How to Use GeoRef
How to Use the UIUC Online Catalog & What to use it for
Other Online Indexes
How to Find Locations of Journals at UIUC
How to Get Material Not at UIUC
How to Get Material at another UIUC unit library
The Basics of the UIUC Geology Library Map Collection
These resources were consulted for the following definitions:
Serials Definitions - ELMS College
ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science
Geological Society of America
Young, H., ed., 1983, The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science: Chicago, IL, American Library Association.
Book: "A collection of leaves of paper, parchment, vellum, cloth, or other material (written, printed, or blank) fastened together along one edge, with or without a protective case or cover... (ODLIS)"
Monograph: "A relatively short book or treatise on a single subject, complete in one physical piece, usually written by a specialist in the field. Monographic treatment is detailed and scholarly, but not extensive in scope. The importance of monographs in scholarly communication depends on the discipline...in the sciences ... where currency is essential, journals are usually the preferred means of publication...
Monographs are sometimes published in monographic series and subseries. (ODLIS)"
Dissertations and Theses: A dissertation is a lengthy, formal written account of scholarly investigation or original research on a specialized topic, submitted to a university as partial requirements for a Ph.D. degree. At the master's level, such a work is known as a thesis. Dissertations and theses may be published or unpublished. Copies are usually available via interlibrary loan or document delivery, and some may be purchased from services such as Bell & Howell in either print or microform formats.
Serial: This term includes any publication in any format that is issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and that is intended to be continued indefinitely. Serials include periodicals, journals, memoirs, proceedings, transactions, annual reports and yearbooks, newspapers, magazines, and numbered monographic series.
Periodical: A periodical is a serial that appears at regular intervals, generally more frequently than annually, and each issue is numbered or dated consecutively. It is intended to continue indefinitely. General newspapers and publications of corporate bodies related to meetings are not included.
Journal: A journal is a periodical that contains scholarly articles and/or current information on research and development related to a particular subject. Journals include the following:
Professional/Society Journals: These are issued by, or under the auspices of, societies, associations or institutions. They may or may not be refereed. Examples: GSA Bulletin; AAPG Bulletin
Refereed Journals: These are evaluated by one or more subject specialists in addition to the editor before being accepted for publication. They may or may not be published or sponsored by particular professional societies or associations. Example: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Trade Journals: Trade journals contain information related to a particular trade or industry and are usually not refereed. Not generally used in scientific research. Example: Oil and Gas Journal.
Magazine: A Magazine is a periodical that contains general reading articles. Not generally used in scientific research. Example: Discover
Newspaper: These publications are issued frequently at stated intervals. They cover current interest topics and events. No generally used in scientific research
Monographic Series: A monographic series consists of a group of monographs, related by subject and issued in succession. They generally have uniform style and a collective title. They may be numbered or unnumbered.
Special Publication: Special publications are issued by professional societies and associations. According to GSA, they are generally state-of-the-art studies, and the results may be altered or augmented by subsequent research. Example: GSA Special Publications.
Memoir: A memoir is a report of investigations in a specialized field, often presented to, or issued by a scholarly society. According to GSA, memoirs are authoritative and comprehensive, and they are expected to be definitive works for a decade or more. Example: GSA Memoirs.
Transactions: Transactions are the published papers presented at a conference or meeting of a society or association, and may include a record of what transpired at the meeting. Example: EOS, Transactions [of the] American Geophysical Union.
Proceedings: These are the published record of a conference, congress, symposium, or other meeting sponsored by an association or society. They usually include abstracts or reports of presented papers. Example: Proceedings of the 8th International Williston Basin Symposium.
Reviews: According to GSA, reviews "summarize geological theory or present case histories" related to a specific subject. Examples: Reviews in Engineering Geology; International Geology Review.
Treatise: "A book or long formal essay [or monographic series], usually on an abstruse or complex subject, especially a systematic well-documented presentation of facts or evidence, and the principles or conclusions drawn from them. (ODLIS)" Example, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (GSA) .
