Information Resources Related to

Global Climate Change

Note: This resource was originally created at NDSU in support of UNIV 498; A Tri-College University World Studies Seminar. Locations of books are LC used at Tricollege Universities.

INDEX

General Information
The K-T (Cretaceous/Tertiary) Boundary
The Role of Antarctica in Climate Change
Oceans and Thermohaline Circulation
The Role of Volcanoes in Climate Change
Glacial History of North Dakota
Climate Cyclicity
Response of Organisms
Paleoclimate Change and Humans
Global Warming
Recreational Reading
Bison Chip Cookies (by request)

General Information

Global Warming - ISI Special Topics
Paleoclimate; Global Warming - NOAA
Plate Tectonics and the Evolution of Climate
Climate and Climate Change Resources - Todd Mitchell, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington
Climate One Stop

K-T (Cretaceous/Tertiary) Boundary

Web Links:

The K/T Boundary
The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary At Iridium Hill, Garfield County, Montana
K/T Boundary Extinction - Case Studies in Earth & Environmental Science Journalism; Columbia University
The Alvarez Aseroid Impact Theory
Chicxulub Impact Crater Provides Clues to Earth's History - (c) 1995 American Geophysical Union
CHICXULUB Impacts and Extinctions: profiling the smoking gun) - The British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate
From BBC
Impact Cratering on Earth
Extinctions: Cycles of Life and Death Through Time
More evidence points to impact as dinosaur killer
Cretaceous/Tertiary Climate Change

Article Abstracts:

Abstracts of articles from The University of California, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology
Ekdale & Stinnesbeck, Trace Fossils in Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) Boundary Beds in Northeastern Mexico: Implications for Sedimentation during the KT Boundary Event - From Palaios
Lerbeckmo & Duke, Determination of iridium at the cretaceous-tertiary (k-t) boundary using fire assay pre-concentration and naa
Lab Researchers Find Impact Site Leading to Dinosaurs' Demise By Karre Marino
Carrying on regardless: Changes in the echinoid genus cyclaster at the cretaceous-tertiary boundary, by Charlotte H. Jeffery
Ostracoda assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Pernambuco-Paraiba Basin, northeastern Brazil: Systematics, biostratigraphy and paleoenvironments, by Gerson Fauth
The End of the World: More Proof of the Dinosaurs' Demise - From Frontiers

Books in the Tri-College Library System (ND/MN):

Archibald, J.D., 1996, Dinosaur extinction and the end of an era: What the fossils say: New York, NY, Columbia University Press, 237 p. [TRC QE734.5 .A73 1996]

Chao, E.C.T., 1993, Comparison of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact events and the 0.77-Ma Australasian tektite event: Relevance to mass extinction: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2050. [TRN DOCUMENT I 19.3:2050]

Dalrymple, G.B., et al., 1993, 40Ar/39Ar age spectra and total-fusion ages of tektites from Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sedimentary rocks in the Beloc Formation, Haiti: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2065 [TRN DOCUMENT I 19.3:2065]

Falls, W.F., 1997, Geology and hydrogeology of cretaceous and tertiary strata, and confinement in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, South Carolina and Georgia: U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources Investigations Report 97-4245, 125 p. [TRN DOCUMENT I 19.42/4:97-4245]

Fassett, J.E., and Rigby, J.K. Jr., 1987, The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins, New Mexico and Colorado: Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 200 p. [TRN QE685 .C89 1987]

Pleming, J.R., 1998, Historical perspectives on climate change: New York, Oxford University Press, 194 p.

Glen, W., 1994, The mass-extinction debates: How science works in a crisis: Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 370 p. [TRM TRN QE721.2.E97 M35 1994]

Graham, R., Fastovsky, D., and Gartner, S., 1996, The Cretaceous-Tertiary event and other catastrophes in earth history: Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 569 p. [TRN QE689 .C75 1996]

Izett, G.A., 1990, The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary interval, Raton Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, and its content of shock-metamorphosed minerals: Evidence relevant to the K/T boundary impact-extinction theory: Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America [TRN QE689 .I94 1990]

Murphy, E.C., et al, 1995, The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in south-central North Dakota: North Dakota Geological Survey Report of Investigation No. 98. [TRC TRN TN24.N9 A3 no. 98]

Ward, P.D., 1990, Global catastrophes in earth history: An interdisciplinary conference on impacts, volcanism, and mass mortality: Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 631 p. TRN QE721.2.E97 G56 1990]

Wingard, G.L., 1993, A detailed taxonomy of Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary Crassatellidae in the eastern United States: An example of the nature of extinction at the boundary: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1535, 131 p. [TRN DOCUMENT I 19.16:1535]

Other books on the subject:

Bryant, L.J., 1989, Non-Dinosaurian Lower Vertebrates Across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in Northeastern Montana: Berkeley, CA, University of California Press, 107 p.

