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Resources for the Study of Education in Turkey

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The list of bibliographies below is arranged by time period covered; if the works are on the time period before 1923, they were categorized under the Ottoman Period section, if the works cite resources from 1923 or later, they were categorized under the Turkish Republic Period section.  The subsections were created for the Turkish Republic period by subjects.  There are no sub-sections for the Ottoman Period section, since the number of bibliographies covering the Ottoman period was not sufficient to merit such categorization.  Due to the imbalance in production and distribution of bibliographies between the two eras covered by this guide, a brief explanation about the progress of Turkish education from the Ottoman Empire through the Turkish Republic has been provided.

Progress of Education in Turkey

Prior to the establishment of the Turkish Republic, education remained completely medieval in character.  The only schools in existence were the religious medrese which were attached to the mosques, and where instruction consisted almost entirely of learning the Koran.  In 1848, during the Tanzimat period, an attempt to break away from the old system was made with the founding of a secondary teachers' school.  Instruction was based on secular subjects, and by 1853, 25 secondary schools had been opened which followed the new structure.  The revolution of 1908 brought with it a new effort to modernize education, and a plan to introduce free compulsory education was revived in 1913.  Since this was a very tumultuous time, however, little was done in the way of reforms until 1923 with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.  This new government, and time of recovery from war, provided conditions in which the development of a new educational system might be successfully accomplished.  In the plans for educational reform, there was included the script reform, which was initiated in 1928 to replace Arabic scripts with the Roman alphabet.

In the late 1920's there existed approximately 3,200 primary schools, with about 5,600 primary school teachers; by 1935, however, the number of primary schools had risen to 5,000, with 7,000 teachers and 370,000 pupils.  However the need for another revolution in education had emerged, and at its center was the need to overcome illiteracy in Turkey.  After detailed inspections in 1936 by Hakki Tonguc, the Director General of Primary Education, additional schools were established especially in the rural areas. Starting from 1938, Hakki Tonguc was ready to develop his scheme into the much more comprehensive design for training primary teachers, which is embodied in the village institutes.  Duties of teachers training in the village institutes embraced the community needs, and came under two headings: their duty to the school itself, and their duty to village life. One of the secrets of success of the village institute system is that it was designed especially to suit national needs, and not just copied from training methods employed in any other country, in the realization from the first that an entirely new type of teacher and a new method of training were alike necessary.

By 1950, the number of primary school teachers had risen to over 35,000; the greater part of the increase by far took place during 1940-1950, and in 1949 alone schools were been opened for the first time in 700 additional villages.

Source: Verschoyle, T. (1950, Jan). Education in Turkey. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 26, 59-70.

When performing research with Turkish language materials, researchers should keep in mind the concurrent Language and Alphabet Reformations in 1928; in the language reformation, many words taken from Arabic and Persian were replaced with Turkish equivalents.  Most of the words introduced to the language were newly derived from Turkic roots.  In this way, words related with education have also changed and "Old" or "Ottoman" Turkish words should be kept in mind for any materials or titles relating to the period before 1928, and especially before 1923.

Turkish Republic Period (After1923)

Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları Bibliyografyası (1923-1993) - 2 volumes

Gedikoğlu, Şevket. M.E.B.: Istanbul, 1976.
OCLC Accession Number: 46364460

This bibliography includes books published by the Turkish Ministry of National Education from 1923 to 1993.  The first volume of this book is called Maarif-i Umumiyye Nezareti Yayinlari ve Matbaa-i Amire baskilari bibliyografyasi vol.1 and includes not only books but also course books, reports, budget proposals, contracts, codes, correspondences, talks, and programs; this second volume, however, includes only books.

Bibliography entries are sorted by publication year, and under each year the publications are in alphabetical order by title.  Information about each book is given under four titles on each page:

At the end of the bibliography there are two indexes, one of books by title, and the other is an author index.  Searching this book online should only be done in the vernacular language.

Maarif Muallimler İstatistiği 1933-34, No.58

Devlet İstatistik Enstitütü.
Published: Devlet Matbaasi: İstanbul, 1935.
OCLC Accession Number: 79192983

This bibliography includes statistical information about instructors teaching in Kindergarten through 12th grade schools and universities in Turkey, and covers the period from 1933-1934.  There are four main parts to the book:

  1. İlk Tedrisat
  2. Orta Tedrisat
  3. Yüksek Tedrisat
  4. Bütçe: Maas ve Üçretler

İlk Tedrisat includes the following subsections:

Orta Tedrisat includes the following subsections:

Each subsection contains statistical information about marital status, number of students, gender, educational degree, age, and years of experience and salary of instructors teaching in each specific school type.

Yüksek Tedrisat includes subsections with statistical information about academic degree, country of origin, type (i.e., Turkish school, Foreign school in Turkey, or Foreign School outside of Turkey) of high schools instructors graduated, type of universities instructors graduated.

There is no index to the volume, and searching this book in English does not give the same results as searching in the vernacular does.

Millî Eğitim Hareketleri, 1942-1972

Published: Ankara : Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü, 1973
OCLC Number: 22474802

This bibliography includes statistical information about K-12 schools and universities in Turkey including detailed statistics about their students, instructors, and covers the period from 1942 to 1972.  This book is divided into five main parts:

  1. İlk Öğretim
  2. Orta Tedrisat
  3. Yüksek Tedrisat
  4. Çeşitli Kurslar Akşam ve Ana Okulları
  5. Muhtelıf Okullarda Dışardan İmtihana Girerek Diploma Alanlar

İlk Öğretim includes the following subsections:

Orta Öğretim includes the following subsections:

Yüksek Tedrisat includes subsections with statistical information about universities, academies, and vocational schools:

Çeşitli Kurslar Akşam ve Ana Okulları includes the following subsections:

Mühtelif Okullarda Dışardan İmtihana Girerek Diploma Alanlar includes statistical information about number of professional training schools, their students and instructors.  As with the previous bibliography, there is no index for this book.

Millî Eğitimde 50 yıl (1923-1973)

Published: Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü : Ankara, 1973
OCLC Number: 21645329

This bibliography was published for the fiftieth anniversary of the Turkish Republic.  It includes statistical information about kindergarten through 12th grade schools, and universities, in each city of Turkey, including detailed statistics about their students and instructors.  The scope spans the entire first 50-year period of the Republic's existence.  The book has seven main parts:

Köyler Sayısı ve Okur Yazarlık Durumu includes the following subsections: