pushpa Naidu and Siga Fatima Jagne, eds. Postcolonial African Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. 525 pp.

Detailed entries on 60 contemporary African authors, arranged alphabetically by the authors' last names. Includes an introduction to postcolonial African literature, a selected bibliography, an index of individuals and topics, and notes on the contributors.

Cox, C. Brian, ed.  African Writers. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1997. 936 pp. total.

Bio-bibliographical essays on dozens of prominent African authors. Entries are arranged alphabetically; Volume I treats authors whose last names start with A to L; Volume II covers authors whose last names start with M to V. At the beginning of Volume I there are lists of writers by the countries with which they are associated, an introduction to some of the main issues of contemporary African literature, and a chronology from 1830 to 1996. At the end of Volume II there are notes on the contributors and an index of authors, titles, and topics.

Zell, Hans M., Carol Bundy, and Virginia Coulon, eds. A New Reader's Guide to African Literature. 2nd ed. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1983. 553 pp.

Annotated citations of works from and about English-speaking, Francophone, and Lusophone Africa, arranged primarily by country, and secondarily by authors' names. Works from and about Francophone West Africa, East and Central Africa, and the Indian Ocean islands are listed on pp. 225 to 297. The second part of the volume includes biographies of dozens of African authors. Includes an index of authors, editors, and critics cited.

Back to Literature

Genres, Themes & Motifs

Conteh-Morgan, John. Theatre and Drama in Francophone Africa: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 243 pp.

Part I of this study discusses the traditional context of Francophone drama, the transition from oral performances to modern drama, and the thematic dimension of Francophone drama. Part II treats plays by several African authors, including Aimé Césaire, Bernard Dadié, and Cheik Ndao. Includes bibliographical references and an index of plays, playwrights and selected critics.

Chevrier, Jacques. Littérature africaine: Histoire et grands thèmes. Paris: Hatier, 1990. 447 pp. with black-and-white illustrations.

This reference work is organized chronologically and thematically to provide a basic understanding of the evolution and movements of French-language African literatures. Themes treated in individual chapters include la prise de conscience, ambiguité et servitudes de la société coloniale, tradition et modernité, la révolte, le passé revisité, désenchantement et malaise, les régimes totalitaires, amertumes et espoirs, permanence de la tradition, and reve et fantaisie. There are indexes of authors' biographies and of works cited.

Little, J.P. and Roger Little. Black Accents: Writing in French from Africa, Mauritius, and the Caribbean. Proceedings of the ASCALF Conference held in Dublin, 8-10 April 1995. London: Grant and Cutler, 1997. 286 pp.

These French- and English-language papers from the Association for the Study of Caribbean and African Literature in French (ASCALF)'s 1995 conference are organized into sections on the Caribbean, Mauritius, and West Africa. The essays on West African literature discuss themes such as fathers and sons, female sexuality, Islamism, nationalism, and madness, as well as questions related to contemporary poetry, theater, and music. Includes a general introduction by the editors, notes on the contributors, and an index of proper names.

Brahimi-Chapuis, Denise and Gabriel Belloc. Anthologie du roman maghrébin, négro-africain, antillais, et réunionnais d'expression française de 1945 à nos jours. [Paris] : CILF, 1986. 255 pp.

A thematically organized collection of texts published from 1945 to the mid 1980s with commentary on each of the works represented. Themes from works published between 1945 and 1962 include childhood, colonialism, "mixed"-race couples, the relationship between the colonized and the Western world, and political conflicts. Themes from the work published beginning in 1962 include independence and political revolution, women and couples, social problems, "other struggles," and national identity and a return to tradition. The nationality of each author is noted with the commentary on his or her work and there are bio-bibliographical notes on all the authors at the end of the book.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP


 

Language & Linguistics

Equipe IFA. Inventaire des particularités lexicales du français en Afrique noire. 2nd edition. Paris: EDICEF, 1988. 442 pp.

An alphabetized list of terms particular to Francophone North Africa. Includes explanations of usage and examples.

Queffélec, A., ed. Alternances codiques et français parlé en Afrique. Actes du Colloque d'Aix-en-Provence--Septembre 1995. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Université de Provence, 1998.

Thirty-two papers on spoken French in Africa, which discuss a total of 13 specific countries.

Zang Zang, Paul. Le français en Afrique: Norme, tendances, évaluatives, dialectisation. Munich: Lincom Europa, 1998. 452 pp.

A study of phonetics, lexical usage, and grammar in the spoken French of Cameroon.

BACK TO TOP


 

Culture

Dictionary/Encyclopedia

Le Dictionnaire universel. Vanves: AUPELF-UREF / Hachette, 1995. 1503 pp.

This dictionary includes 53 detailed encyclopedic entries on the countries of Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In addition, 6,000 of the 110,000 definitions teach terms specific to Francophone Africa and 3,000 of the 13,000 proper name entries relate to Africa. There is a color-coded map of Francophone countries and regions worldwide at the end of the volume.

Film

Ruelle, Catherine, dir. Afriques 50: singularités d'un cinéma pluriel. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2005. 333 pp.

A history of the past 50 years of African cinema, "the youngest cinema in the world," presented in the form of several essays by various authors. Includes a chronology of important events in African cinema, notes on the contributors, and a bibliography.

L'Association des Trois Mondes. Les cinémas d'Afrique dictionnaire. Paris: Karthala, 2000. 592 pp.

Brief bio-filmographical information on African movie directors; entries are arranged alphabetically by directors' names. Synopses of films are given. Includes indexes of film titles and of the countries of origin of the directors.

Schmidt, Nancy. Sub-Saharan African Films and Filmmakers: An Annotated Bibliography. / Films et Cinéastes Africains de la Région Subsaharienne: Une Bibliographie Commentée. London, Munich, New York, and Paris: Hans Zell Publishers, 1988. 401 pp.

This bilingual bibliography cites books, monographs, theses, articles, reviews, and pamphlets on Sub-Saharan African cinema. Entries are listed alphabetically by authors' names. There are indexes of actors and actresses, film festivals, film titles, filmmakers, countries, and general subjects.

BACK TO TOP


 

Websites

Africultures.com

Online news, culture, and shopping. Includes information on the arts, cinema, dance, history and society, literature, the press, music, photography, theater, and more.

Afrol News

"The only independent news agency dedicated exclusively to Africa." Available on this site in both English and Spanish.

Lehman Guide to Francophone Africa websites

Annotated list of websites focused on Francophone Africa. Includes general sites as well as sites on specific countries of the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa, which are listed by country.

Click Afrique

Directory of websites on African art, history, and culture, business and jobs, the internet and science and technology, news and politics, sports, and travel and tourism.

Adminet Africa

Provides a map of Africa and lists of general online resources, Francophone resources, Arab resources, sites on Black culture, and African art, culture, and cooking, as well as lists of sites on dozens of specific countries.

Brown Univ. Guide to Africa Websites

Brown University's Digital Library listings of websites on Francophone Africa. Includes descriptions of sites about the visual arts, cinema, socio-cultural issues, dance, African studies, literature, music, and theater.

BACK TO TOP


 

Middle East

*Coming Soon!*

Literature

Language & Linguistics

Culture

Websites

 

Indian Ocean

BACK TO TOP


Literature

Bibliographies

Zell, Hans M., Carol Bundy, and Virginia Coulon, eds. A New Reader's Guide to African Literature. 2nd ed. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1983. 553 pp.

Annotated citations of works from and about English-speaking, Francophone, and Lusophone Africa, arranged primarily by country, and secondarily by authors' names. Works from and about Francophone West Africa, East and Central Africa, and the Indian Ocean islands are listed on pp. 225 to 297. The second part of the volume includes biographies of dozens of African authors. Includes an index of authors, editors, and critics cited.

Girardin, Monique, compiler. Bibliographie de l'île de la Réunion (1973-1992). Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille, 1994. 285 pp.

This bibliography is organized in nine main categories: reference works; general works; the environment; society, population, health, family and social life; regional development, urbanism, transportation, and tourism; the economy, production, and employment; institutions, administration, and politics; regional and international relations; language, literature, and the arts; and history. There are two indices, one of individual authors and another of collective authors and titles.

Roda, Jean-Claude. Bibliographie de la Réunion des origines à 1975. Saint-Denis: Association Historique Internationale de l'Océan Indien, 1982-1984. 10 vol.; 302 pp. total.

The first published bibliography of literature from Reunion Island, taken together these slim volumes include thousands of entries on works from 1700-1975. Organized following the Dewey decimal classification system, entries are alphabetized by author, or by title when the author is unknown, within each category.

Memorandum of Books Printed in Mauritius and registered in the Archives Office (printed quarterly). Port Louis, Mauritius: Mauritius Archives, 1981-1990.

These listings of books registered in the Mauritius Archives are divided into two categories: (1) publications issued by government and public institutions, and (2) publications issued by private individuals and organizations. Within each quarter and each of these two sections, citations are organized alphabetically by individual authors' last names or corporate authors' names.

Toussaint, Auguste and Harold Adolphe. Bibliography of Mauritius (1502-1954). Port Louis: The Government of Mauritius, 1956. 884 pp.

Intended to record as comprehensively as possible all pieces and sets of printed, manuscript, archivalia, and cartographic material related to Mauritius and its Dependencies from 1502 through 1954, available in Mauritius itself or elsewhere. The foreword gives some basic historical information on Mauritius and its literature. The general index, which refers to entry-numbers rather than page-numbers, includes individual and corporate names and titles of periodicals, newspapers, and serials appearing in the entries.

Webb, A.W.T. and H.J. Mac Gaw. Inventaire des Archives Nationales des Seychelles. Victoria: Les Archives Nationales des Seychelles, [1981]. 432 pp.

The first published inventory of the Seychelles National Archives, covering works published (and objects created) between 1772 and 1979. Documents are classed in 10 categories: official records from the French administration of the islands up to 1810, official correspondence of the British administration starting in 1811, selected official records of the British administration after 1867, official publications of the Seychelles government, civil status registers, unofficial publications on the history and natural history of the Seychelles, journals and newspapers published in the Seychelles, maps, sound recordings, and stamps, coins, and treasury notes. Each section is introduced by notes on the history and status of the works in that specific part of the collection.

Fontvieille, Jean, ed. Bibliographie nationale de Madagascar (1956-1963). [Tananarive]: Université de Madagascar, [1971]. 511 pp.