Evans, M.E., and Heller, F., 2003, Environmental magnetism; Principles and applications of enviromagnetics: New York, Academic Press (see Chaper 7: Magnetoclimatology and Past Global Change, p. 136-173).

Gregory, K.J., and Benito, G., 2003, Palaeohydrology; Understanding global change: Chichester, UK, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., p. 396.

Issar, A.S., 2003, Climate changes during the Holocene and their impact on hydrological systems (International Hydrology Series): Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 127 p.

MacLeod, N., and Keller, G., eds., 1996, Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinctions: Biotic and Environmental Changes: New York,W.W. Norton, 575 p.

Articles: Use GeoRef

The Role of Antarctica in Climate Change

Web Links:

Antarctica on the Web
Cold Regions Bibliography
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
Milankovitch Cycles in Paleoclimate
Rapid Climate Change
Byrd Polar Research Center
Ice Core Paleoclimatology Group
Scott Polar Research Institute
Paleoceanography - NOAA
NSF Antarctic
West Antarctic Ice Sheet Diagram
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
Ice Ages: What controls the advance and retreat of these large glaciers during the four long, cool periods?
What is Sea Ice?
Ray Sterner's Extreme Sea-Level Changes

Books/Videos:

Blunier, T., nad Brook, E.J., 2001, Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period: Science, v. 291, n. 5501, p. 109-.

Cronin, T.M., 1999, Principles of paleoclimatology: New York, NY, Columbia University Press, 560 p. [TRN QC884 .C74 1999]

Edgerton, L.T., 1991, The rising tide: Global warming and world sea levels: Washington, DC., Island Press, 140 p. [TRN QC981.8.G56 E34 1991]

Gardner, R., 1998, Warnings from the ice [videorecording]: South Burlington, VT: WGBH Boston Video in association with Sveriges Television, 60 min. [TRC QC981.8.G56 W37 1998]

Gloersen P., et al, 1992, Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978-1987; Satellite passive-microwave observations and analysis: Washington, DC, Washington, D.C., NASA SP 511, 290 p. [TRN DOCUMENT NAS 1.21:511]

Hansom, J.D., and Gordon, J.E., 1998, Antarctic environments and resources; A geographical perspective: New York, Addison Wesley Longman, 402 p. [TRN G860.H35 1998]

Jacobs, S.S., and Weiss, R.F., 1998, Ocean, ice, and atmosphere: Interactions at the Antarctic continental margin: Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 380 p. [TRN GC190.2 .O18 1998]

Johannessen, O.M., Muench, R.D., and Overland, J.E., eds., 1994, The Polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment: The Nansen Centennial Volume: Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 525 p. [TRN GC401 .P637 1994]

Johnson, L.L., 1992, Paleoshorelines and prehistory: An investigation of method: Boca Raton, CRC Press, 243 p. [TRN GN784 .P35 1992]

King, J.C., and Turner, J., 1997, Antarctic meteorology and climatology: New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 409 p. [TRN QC994.9 .K56 1997]

Mortensen, L.L., ed., 1996, Global change education resource guide: Washington, DC, NASA/NOAA. [TRN DOCUMENT A 1.11/3:G 51]

Moss, S., and deLeiris, L., 1988, Natural history of the Antarctic peninsula: New York, NY, Columbia University Press. [QH84.2 .M67 1988]

NOAA, 1996, Arctic and Antarctic sea ice data [computer file]: NOAA. [TRN DOCUMENT COMPUTER FILE C 55.281/2-2:] [Contains weekly data for the Arctic basin (1972-1994-) and Antarctic basin (1973-1994-)]

Steig, E.J., and Brook, E.J., 1998, Synchronous Climate Changes in Antarctica and the North Atlantic: Science, v. 282, n. 5386, p. 92- .