Field Guide: A document prepared for a field trip, and distributed to participants. The generally provide background information and information about individual field trip stops. Most include a road log. Often, only a limited number of guides are printed, and identifying and obtaining field trip guidebooks can be very difficult. Example: Field Guide to New Zealand Active Tectonics.
Yearbook: "An annual compendium of facts and statistics of the preceding year, frequently limited to a special subject" (Young, 1983). Example: Canadian Minerals Yearbook.
Annual Report: "An official document describing and reviewing the activities, programs, and operations of an organization or one of its divisions for the previous, and usually fiscal, year" (Young, 1983). Example: United States Geological Survey Yearbook.
Government Documents (USGS) (The following descriptions are from the USGS Manual. A more up-to-date version can be found at: <http://www.usgs.gov/usgs-manual/1100/1100-3.html>
"The Professional Paper series includes comprehensive reports of wide and lasting interest and scientific importance addressed to professional scientists and engineers. The reports are characterized by thoroughness of study and breadth of technical scope and/or geographic coverage; their length generally exceeds 30 printed pages. Included are the results of resource studies and of major topographic, hydrologic and geologic investigations."
"Bulletins, like Professional Papers, contain significant data and interpretations and are reports of lasting scientific importance, but they are generally more limited in scientific scope and (or) geographic coverage."
"The Open-File series is designed for immediate release of basic data, preliminary reports and a wide range of documents that may or may not meet criteria for publication in other Survey report series or in outside journals. The principal requirement for release of an Open-File report is a demonstrable public need."
"Circulars present, quickly and at no charge, technical or programmatic information to scientists, engineers, planners, decision makers and the public. They disseminate primarily programmatic and scientific information of an ephemeral nature...Circulars are of wide, popular interest but are generally of little archival value..."
"Fact Sheets are used to disseminate timely information on scientific and
technical programs of the U.S. Geological Survey and are available, at no
cost, from U.S. Geological Survey."
"Water Resources Investigations Reports (WRIR) present hydrologic data and interpretations that are mainly of local interest to an interdisciplinary audience composed of scientists, engineers, and officials of Federal and State agencies..."
"The Office of Water Data Coordination, Water Resources Division, publishes several types of reports that are products of interagency water-data coordination activities..."
"Water-Supply Papers are comprehensive reports that present significant interpretive results of hydrologic investigations of wide interest to professional geologists, hydrologists, and engineers. The series covers investigations in all phases of hydrology, including hydrogeology, availability of water, quality of water, and use of water."
A preprint is a research article that is made available to the public before it is formally published. Preprint servers are being set up for various scientific disciplines such as physics, mathematics, and chemistry. These servers provide free access to and archiving of a variety of types of scientific information. Advantages include rapid, inexpensive, and broad communication of information, including large amounts of supporting data. Disadvantages may include flooding the literature with trivial and unverified information, and premature disclosure of results. Some of the problems with this type of information are in the process of being resolved.
Primary, Secondary, and Teriary Literature
Definitions of these three terms vary. This is my understanding of the terms: Primary literature consists of the first places that information is available to the general population and includes journal articles and conference proceedings. Peer reviewed journals are especially important because the information has been judged worthy by other knowledgeable scientists and generally consists of new information. Secondary literature consists of primary literature that has been condensed and included in books and review articles after having been judged important after a period of time. Tertiary literature has been solidly accepted by the scientific community and included in dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks and other reference works. (Some consider tertiary literature to be guides to literature such as bibliographies, indexing and abstracting services and databases.)
The primary goal of a commercial publisher is to make a profit. The primary purpose of a non-for-profit/learned society publisher should be, first, to "establish, promote, and disseminate scientific knowledge" (Tian 1998). There should be a commitment to "scholarship first and publishing second". The distinction between commercial and learned society publishers is sometimes blurred. Some Society publishers currently act more like commercial publishers. And some society publications are actually handled by commercial publishers. In general, society journals are more likely to contain extra material such as meeting calendars, job openings, book reviews, obituaries, awardees, etc.
Tian, Jie, 1998, Digital delivery of scientific information to libraries - Perspectives on today and tomorrow: Serials Review, v. 24, n. 1, p. 113-118.
The descriptions below are taken from the journals or from journal Web pages.