Intended as a continuation of Grandidier's work (see below), the numbered entries of this work thus begin at number 23,004 and end with number 28,450 (for a total of 5,447 entries). Instead of following Grandidier's strictly alphabetical arrangement, Fontvieille categorized the entries of his bibliography according to Universal Decimal Classification (with entries within each category in alphabetical order by the authors' last names). One cumulative, alphabetized index of authors, titles of anonymous publications, periodicals, and subjects is intended to facilitate finding specific entries more easily than with Grandidier's system of three separate indexes.

Grandidier, Guillaume. Bibliographie de Madagascar. Paris: Comité de Madagascar, 1906 [i.e. 1905]-57. 3 vol. 1909 pp.

Described in the preface of Fontvieille's bibliography (see above) as a meticulous work that includes citations and annotations for all known publications in Madagascar from its discovery by Europeans at the beginning of the 20th century to 1955. Contains 23,003 alphabetized entries and a systematic, 30-part index referring to the number of each entry.

Back to Literature

Literary Histories & Criticism

Joubert, Jean-Louis. Littératures de l'Océan Indien. Histoire littéraire de la Francophonie. Vanves, France: EDICEF, 1991. Black-and-white maps. 303 pp.

A general history of the literatures of Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion Island, the Seychelles, and the Comoros. The introduction gives some background information on the diversity of these islands and basic definitions of their various forms of literature. The body of the text is divided into four main parts, which discuss Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion Island, and the Archipelagos (the Seychelles and the Comoros). Each part begins with a chronology of the island(s) in question, then discusses the languages and literature, including specific influential writers and literary movements, of the island(s). Each chapter concludes with bibliographic references. A helpful synthesis of major historical and literary developments in the literatures of this region since the first contacts between Europeans and the islanders.

Hausser, Michel and Martine Mathieu. Littératures francophones: III. Afrique noire, Océan Indien. Paris: Belin, 1998. 270 pp.

Divided into two main sections, the first on Sub-Saharan Africa and the second on the Indian Ocean, this volume provides introductions to the literatures of these regions as well as bibliographies and chronologies of them. The chapters in the second section focus on Madagascar, Mauritius, and Réunion, tracing literary movements and developments on these islands. Numerous sidebars give additional information on specific authors and works. At the end of the volume are bio-bibliographical notes on major authors, indexes of proper names, literary works, and works cited, and a detailed table of contents.

Rouch, Alain and Gérard Clavreuil. Littératures nationales d'écriture française: Afrique noire, Caraibes, Océan Indien: Histoire littéraire et Anthologie. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 511 pp.

This volume is organized into sections by country, with a brief introduction to the literary history of each country preceding several excerpts of works by authors from that country. Madagascar, Mauritius, and Réunion are all represented. See the "Autres pays" section for brief entries on the Comoros and the Seychelles Islands. Bio-bibliographical information on each author is included with the selection from his or her work. At the end of the book are a bibliography and an index of authors with the names of their countries so that readers can refer back to the appropriate section of the anthology.

Issur, Kumari R. and Vinesh Y. Hookoomsing, directors. L'océan Indien dans les littératures francophones: Pays réels, pays rêvé, pays révélés. Paris: Kathala, 2001. 706 pp.

Papers from a conference held at the Université de Maurice in July 1997, which treat the literatures of Mauritius, Réunion, and Madagascar, as well as relationships between French and Indian Ocean literature. The texts have been organized thematically into the following categories: travel and cultural encounters, the Indian Ocean (créolité and indianocéanisme); Madagascar (literature, culture, and anthropology); multilingualism and interculturality; the "plurality" of Mauritius; reality and utopia; faces and images of India; and Africa, the Caribbean, and the Mascareignes (convergences and divergences). The detailed table of contents makes it easy to find papers of interest, and this volume is a valuable source for recent literary criticism of a Francophone region that is often overlooked by scholars.

Nicole, Rose-May. Noirs, Cafres, et Créoles: Etude de la représentation du non blanc réunionnais. (Documents et littératures réunionnaises 1710-1980). Paris: L'Harmattan, 1996.

This work traces the representation of the Blacks and Creoles of Reunion Island in literature from Antoine Boucher's Mémoire written in the early 18th century to colonial documents to late 20th-century poetry and novels. The author found that novels about Blacks, slaves, fugitive slaves, and natives were particularly popular between 1844 and 1955, so the book has a special focus on that time period. Includes a categorized bibliography and a glossary of Island vocabulary; words of Malagasy origin; words of Portuguese, Indo-Portuguese, or Indian origin; words of French origin; words of unknown origin; and Creole terms.

Prosper, Jean-Georges. Histoire de la littérature mauricienne de langue française. Ile Maurice: Éditions de l'Océan Indien, 1978. 344 pp.

This history of the Francophone literature of Mauritius traces works and authors from the beginning of French-language publication on the island at the beginning of the 19th century to the late 20th century. Prosper discusses what he sees as the collective "personality" of Mauritius, literary societies on the island, poetry, folklore, neo-Romanticism and symbolism, surrealism, "Indian Oceanism," symbolic impressionism, the rise of the novel, and the roles of Africa and of the Far East in the literature of Mauritius. The work includes notes on French authors who were inspired by the island, natives of Mauritius who have published in Eastern languages, and those who have published in English. Appendices list literary reviews and journals, printers, and Francophone authors of the island, often with brief descriptions of their lives and work. The volume concludes with a brief bibliography of secondary sources.