Strzepek, K., and Smith, J.B., eds., 1995, As climate changes: International impacts and implications: New York, Cambridge University Press, 213 p. [TRN FOLIO QC981.8.C5 A86 1995]

Titus, J.G., and Narayanan, V.K., 1995, The probability of sea level rise: Washington, DC, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, Climate Change Division, Adaptation Branch, 186 p. [TRM TRN]

Tooley, M.J., and Jelgersma, S., 1992, Impacts of sea-level rise on European coastal lowlands: Cambrige, MA, Blackwell, 267 p. [TRN GC89 .I46 1992]

United States Congress; Senate; Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 1992, Global climate change and the Pacific islands: Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, second session, on the scientific evidence and policy implications of sea level rise ... Honolulu, HI, May 26, 1992: Washington, DC, GPO, 395 p. [TRM TRN DOCUMENT Y 4.En 2:S.hrg.102-664]

Webers, G.F., Craddock, C., and Splettstoesser, J.F., eds.,1992, Geology and paleontology of the Ellsworth Mountains: Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 459 p. [TRN QE 1 .G4x no. 170]

Woodworth, P.L., et al, 1992, Sea level changes: Determination and effects: Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 196 p. [TRN GC89 .S414 1992]

Wright, H.E., et al, 1993, Global climates since the last glacial maximum: Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota Press, 569 p. [TRN QC981.8 .C5 G663 1993]

Journals:

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. (Continues: Arctic and alpine research ) [551.305 Ar27]

Antarctic Journal of the United States [DOCUMENT NS 1.26:]

Journal Articles:

Armand, L.K., 2000, An Ocean of Ice-Advances in the Estimation of Past Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean: GSA Today, v.10, n.3, p.?.

Ashworth, A.C., Harwood, D.M., and Webb, P.N., 1994, Beetle and seed fossils from the Meyer Desert Formation, Sirius Group., new records for Antarctica: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-588, 3 p.

Ashworth, A.C., Harwood, D.M., Webb, P.N., and Mabin, M.G.C., 1996, A preliminary report on the terrestrial biota of the Meyer Desert Formation, Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.28, n.7, p.224.

Ashworth, A.C., Harwood, D.M., Webb, P.N., and Mabin, M.C.G., 1997, A weevil from the heart of Antarctica, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings No.5, p.15-21.

Askin, R.A., and Ashworth, A.C., 1998, Palynomorphs from peat and lacustrine beds in the Sirius Group of the central Transantarctic Mountains: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.30, n.2, p.3.

Bell, R.E., Blankenship, D.D., Finn, C.A., Morse, D.L., Scambos, T.A., Brozena, J.M., and Hodge, S.M., 1998, Influence of subglacial geology on the onset of a West Antarctic ice stream from aerogeophysical observations: Nature, v.394, n.6688, p.58-62.

Bentley, C.R., 1997, Rapid sea-level rise soon from West Antarctic ice sheet collapse?: Science, v.275, n.5303, p.1077-1078.

Bentley, C.R., 1997, West Antarctic ice sheet collapse? Response: Science, v.276, n.5313, p.663-664.

Bentley, C.R., 1998, Rapid sea-level rise from a West Antarctic ice-sheet collapse: A short-term perspective: Journal of Glaciology, v.44, n.146, p.157-163.

Bindschadler, R., 1997, West Antarctic ice sheet collapse?: Science, v.276, n.5313, p.662-663.

Bindschadler, R., 1998, Geoscience - Future of the west Antarctic ice sheet: Science, v.282, n.5388, p.428-429.

Bohaty, S.M., and Harwood, D.M., 1998, Southern Ocean Pliocene paleotemperature variation from high, resolution silicoflagellate biostratigraphy: Marine Micropaleontology, v.33, n.3-4, p.241-272.

Burckle,L.H., Kellogg, D.E., Kellogg, T.B., Fastook, J.L., 1997, A mechanism for emplacement and concentration of diatoms in glacigenic deposits: Boreas, v.26, n.1, p.55-60.

Conway, H., Hall, B.L., Denton, G.H., Gades, A.M., and Waddington, E.D., 1999, Past and future grounding-line retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Science, v.286, n.5438, p.280-283.