AAPG Bulletin (AAPG) - Online and print [553.2806 SO]
"The AAPG Bulletin is designed for the dissemination of information on the geology and associated technology of petroleum, natural gas, and other energy mineral resources." Published monthly. Peer reviewed.
American Journal of Science - Print [505 AJ]
"The American Journal of Science, founded in 1818 by Benjamin Silliman, is the oldest scientific journal in the United States that has been published continuously. The Journal is devoted to geology and related sciences and publishes articles from around the world presenting results of major research from all earth sciences."
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science - Online and print [550 AN7]
"Because Annual Review chapters examine entire subfields in depth, they are written by experienced researchers upon invitation from one of our Editorial Committees." "Annual Reviews publications are and have been among the most highly cited in scientific literature."
Earth and Planetary Science Letters (Elsevier) - Online and print [550.5 EAP]
Earth and Planetary Science Letters "... covers research into all aspects of lunar studies, plate tectonics, ocean floor spreading, and continental drift, as well as basic studies of the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the Earth's crust and mantle, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere." Published semimonthly. Peer reviewed.
Earth Science Reviews (Elsevier) - Online and print [550.5 EAR]
" Earth-Science Reviews aims to familiarize all earth-scientists with recent advances in their field of science. Covering a much wider field than the usual specialist journals, it allows the reader to see his particular interest related to the earth sciences as a whole." "The international geological journal bridging the gap between research articles and textbooks". Four issues per year. Separate managing editors for each of 11 areas, two of which are Geotectonics and Geophysics. Peer reviewed.
Geological Journal (Wiley) - Online and print [550.5 LIV]
Geological Journal is an interdisciplinary journal "...promoting interest in all branches of the Geological Sciences, through publication of original research papers and review articles. The journal has a particular interest in publishing papers on regional case studies...which have conclusions of general interest."
Geology (GSA) - Online and print [550.5 GEO0)
"Geology publishes timely, innovative, and provocative articles relevant to its international audience, representing research from all fields of the geosciences." Published monthly. Peer reviewed.
Geophysical Journal International (Blackwell, for the Royal Astronomical Society) - Online and print [551.05 GEOK1]
" Geophysical Journal International publishes original papers, reviews, research notes, letters and book reviews on all aspects of theoretical, computational, applied and observational geophysics...The subjects covered include the whole range of earthquake and controlled-source seismology; tides, the Earth's gravitational field in relation to its shape, deep interior, crustal structure, stress and isostasy; palaeomagnetism and rock magnetism and their application to geomagnetism, internal processes and geotectonics; heat flow, electromagnetism, rheology and volcanology; geophysics applied to the structure and evolution of rifts, ridges, trenches, mountains, continents and oceans; magnetic effects at the Earth due to upper-atmosphere phenomena." Published monthly. Peer reviewed.
Geophysical Research Letters (AGU) - Online and print [551.05 GEOR]
" Geophysical Research Letters publishes short, concise research letters that are likely to present scientific advances that are likely to have immediate influence on the research of other investigators..." Published semimonthly. Peer reviewed. The section of interest to this class is Solid Earth (SDE).
GSA Bulletin (GSA) - Online and print [550.6 GE]
"The Geological Society of America Bulletin is a leading international journal for major scholarly research in all branches of the earth sciences." Published monthly. Peer reviewed.
International Journal of Earth Sciences (Springer) - Online and print [550.5 GEOR1]
"International Journal of Earth Sciences....publishes process-oriented original and review papers on the history of the earth, including...Dynamics of the lithosphere....Tectonics and volcanology..." Six issues will appear in 2003. Peer review not mentioned.
Journal of Geology (University of Chicago Press) - Online and print [550.5 JG]
"The Journal of Geology publishes original contributions dealing with any aspect of geology including space science. Contributions should have a wide appeal to geologists, present new concepts, and/or derive new geological insights through the use of new approaches and methods". Published bimonthly. Peer reviewed.
Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR); Solid Earth (AGU) - Online and print [538.05 TE]
"Papers on the solid Earth and the liquid core of the Earth are published in JGR-Solid Earth." Published 19 times a month plus an additional issue in December. Peer reviewed.