Back to Literature

Literary Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Chaudenson, Robert, director. Encyclopédie de la Réunion. 8 vols. Saint-Denis: Livres-Réunion, 1980. Black-and-white and color illustrations and photographs.

Beautifully bound and illustrated, this series of French-language encyclopedias of Réunion covers the following range of topics:

Volume 7 on literature is organized into three chapters:

Back to Literature

Anthologies

Joubert, Jean-Louis, Amina Osman, and Liliane Ramarosoa. Littératures francophones de l'Océan Indien. Paris: Groupe de la Cité international, 1993.

Part of a multi-volume series of anthologies of Francophone literatures, this volume offers a general introduction to French-language literature originating from the islands of the Indian Ocean. Includes two-page essays on the literatures of Madagascar, Reunion Island, Mauritius Island, the Archipels, and on French authors' work about the region. The literature represented consists of excerpts of autobiography, short stories, essays, poetry and poetry in prose, travel journals, novels, and theater. There is a very helpful chronology of historical events and literary developments in the area. Includes an index of authors cited, a table of the short literary essays provided throughout the volume, and an index of the genres and literary forms selected. Intended for use by secondary and college students, the work also offers pedagogical materials such as discussion questions alongside the literary excerpts.

Rouch, Alain and Gérard Clavreuil. Littératures nationales d'écriture française: Afrique noire, Caraibes, Océan Indien: Histoire littéraire et Anthologie. Paris: Bordas, 1986. 511 pp.

This volume is organized into sections by country, with a brief introduction to the literary history of each country preceding several excerpts of works by authors from that country. Madagascar, Mauritius, and Réunion are all represented. Bio-bibliographical information on each author is included with the selection from his or her work. At the end of the book are a bibliography and an index of authors with the names of their countries so that readers can refer back to the appropriate section of the anthology.

Bourgeacq, Jacques, and Liliane Ramarosoa, eds. Voices from Madagascar: An Anthology of Contemporary Francophone Literature. / Voix de Madagascar: Anthologie de littérature francophone contemporaine. African Series No. 75. Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 2002. 314 pp.

The introduction to this bilingual anthology is written in English and provides background information on the long-standing "cultural and linguistic 'love affair' between France and Madagascar" (p. xii) and on colonial literature written by French authors as well as on literature written by Malagasy authors throughout the 20th century. This volume includes complete poems and short stories, rather than excerpts from longer works, in the original French alongside their translations into English. Endnotes explain Malagasy terms and cultural allusions. Includes a selected bibliography.

Ramarosoa, Liliane. Anthologie de la littérature malgache d'expression française des années 80. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 255 pp. Illustrated with engravings and drawings by Malagasy artists.

According to the preface, this may be the first general anthology of Francophone works by Malagasy authors, including well-known writers as well as lesser-known, promising writers of poetry, novels, theatre, and short stories. As an introduction to the texts, the author provides a brief "panorama" of Francophone literature in Madagascar. Excerpts from novels, play, and short stories are preceded by summaries of the works from which they were selected. Also includes a glossary of Malagasy words and cultural references (signaled in the texts by asterisks), bio-bibliographical notes on the authors, indexes of authors and themes, and a bibliography of primary texts.

Nihry-Lanto Ramamonjisoa, Solotiana, ed. Anthologie bilingue de littérature malgache: Jupiter, Bruno Rahaingo, Ny Malodohasaha. Des transports de l'amour à l'engagement du militant. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2001. 183 pp.

This anthology is intended to provide international access to the works of three Malagasy poets whose engaged writing is representative of that of their contemporaries. The editor describes these writers as patriotic, but not nationalistic; to demonstrate this point, she has chosen to highlight the theme of love that is common to their poetry. These three poets wrote during different, critical time periods in the history of Malagasy literature--Jupiter (Justin Rainizababololona) was one of the first published Madagascans, writing at the beginning of the 20th century when the island became a French colony; Bruno Rahaingo (Nirhy-Lanto Rakotonindrina) wrote in the post-World War II era when Madagascan authors first demonstrated their political engagement through their writing; and Ny Malodohasaha (Narivelo Rajaonarimanana) wrote at the end of the 1960s, when activists lobbied for a new government, resulting in the fall of the first Republic of Madagascar in 1972. Includes a chronology of political events from 1895 to 1972, an introduction to the three poets and their works, dozens of poems in the original Malagasy side-by-side with their French translations, and a bibliography.

Samlong, Jean-François. Anthologie du roman réunionnais. Paris: Seghers, 1991. 230 pp.

Contains brief biographies of and excerpts from works by 25 authors from Réunion, synopses of texts by 23 additional authors, a list of the authors and titles of several works situated in Réunion, a chronological bibliography of French and Creole texts published in Réunion from 1844 to 1990, and a list of critical studies, memoirs, and other works related to this literature. A useful introduction for those interested in the major authors and the scope of 19th- and 20th-century literature from Réunion.

Back to Literature

Authors

Les Signets de la Bibliothèque Nationale

Links to various websites on Francophone literature of the Indian Ocean, including general sites and sites on authors. Last visited 18 April 2011.

Zell, Hans M., Carol Bundy, and Virginia Coulon, eds. A New Reader's Guide to African Literature. 2nd ed. New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1983. 553 pp.