Harwood, D.M., and Jiang, X., 1994, The palynological record of Antarctic Neogene vegetation in Ishman, S.E., ed., Pliocene high-latitude climate records: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-588, p. 16.

Harwood, D.M., Srivastav, A., and Winter, D.M., 1994, Sea-ice absence and 3 degrees C marine seas; Is this all it takes? in Ishman, S.E., ed., Pliocene high-latitude climate records: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-588, p. 15.

Harwood, D.M., and Webb, P.N., 1994, A review of Pliocene Antarctic paleoclimate and ice sheet response to global warmth, in Ishman, S.E., ed., Pliocene high-latitude climate records: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-588, p.17.

Herzog, H., Eliasson, B., and Kaarstad, O., 2000, Capturing Greenhouse Gases: Scientific American, v.282, n.2, p.72. [TRN 505 Sci27]

Hill, R.S., Harwood, D.M., and Webb, P.N., 1996, Nothofagus beardmorensis (Nothofagaceae), a new species based on leaves from the Pliocene Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v.94, n.1-2, p.11-24

Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P., and Schrag, D.P., 1998, A Neoproterozoic snowball earth: Science, v.281, p.1342-1346.

Hoffman, P.F., and Schrag, D.P., 2000, Snowball earth: Scientific American, v.282, n.1, p.68-75.

Kennett, J.P., and Hodell, D.A., 1995, Stability or instability of Antarctic ice sheets during warm climates of the Pliocene?: GSA Today, v.5, n.1, p.1, 10-13, 22.

Lear, C.H., Elderfield, H., and Wilson, P.A., 2000, Cenozoic Deep-Sea Temperatures and Global Ice Volumes from Mg/Ca in Benthic Foraminiferal Calcite: Science, v.287, n.5451, p.269-272.

Miller, M.F., and Mabin, M.C.G., 1998, Antarctic Neogene landscapes; In the refrigerator or in the deep freeze?: GSA Today, v.8, n.4, p.1-8.

Scherer, R.P., Aldahan, A., Tulaczyk, S., Possnert, G., Engelhardt, Hl, and Kamb, B., 1998, Pleistocene collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet: Science, v.281, n.5373, p.82-85.

Simpson, S., January 2000, In focus; Melting away: Scientific American, v.282, n.1, p.19-20.

Stilwell, J.D., Levy, R.H., Feldmann, R.M., and Harwood, D.M., 1997, On the rare occurrence of Eocene callianassid decapods (Arthropoda) preserved in their burrows, Mount Discovery, East Antarctica: Journal of Paleontology, v.71, n.2, p.284-287.

Toscano, M.A., and Lundberg, J., 1998, Early Holocene sea-level record from submerged fossil reefs on the southeast Florida margin: Geology, v.26, n.3, p.255-258.

U.S. Geological Survey, 1998, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, South America; 1998, USGS Survey Professional Paper 1386-I, U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, 1206 pages.

Vaughan, D.G., Bamber, J.L., Giovinetto, M., Russell, J., and Cooper, A.P.R., 1999, Reassessment of net surface mass balance in Antarctica: Journal of Climate, v.12, n.4, p.933-946.

Webb, P.N., Harwood, D.M., Hambrey, M.J., Krissek, L.A., Ashworth, A.C., and Mabin, M.C.G., 1996, Stratigraphy of the Sirius Group, upper Shackleton Glacier region, Transantarctic Mountains: Antarctic Journal of the United States, v.31, n.2, p.16-17.

Webb, P.N., Harwood, D.M., Hambrey, M.J., Krissek, L.A., Ashworth, A.C., and Mabin, M.C.G., 1996, The sub-Sirius Group erosion surface at Roberts Massif, upper Shackleton Glacier region, Transantarctic Mountains: Antarctic Journal of the United States, v.31, n.2, p.14-15.

Webb, P.N., Harwood, D.M., Mabin, M.G.C., and McKelvey, B.C., 1996, A marine and terrestrial Sirius group succession, middle Beardmore glacier Queen Alexandra Range, Transantarctic mountains, Antarctica: Marine, Micropaleontology, v.27, n.1-4, p.273-297.

Wilson, G.S., Harwood, D.M., Askin, R.A., and Levy, R.H., 1998, Late Neogene Sirius Group strata in Reedy Valley, Antarctica; A multiple, resolution record of climate, ice, sheet and sea, level events: Journal of Glaciology, v.44, n.148, p.437-447.