Journal of Structural Geology (Pergamon) - Online and print [551.805 JO]
"This international...journal publishes original research and review articles in structural geology and tectonics. All features and processes of deformation are considered, at any scale. Specific topics include natural structures such as folds, fractures and fabrics, structural associations in orogenic belts, strike-slip zones and extensional regimes, strain analysis, and theoretical and experimental modelling." Peer reviewed.
Journal of the Geological Society (Geological Society of London) - Online and print [550.6 GL]
"Papers on major topics of international interest in any of the Earth sciences are welcomed". Published bimonthly. Peer reviewed.
Nature - Online and print [Q 505 N]
"Nature ... appears weekly and publishes papers from any area of science with great potential impact... Nature also publishes a broad range of informal material in the form of Opinion articles, News stories, Briefings and Recruitment features, and contributed material such as Correspondence; Commentary; News and Views; Scientific Correspondence; book, software and product reviews; Reviews; Progress articles; etc."
Tectonics (AGU) - Online and Print [551.805 TEC]
Content includes analytical, synthetic, and integrative tectonics. "Papers are restricted to the structure and evolution of the terrestrial lithosphere with dominant emphasis on the continents". Tectonics is a joint publication of American Geophysical Union and the European Geosciences Union. . Articles are peer reviewed.
Tectonophysics; International Journal of Geotectonics and the Geology and Physics of the Interior of the Earth (Elsevier) - Online and print [551.805 TE]
" Tectonophysics is an international medium for the publication of original studies and comprehensive reviews in the field of geotectonics and the geology and physics of the earth's crust and interior." Seventeen volumes scheduled for publication in 2003. No statement regarding peer review.
Individuals may be interested in the ranking of journals as they consider where to submit their articles. In particular, researchers in academic settings who are working toward tenure feel pressure to publish in the most prestigious journals. While seasoned researchers generally know which journals are considered primary for their particular field, those newer to a field may wish to include ranking data in their considerations. ISI Journal Citation Reports is a source of such data:
The basic organization of a research article
Title: Usually a straightforward statement of the exact topic that was studied. Sometimes stated as a question.
Abstract: A summary of the most important points in the article, and usually one paragraph in length. It generally states the general purpose and relevant findings, and may summarize the procedures used.
Introduction: The beginning of the body of the article, generally a page or two in length. It introduces the topic and explains the purpose and significance of the research.
Review of the Literature: Identifies previous relevant research and relates it to the topic being studied. Often included in the introduction.
Research Question/Hypothesis: Why the research was initiated. Often a part of the introduction, at the end of the literature review.
Methodology/Procedures: Explains exactly how the research was conducted. Should be like a "recipe" for replicating the research. It may include an explanation of data acquisition, procedures, and data treatment.
Results: Explains what the researcher found by doing the study. Generally technical due to the use of statistics, tables and graphs, and jargon.
Discussion: Explains what the results mean and their significance . May be in three parts: Importance and utility of the results; problems and limitations; future research possibilities generated by the research.
Summary, and/or Conclusions: May be included with Discussion. Ties everything together and completes a circle with the introduction.
Acknowledgements: Gives credit to individuals who helped with technical or financial aspects of the research but were not coauthors of the paper.
References: An accurate and complete list of all literary resources used. All information necessary for finding the material should be included, and the references should adhere to a particular style for better communication.
How to get the gist of an article without reading every word
It is often unnecessary to read every word of an article. When starting a paper, while searching an index for literature, first scan the title. If the title indicates that the paper might be relevant, scan the abstract and print the citation if the abstract appears relevant. From the list of abstracts, pick the most relevant articles and obtain copies.
When reading an article, first scan the abstract again to gain an understanding of what to expect from the paper. Read the introduction in detail. You may find general information in the introduction that is relevant to your paper even if the rest of the paper is only marginal to your topic. Then skip to the Discussion/Summary/Conclusions. At this point you may have covered most of the pertinent material, but it is still wise to go back and scan the Methodology, Results, and Discussion sections, and to at least glance at the figures, tables, and graphs. If the article is central to your topic, you may need to go back and read the whole paper in detail, and look up any unfamiliar terms in a glossary. Through practice, you will learn what you need to look at in more detail, and what you can scan or skip altogether.