Annotated citations of works from and about English-speaking, Francophone, and Lusophone Africa, arranged primarily by country, and secondarily by authors' names. Works from and about Francophone West Africa, East and Central Africa, and the Indian Ocean islands are listed on pp. 225 to 297. The second part of the volume includes biographies of dozens of African authors. Includes an index of authors, editors, and critics cited.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP

Language & Linguistics

Lee, Jacques K. Mauritius: Its Creole Language. The Ultimate Creole Phrase Book and Dictionary. English-Creole Dictionary. London: Nautilus Publishing Co., 1999. 149 pp. with simple black-and-white maps.

The Mauritian Creole phrases provided in the first part of this book are organized in the following categories: "the basics" (pronunciation, possessive pronouns, question words, etc.); common words and phrases; arrival in Mauritius; at the hotel; eating and drinking; motoring and public transport; going shopping; family, relationships and people; sightseeing and sports; health; flora and fauna; and "miscellaneous." The second part treats special topics such as numbers and rhymes, idioms and slang, gastronomy, children's Creole, archaic French, and the history of Mauritius and its languages. The dictionary section lists English words in alphabetical order and gives their equivalents in Creole. Includes a bibliography.

BACK TO TOP


Culture

General Bibliography

Gotthold, Julia J., compiler, with Donald W. Gotthold. Indian Ocean. The World Bibliographical Series Volume 85. Oxford, England, and Santa Barbara, CA:CLIO Press, 1988.

A bibliography of the Indian Ocean, this book is useful for those seeking background knowledge of the area. Includes a chronology dating from initial exploration of the area by Egyptians in 2900-1090 B.C. up to 1985. Annotated bibliographical references are organized in the following main categories: History (including French exploration of the Ocean); Economic Resources; the Indian Ocean as a Strategic Military Area; Seapower and the Law of the Sea; Ocean Science; Atlases, Maps and Charts; Indian Ocean Educational and Scientific Institutions, and Sources for Research; Encyclopedias, Yearbooks, Indexes and Gazetteers; Periodicals; Bibliographies (general and scientific); and Indian Ocean Island Groups. Includes an index of authors, titles, and subjects and a black-and-white map of the Indian Ocean.

Photographs & Illustrations

Gelabert, Serge. L'Ile de la Réunion: Un volcan dans l'Océan Indien. Saint-Denis: Livres Réunion, 1984. 152 pages. Color map and photographs; black-and-white illustrations.

This work offers stunning color photographs of Réunion, which would be well suited for class presentations. Beginning with impressive shots of volcanic eruptions from the 1980s, the volume also includes captioned pictures of the Plaine des Sables ("sand plain"), the coasts, the Piton du Maïdo (jagged hills), the Hermitage lagoon, the black sand beach at l'Étang Salé (translated literally, "Salted Pond"), waterfalls, trees, flowers, fruits, and the diverse population of the island. Also includes black-and-white lithographs that present retrospective looks at Réunion.

 

BACK TO TOP


Websites

Ile en Ile: L'Océan Indien

Links to websites on a broad variety of cultural aspects of Indian Ocean islands: cuisine, the fine arts, language, literature, music, travel, beliefs and traditions, flora and fauna, genealogy, coins and stamps, online yellow pages and gateways, associations, teaching institutions, government, the media, publishers and bookstores, and museums and cultural centers.

L'annuaire web de l'Océan Indien

Links to over 2,000 sites in several different categories, including news and the media, government institutions, art and culture, clubs and associations, leisure activities, economics and businesses, education, computer science and multimedia, children and adolescents, health and medicine, physical and social sciences, shopping, family and society, travel, and online yellow pages.

Malango: Océan Indien francophone

News, weather, and photos from Francophone Indian Ocean islands.

BACK TO TOP


 

East Asia & Oceania

Literature

Retrospective Bibliographies

O'Reilly, Patrick, and Édouard Reitman. Bibliographie de Tahiti et de la Polynésie française. Publications de la Société des Océanistes, no. 14. Paris: Musée de l'Homme, 1967. 1046 pp.

An extensive French-language bibliography that, according to the authors' claim, treats all of the writings published in French Polynesia (including Tahiti, the Iles Sous-le-Vent, the Archipel des Marquises, the Archipel des Tuamotu, the Iles du Vent, and the Austral Islands, as well as a few isolated islets, such as Rapa) up to 1965, regardless of genre, language, or publication date. The 10,501 entries are classified into several major categories (Bibliographies and Reference Works, Travel, Geology, Botany, Zoology, Geography, Ethnology, History, Economics, Medicine, Literature, Fine Arts, Periodicals), which are further divided into subcategories. All entries are annotated. An alphabetized index of the names of people, topics, islands, and even of the boats used to explore the area, along with a system of cross-references, helps readers navigate the bibliography.

O'Reilly, Patrick. Bibliographie methodique, analytique, et critique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Publications de la Société des Océanistes, no. 4. Paris: Musée de l'Homme, 1955. 361 pp.