If you take notes while you read, make sure you also indicate the complete reference, including page numbers. There are few things more frustrating than trying to track back to find where you obtained a particular idea, quotation, or illustration.
Information is definitely not "free", and the cost of information has been rising exponentially for some time. Scientific journals are very expensive with some individual annual subscriptions costing libraries thousands of dollars each year. Library subscriptions are nearly always much more expensive than individual subscriptions. Electronic subscriptions may actually cost more than print subscriptions. In addition, due to questions of perpetual access, many libraries are reluctant to give up their last print subscription, even if they have electronic access. The issues involved are very complex, and too convoluted to cover here. If you have an interest in this subject, your librarian will be happy to discuss these issues with you.
In addition to journal costs, there are many costs incurred by the library which patrons may not realize exist. For example, each catalog record costs money, as well as each search of the online catalog. Online index subscriptions such as GeoRef are very expensive. Materials obtained through Interlibrary Loan commonly cost $30 per article, and may cost more.
All of these issues become important to students, researchers, and teaching faculty as libraries struggle to provide vital information.
Link to GeoRef (Close the window that will appear in order to return to this page)
The old way of searching for information using print indexes
Before electronic indexes, it was necessary to consult print indexes such as Bibliography and Index of Geology [A.550 G291b]. This was a very tedious and inexact process using "controlled language". It was first necessary to determine subject or author terms, then to look through the indexes for each year, and then to look at each bibliographic entry indicated by the index. Since the current year was not yet cumulated, it was necessary to look through each issue of that year. There was no way to search for key words in titles, descriptors or abstracts. It is still necessary to consult the old print indexes for some older or non-English materials, and every scholar/researcher should have a basic understanding of how to use print indexes.
Using GeoRef to Search by Author
When you only know the last name: Find material authored by Marshak.
You could just type marshak in the Quick Search box and sort through the results. Another way is to use the "Search Tools" tab, select Indexes and then Author Index, search for marshak, and then limit to the correct initials.
Searching by Subject/Keyword (flower structure along strike-slip faults)
You could use the Advanced Search mode, or you could conduct this search in the Quick Search or Command Search (access the latter from the Search Tools tab):
flower*structure* and strike*slip and fault* (See figure regarding the use of "and", "or", "not")
The * symbol is the wild card used in the GeoRef search system. It stands for any symbol or symbols, or no symbol, or a blank.
I used flower*structure and strike*slip because I'm not sure whether there will always be a hyphen (-) between the terms. I used structure* because it could be singular or plural (I could also have used a ?). I used fault* to return fault, faults, faulting, and faulted. Because flower*structure and strike*slip will return hits with any number of characters between the words, I could search again using hyphens if too many false hits are returned.
Searching by Location/Feature (Abitibi belt of the Canadian Shield)
We could use the Advanced Search mode or the Thesaurus, or...
We can just type abitibi belt and canadian shield. There will be ~ 1450 hits. Searching abitibi belt will return ~1500 hits.
We could just stop here. We have more than enough material....too much, in fact. But, perhaps we need a completely comprehensive search...
We suspect that the abitibi belt is entirely within the canadian shield area, and that makes us wonder why adding canadian shield reduces the number of hits. To check this out, we search abitibi belt not canadian shield. Looking at those ~50 hits, I find out that the indexers didn't always use the word shield. We search again using abitibi belt and canad*, and get ~1502 hits... about the same as searching abitibi alone.
In looking at the ~50 records above, we notice Abitibi-greenstone-belt and Abitibi-Subprovince in the Descriptor field, which indicates we may have missed some relevant material. We search again using these terms:
(abitibi belt or abitibi greenstone belt or abitibi subprovince) and canad* (~1566 hits)
This is really way too much material to look through, therefore we should limit our search in some way.
Finally, the point to all this is that we need to keep our minds engaged during the search process. What do we really want to know? Looking at our results, did we get what we expected? How can we use the information from the returned hits to improve our searching and get better results? Searching is a skill that is developed through intelligent use.