This general, annotated bibliography was commissioned by the Parisian Committee on the Centennial of the French Presence in New Caledonia because no extensive bibliography of the region had previously been published. Includes over 4,000 entries on French- and English-language works in 13 main categories (Bibliographies and Reference Works, Travel, Geology, Botany, Zoology, Geography, Ethnology, History, Economics, Medical Science, Literature, Local Periodicals, and Cartography). Most of these general categories are further divided into subcategories, and a detailed table of contents makes it easy for users to find specific subjects of interest. The volume also includes an introduction by the author explaining his aims and criteria for selection; an index of authors, other figures, periodicals, topics, and ships; and an alphabetized list of New-Caledonian periodicals.

O'Reilly, Patrick. Bibliographie methodique, analytique, et critique des Nouvelles-Hébrides. Publications de la Société des Océanistes, no. 8. Paris: Musée de l'Homme, 1958. 304 pp.

This is the first extensive bibliography of the New Hebrides (now called Vanuatu) ever published. The classification system and presentation are similar to those of the above work (Bibliographie... de la Nouvelle-Calédonie). The index and table of contents are quite detailed, making this volume another very user-friendly retrospective bibliography.

Hanson, F. Allan and Patrick O'Reilly. Bibliographie de Rapa, Polynésie Française. Publications de la Société des Océanistes, no. 32. Paris: Musée de l'Homme, 1973. 53 pp.

Entries are grouped into seven main categories of printed works (Notices, Travel, Natural Sciences, Ethnology, History, Economics and Transportation, and Demographics) and a section on the documents in three different archives in London and France. In the Notices (works written by authors who never visited Rapa) and Travel sections, entries are listed chronologically; in the remaining sections, entries are alphabetized by the last names of the authors. Includes an index of authors, other individuals mentioned in titles or notes, titles, topics, and boats mentioned in the entries.

Back to Literature

Literary Histories & Criticism

Kato, Haruhisa, dir. La modernité française dans l'Asie littéraire: Chine, Corée, Japon. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004. 403 pp.

A collection of recent papers that discuss the relationship between France and East Asia (specifically, China, Korea, and Japan) in terms of culture, literature, and language. The section on literature discusses the reception of certain 19th- and 20th-century French literary works and movements in Asia as well as contemporary Chinese literature in France.

Mateata-Allain, Kareva. "Ma'ohi Women Writers of Colonial French Polynesia: Passive Resistance toward a Post(-) colonial Literature." University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. Copyright 2003 by Kareva Mateata-Allain. Last accessed 12 November 2007. http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v7i2/mateat.htm

This paper examines the lack of scholarship on Ma'ohi writers, despite their active literary production since the 1980s. Mateata-Allain notes that one reason for this gap in Francophone studies is that it is hard to access Ma'ohi works outside of Tahiti, where they are published locally. She also asserts that France has appeared reluctant to publish or study Ma'ohi literature, perhaps due to a Western desire to perpetuate the myth of Tahiti as a simple paradise and to disregard intellectual works that may contradict this myth. The author examines the importance of Ma'ohi literature as a means of liberating the Ma'ohi people from their long-standing French colonial identity. She discusses the work of several Ma'ohi authors, particularly women, whose writing is largely unknown outside of Polynesia and is indeed difficult to access in the United States. Her essay is followed by a list of works cited that includes primary and secondary sources.

Nicole, Robert. The Word, the Pen, and the Pistol: Literature and Power in Tahiti. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. 230 pp.

Nicole discusses how certain images of Polynesia and its people were created and perpetuated by influential Frenchmen such as Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, Pierre Loti, Paul Gauguin, and Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, and how these simplified images of Tahiti as "paradise on earth" and of the "Noble Savage" have distorted the much more complex reality of life in the South Pacific. Nicole borrows from writings by Michel Foucault and Edward Said as he examines the effects of colonization in Tahiti and the reactions of the Maohi people to Western representations of their culture. The final chapter explores more recent trends in Maohi writing in French as a promising move "toward a literature of liberation." Includes a 15-page bibliography and an index of people places, and topics.

Margueron, Daniel. Tahiti dans toute sa littérature. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1989. 469 pp.

An extensive study of Oceanic literature, from French authors' writings about the area since its colonization in the late 18th century to the emerging Francophone literature by native Polynesians in the 1980s. Margueron discusses travel literature, novels, essays, short stories, poetry, and theater, pointing out the contradictions, paradoxes, and prejudices upon which much French Oceanic literature has traditionally been based. He examines the "Oceanic myth" of the noble savage and of a return to a certain Golden Age of innocence, as represented by painters such as Gauguin and Matisse, writers including Loti and Simenon, filmmakers such as Méliès, and travelers who published accounts of their time visiting the region. This work stands in contrast to traditional Western assumptions about the cultures of the South Pacific and points the way to a postmodern, postcolonial reconsideration of these cultures. Includes general and critical bibliographies; an index of authors, critics, and works; and an index of proper names.

Nguyen, Nathalie Huynh Chau. Vietnamese Voices: Gender and Cultural Identity in the Vietnamese Francophone Novel. DeKalb, Illinois: Southeast Asia Publications, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, 2003. 239 pp.

A study of the impact of French colonialism and, later, decolonization on Francophone Vietnamese writers. Special focus on the differences between how male and female authors construct gender and cultural identities in their novels. Includes bibliographical references and an index of authors, titles, and topics.

Back to Literature

Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Craig, Robert D., ed. Dictionary of Polynesian Mythology. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989. 409 pp.

Several hundred entries on the gods, goddesses, and the most important mortals that figure in Polynesian myths; the information in these entries was gleaned from nearly 300 sources in English, German, French, and the Polynesian languages of Tahitian, Hawaiian, Maori, etc. The majority of these sources are concerned mainly with Hawaii, New Zealand, Samoa, and Tahiti, since these areas were the focal points of most 19th-century ethnographers in the Pacific. The entries are arranged alphabetically by the major figure within each story in question; characters who are mentioned but who do not have citations of their own can be found in the index. Cross-references are indicated by asterisks, and sources for the synopses are briefly cited at the end of each entry. The introduction to the work briefly discusses the origin of the Polynesian people and their discoveries of the Pacific Islands. The 30-plus Polynesian languages spoken by the seafarers who settled the region are discussed at somewhat greater length, as are the general characteristics of the myths themselves. An appendix lists the various gods and goddesses by categories (e.g. "Cannibal Deities," "Creation Deities," "Eel Deities," etc.) An entertaining and useful source for those interested in learning about the gods and goddesses that figure in Polynesian literatures.

Craig, Robert D. and Frank P. King, eds. Historical Dictionary of Oceania. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981. 392 pp.

Black-and-white maps.

The entries in this work, which are arranged alphabetically, include names of places, people, organizations, and topics related to the Pacific (for example, "alcohol in the Pacific" and "Anglican missions"). Entries on places provide brief histories of these areas as well as descriptions of their geography and populations. Entries on people give brief biographical information and explain their importance to the region. At the end of each entry are lists of related entries and of sources and recommended readings. Includes 19 maps of the island groups of the Pacific, several appendices (a historical chronology, a chronology of European explorers of the Pacific Islands, individuals by occupation, and more), a select bibliography, name and subject indexes, and a descriptive listing of contributors to the volume.

Back to Literature

Anthology

Joubert, Jean-Louis, Bouchand Siphanthong, et al. Littératures francophones d'Asie et du Pacifique: Anthologie. Paris: Nathan, 1997.

Part of a multi-volume series of anthologies of Francophone literatures, this volume provides a general introduction to French-language literature in Asia and the Pacific, as well as short essays on the Francophone literatures of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, India, China, Japan, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Vanuatu, and on several French writers' works about southeast Asian and Oceanic cultures. The anthology includes a chronology of historical events and literary developments and excerpts from poems, poetry in prose, travel journals, autobiography, short stories, myths, novels, and theater, from the 18th and 19th centuries up to the late 20th century. Includes indexes of authors cited and of genres and literary forms, plus a short glossary. Intended for use by secondary and college students, the work also offers pedagogical materials such as discussion questions alongside the literary excerpts.

Back to Literature

BACK TO TOP


 

Language & Linguistics

Kato, Haruhisa, dir. La modernité française dans l'Asie littéraire: Chine, Corée, Japon. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004. 403 pp.

A collection of recent papers that discuss the relationship between France and East Asia(specifically, China, Korea, and Japan) in terms of culture, literature, and language. The section on language discusses the teaching of French in China, Korea, and Japan, as well as issues related to translation between French and Asian languages.

BACK TO TOP

Culture

Interdisciplinary Works

Kato, Haruhisa, dir.  La modernité française dans l'Asie littéraire: Chine, Corée, Japon. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004. 403 pp.

A collection of recent papers that discuss the relationship between France and East Asia (specifically, China, Korea, and Japan) in terms of culture, literature, and language. The section on general culture discusses cultural diversity, intellectualism, and modernization in East Asia.

Dekker, Paul de [... et al], eds. L'Outre-mer français dans le Pacifique: Nouvelle-Calédonie, Polynésie française, Wallis-et-Futuna. Nouméa : Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2003. 282 pp.

with some color photographs and illustrations.

A multidisciplinary collection of works intended to present a well-rounded perspective of the French Pacific at the beginning of the 21st century. The essays in the volume were written by a group of jurists, historians, anthropologists, linguists, geographers, and economists. The volume is organized in three main parts. The first part provides introductions to Wallis and Futuna, New Caledonia, and Tahiti and discusses some of their commonalities and differences; the second part treats the cultures and institutions of the territories; and the third part explores the current status of the area in terms of its geopolitical relationships with France and the rest of Europe, local politics, education, languages, law, economy and finance, demographics, literature, and its role in seafaring. This work has the advantages of currency and of a multiplicity of viewpoints on the contemporary French Pacific.

Fève, Guy, ed. Polynésie, Polynésiens, hier et aujourd'hui. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1997. 214 pp.

Nine studies of Polynesian culture and its representations in various disciplines, including sociolinguistics, sociology, history, education, literature, and psychology. The essays discuss, for example, French as it is spoken in Tahiti, the writing of Réo Maòhi in the Society Islands, relationships between children and young Tahitian mothers, how Polynesian high school students look at literature, and the motivations of students at the Ecole Normale Supérieure. Each essay is followed by a short bibliography.

O'Reilly, Patrick. Tahiti: La vie de chaque jour. Paris: Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1982. 325 pp.