For more help using GeoRef, consult the "help & support" link on the GeoRef search screen, or GeoRef Tutorial.
Use the UIUC Online Catalog to find:
Locations of books owned by UIUC.
Locations and volumes/issues of journals owned by UIUC. (The online catalog will NOT show you the articles contained within journals. You must use GeoRef and other indexes to find that sort of information).
Use the Guided Keyword Search in most cases. However, the Quick Search works well if you know the exact start of a journal title. (Select "Start of Magazine/Journal Title" under "Search by"). Quick Search is also useful for virtual browsing. If you know the call number of an item, you can enter it and view a list of similar materials.
When you know the author and title of a book, for example Earth structure: An introduction to structural geology and tectonics by van der Pluijm & Marshak, type marshak earth structure, and leave the defaults "all of these" and "any words".
Each of these online indexes has its own search system. See your librarian if you need help using them.
Web of Science (Science Citation Index)
- Web of Science is the online equivalent of print citation products, such as Science Citation Index. Citation searching enables one to track lines of research forward in time by determining citations to older, important articles.
o See the help section while connected to the database. This database is a bit more complicated than others, and results may be adversely affected by not understanding the system. See the librarian for help.
o Search operators: and, or, not, same, sent
o Truncation/Wildcards: Single character: ? Multiple characters: *
o Example for cited author search:
To find articles that have cited this:
DEVELOPMENT OF CLEAVAGE IN LIMESTONES OF A FOLD-THRUST BELT IN EASTERN NEW-YORK
MARSHAK S, ENGELDER T
JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
7 (3-4): 345-359 1985
marshak s* in cited author
J STRUCT GEOL in cited work
1985 in cited year
Hits: 71 (71 articles have cited this paper)
More than 1.6 million entries; source for information about doctoral dissertations and master's theses. "...includes bibliographic citations for materials ranging from the first U.S. dissertation, accepted in 1861, to those accepted as recently as last semester. Citations for dissertations published from 1980 forward also include 350-word abstracts written by the author. Citations for master's theses from 1988 forward include 150-word abstracts. The full text of more than one million of these titles is available in paper and microform formats."
Worldcat (Close the window that will appear in order to return to this page)
OCLC catalog of books and other materials in libraries worldwide. This is a good resource for confirming citations if you can't find an item in the UIUC online catalog. It is also a source for finding ISSN's and ISBN's.
Latest U.S. government-sponsored research and worldwide scientific, technical, engineering, and business-related information.
The easiest way to connect to electronic journals is to go to the Geology Library Web page (http://www.library.uiuc.edu/gex/) and click on electronic journals. A list will be generated. Other electronic journals can be found by going to (http://www.library.uiuc.edu/orr/)
Locations of most Geology print journals can be found at this Web page: (http://www.library.uiuc.edu/gex/journals.html),
or by looking at the rotary file just inside the door of the Geology Library,
or by looking in the UIUC Online Catalog.
You can order books and journal articles through Interlibrary Loan. Be sure to allow enough time!
Types of USGS MapsUSGS Geological Quadrangle Maps
USGS Miscellaneous Investigations
USGS Geophysical Investigations
USGS Topographic Maps:USGS 7.5' Topographic Series
USGS 1:250,000 Scale Topographic Series
USGS State Map Series; Topographic
USGS State Map Series, Shaded Relief
USGS Geologic and Water-Supply Reports and Maps
USGS Hydrologic Investigations Atlases
USGS Coal Investigations
USGS Mineral Investigations Resource Maps
USGS Oil and Gas Investigations Charts
USGS State Map Series, Planimetric 1:500,000
USGS State Map Series, Planimetric 1:1,000,000
Descriptions of USGS Map Products
How Maps are Organized and Referenced (e.g. quad names, scales, etc.)
The map collection in the Geology Library is located beneath the second room of the stacks. It contains more than 50,000 maps covering geology, hydrology, and seismology worldwide. Although there is a chain across the stairs indicating that map room is closed, it may be used any time the library is open. Library staff are generally available from 9-5 to assist in locating any item you may require.