In a general introduction, the author discusses Tahiti's geography and geological history in some detail, as well as its climate and landscape. A brief section by Bernard Merceron explains the different segments of the Tahitian population. The body of the text is divided into ten sections, treating the following aspects of Tahitian life: "mysterious" Tahitian cultural traditions, including tikis (statues believed to hold supernatural powers), native medicines, and walking on fire; domestic life; the presence of the Catholic, Evangelical, Mormon, and Adventist churches; political life; economics; social life; the mass media; tourism and nature; social gatherings; and scientific organizations. Includes a fairly detailed map of Tahiti(pp. 48-9). Throughout the work, relevant Maori expressions are introduced in italics. The detailed table of contents makes it easy to find specific topics of interest. This volume gives readers some basic knowledge of modern Tahiti.

Sahlins, Marshall. Culture in Practice: Selected Essays. New York: Zone Books, 2000. 646 pp.

A collection of academic and political writings by Marshall Sahlins, a renowned anthropologist, from the 1960s through the 1990s. Sahlins was concerned with the cultural interactions between European colonizers and indigenous peoples, in particular Pacific Islanders. Following a general introduction, the text is organized in three parts. Part One, "Culture," consists of "conceptual exercises" from the 1960s and 1970s about the nature of culture and differences between cultures. The essays in Part Two, "Practice," were written during the 1960s and were reflections on the American antiwar movement of the time. The author explains that these political essays "not only mediate the movement toward cultural specificity" from the more theoretical works in Part One to the more historically- and ethnographically-grounded texts in Part Three, "but also help to account for it." The pieces in Part Three, "Culture in Practice," were written in the 1980s and 1990s and discuss concrete historical facts, including the colonization of the South Pacific and its aftereffects. Includes an extensive bibliography and an index of people, places, and topics.

History

Aldrich, Robert. France and the South Pacific Since 1940. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. 413 pp.

A companion volume to Aldrich's The French Presence in the South Pacific, 1842-1940, this work treats the history of New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, and the New Hebrides (also known as Vanuatu) from World War II up to the early 1990s. A preface describing the scope of the work is followed by a black-and-white map of the contemporary South Pacific, along with more detailed maps of the areas that are the focus of the book. The introduction offers some basic background information on France's presence in the South Pacific prior to World War II; the main body of the text discusses the effects of the war on the area, the "[r]ecasting [of] the [c]olonial [o]rder," the economic history, populations and societies, and politics of these French Territories up to 1980, the conditions in the territories during the 1980s, and the nuclear testing conducted by the French government in this area beginning in the 1960s. A conclusion reflects upon the "[c]olonial [h]eritage" of the region. It is followed by extensive endnotes and references, a 14-page bibliography, and an index.

O'Reilly, Patrick. La vie à Tahiti au temps de la reine Pomaré. Paris: Musée de l'Homme, 1975. 239 pp.

This work discusses Tahiti and the Society Islands during the reign of Queen Pomaré from 1827 until her death in 1877, treating topics including the life of the queen herself, the lives of the kanaks (native Polynesians) at the time, the legislature, commerce and merchants, religion, teaching, medicine, intellectual life, and entertainment. Bibliographical references are included in the endnotes.

Photographs & Illustrations

O'Reilly, Patrick, ed. Photographies de Nouvelle Calédonie. Paris: Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1978. 139 pp.

A collection of dozens of photographs taken in Nouméa, at l'Ile des pins (the Isle of Pines) , and in the countryside of New Caledonia by Englishman Allan Hughan in the late 19th century. Each photograph is accompanied by a caption explaining what or whom it depicts; landscapes, buildings, and people are represented. An introduction by O'Reilly provides fairly detailed information about the photographer, his clients, his work, and his equipment. The book also includes a bibliography of the albums from which this collection was compiled.

O'Reilly, Patrick, and Jean Poirier. Nouvelle-Calédonie: Documents iconographiques anciens. Paris: Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1959. 126 pp.

Following a 22-page general introduction on aspects of traditional life in New Caledonia and some bibliographical notes, this book presents numerous illustrations (and a few photographs) of the territory in the 18th and 19th centuries. These illustrations are organized into the following categories: Europeans' arrival in the area and its early colonization, traditional housing, natives and their typical dress, industrial arts (including weaponry, coins, tools, etc.) , fishing and sailing, rituals, leaders and important figures, the history and state of missionary work, and the historical evolution of the city of Nouméa. This retrospective look at New Caledonia should prove useful to those interested in the history of the area.

BACK TO TOP

Websites

"Pacifique sud." "Ile en île." Linked from French @ Lehman, CUNY. Site maintained by Thomas C. Spear. Copyright 1998-2005. Lehman College, CUNY. Last accessed 23 February 2011.

This website contains a wealth of information on the literatures and cultures of Francophone islands of the South Pacific (New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna), including the culinary, plastic, and traditional arts; dance; language; music; travel; history; schools; government; the media; publishing houses and bookstores; and museums and cultural centers. The links about literature offer biographical information on authors, bibliographies, and an essay on the history and current status of French Polynesian literature.

"La brousse en folie." Site maintained by Editions la Brousse en Folie. Last accessed 23 February 2011.

The official site of this series of comic books by Bernard Berger includes information on the history of "La brousse en folie" (a series which both exploits and sarcastically pokes fun at stereotypes of New Caledonians), the comic strip of the week, information on how to order the comic books, screensavers to download, stories from the new Caledonian countryside, and links to other websites on the region and to a dictionary of regional expressions. Also includes dozens of New Caledonian recipes to try.

BACK TO TOP