Basically, the map collection consists of two types of maps, the first being uncataloged topographic maps, located on the east wall and arranged alphabetically by state and by quadrangle within the state. This collection is not complete. A complete topographic collection for the United States is available in the Map & Geography Library 418 Main Library. The cataloged portion of the collection is arranged by Library of Congress Call numbers. Most of these are geologic maps. Beginning with G1000 and continuing to G9999, this collection begins on the south wall, continues along the west wall and spirals back to the 2 free standing columns. In the various vertical files are maps that have booklets (explanatory texts), are folded in some sort of container, or are so small they would get lost in the flat drawer.
Access to the collection is provided through the online catalog and through the card catalog in the Map Room. We are in the process of updating the online catalog to accurately reflect location and holdings for all of our maps; this process is barely begun and will take a long time to complete. Therefore, the best access to the maps is to use the old-fashioned card catalog. It is organized by major geographic (state, country, continent) area. Each geographic area then is divided into three sections: agency, subject, and then modified title. Modified titles are usually the quadrangle name and the state. Major sets, such as the USGS "I series" are best identified by using GeoRef and then using the series number location in the map room.
Maps are generally cited & referenced similarly to monographs, with a few additions. Most maps have a unique title that is easily identified. Dates of publication are usually near the scale. Many maps have a note with the preferred citation indicated. Consult the appropriate style manual for specifics. Ohio Wesleyan University has a Web page on the subject of citing maps: (http://library.oweu.edu/scrcite.html#maps)
(This section contributed by D.L.Walter)
The following resource was used for this section: How to Recognize Plagiarism, from Indiana University School of Education.
When do you need to provide a reference?
Give credit (cite/reference) whenever you use another person's ideas; when you use facts, statistics, illustrations or any information that is not common knowledge; when you paraphrase someone else's words or when you quote someone else's words.
When do you need to use quotes?
Use quotation marks or quotation blocks and credit the source when you copy exact wording, either written or spoken. Use your own words whenever possible.
Full references should be given for illustrations that you use. If you use someone else's illustration in a publication, you usually must get permission from the author and/or publisher first. If you change someone else's illustration, give a complete reference to the original, and preface the citation with the word "after". For example, (After Smith 2003). Consult the appropriate style manual for instructions.
It is sometimes useful to quickly consult the appropriate style guide, and then look for examples in the references from a few articles in the appropriate journal.
Use for AGU journals such as Tectonics
Nature uses abbreviations for journal titles. If you don't know the proper abbreviation, try looking in the ISI database, for example Journal of Geophysical Research: J. Geophys. Res., and then check Nature online to see if they use the same form.
There is currently a lot of confusion about what "using the Web or Internet" for research means, especially now that many of the scholarly journals are available, full-text, via the Internet. Perhaps the easiest way to convey misuse of the Web for researching technical subjects is by giving a few examples.
Misuse of the Web:
Possibly the most important part of a college education is learning to find, evaluate, interpret, organize, and communicate the technical information in your discipline. You will likely forget a large percentage of the material that you learn and then regurgitate for tests. Learning where and how to locate both forgotten and new information is imperative for success in your chosen field. Whether in academia, business, or industry, your success will be proportional to your ability to find the most accurate, appropriate, and current information, to understand it, and to effectively communicate it to others.
Finding, interpreting, organizing and communicating technical information are skills, and like all skills, are developed over time by practicing correct procedures. This applies to the use of both conventional literature found in journals, and other information found on the Web. Conducting a search of the literature using an index but without much thought to limiting the search, and then using the first few easily found articles whether they fit the topic and relate well or not is as much a misuse of information as treasure-hunting the Web. Another common misuse is to primarily use one journal article for a paper, and just add enough information from a few other articles to "meet the quota" of references. In the long run, individuals engaging in such lazy practices are cheating themselves, but they are also cheating those who will hire them, expecting that they will have developed information skills. They are also cheating the university that grants their degree since they will affect the image of the department, institution, and other graduates.
Updated 08/02/06 lej
Created 08/28/03 lej
Converted 01/10 hyk