For fun:

Alexander, C., 1998, The Endurance: Shackleton's legendary Antarctic expedition: New York, Knopf, 211 p. [TRN G850 1914.S53 A58 1999

Robinson, K.S., 1998, Antarctica: New York, Bantam Books (paperback; novel; fiction; future) [Robinson was in Antarctica at the same time as Dr. Ashworth and Dr. Harwood, gathering information for this novel.]

Rubin, J., 1996, Antarctica: A lonely planet travel survival: Oakland, CA, Lonely Planet, 362 p. [TRM G860 .R83 1996]

Oceans and Thermohaline Circulation

Web Links:

Recommended by Dr. Doug Kurtze:

White paper on Atlantic climate variability, also connected with CLIVAR.

Fact Sheet on the thermohaline circulation, from Christof Appenzeller at the Climate and Environmental Physics division at the University of Bern.

Other links:

Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium
UMAC Climate and Weather Page
UMAC Library Links to EOS and Climate Information
NOAA
NOAA El Nino Page
Theory in Ocean Dynamics, by Peter B. Rhines, University of Washington
Climate: A New Driver for the Atlantic's Moods and Europe's Weather?, by Richard A. Kerr; North Atlantic Oscillation
Seasonal-to-Decadal Variability of the Pacific North Equatorial Current: A Downstream Predictability and Impacts Assessment
Abstract - Climate Stability
Ocean Modeling
Climate Modeling Group
Millenial Scale Variations in Thermohaline Circulation: A Pilo-Pleistocene Record from the ODP Leg162 North Atlantic Drift Sites
Heinrich-Scale Events in Western North America and the Northeastern Pacific? Testing Possible Mechanisms
Report of Thematic Working Group #2: Paleoceanography
The Labrador Sea Convection Experiment
Fact-sheet Thermohaline Circulation
Influence of intermittent convection on the stability of the thermohaline circulation - Abstract
Some Issues on the Role of the Ocean in Climate and Global Change
Climate Systems and Climate Change Course
What is an El Nino?

Books:

Advisory Panel for the Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere Program, Climate Research Committee, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council, 1996, Learning to predict climate variations associated with El Niņo and the southern oscillation: Accomplishments and legacies of the TOGA program: Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 171 p. [TRN QC981.8 .C5 L42 1996]

Anonymous, 1989, Ocean circulation, 1st ed.: New York, Pergamon Press, 238 p.

Bigg, G.R., 1996, The oceans and climate: New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 266 p. [TRN QC981.8.C5 B54 1996]

Diaz, H.F., and Markgraf, V., 1992, El Niņo; Historical and paleoclimatic aspects of the southern oscillation: New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 476 p. [TRN GC296.8 .E4 N56 1992]

Levi, B.G., Hafemeister, R.S., and Scribner, R., eds., 1992, Global warming; Physics and facts: New York, American Institute of Physics, 311 p. [TRM QC981.8.G56 G58195 1992]

National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Model-Assimilated Data Sets for Atmospheric and Oceanic Research, 1991, Four-dimensional model assimilation of data; A strategy for the earth system sciences. Panel on Model-Assimilated Data Sets for Atmospheric and Oceanic Research, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council.: Washington, DC, National Academy Press: Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 78 p. [TRN QC996 .N37 1991]

Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council, 1999, Global ocean science: Toward an integrated approach: Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 165 p. [TRN GC57 .G55 1999]

Parrish, J.T., 1998, Interpreting pre-Quaternary climate from the geological record: New York, NY, Columbia University Press. [QC 884 .P37 1998]

Pedlosky, J., 1996 (reprint), Ocean Circulation Theory: Springer Verlag.

Philander, S.G., 1998, Is the temperature rising? The uncertain science of global warming: Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 262 p. [QC981.8 .G56 P48 1998]

Teramoto, T., ed., 1993, Deep Ocean Circulation: Physical and Chemical Aspects: Elsevier.

United States Congress, 1994, Role of oceans in global climate change: Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, second session ... March 8, 1994: Washington, DC, U.S. G.P.O., 69 p. TRN DOCUMENT Y 4.EN 2:S.HRG.103-585]

Journal Articles:

Recommended by Dr. Doug Kurtze:

H. Stommel, "Thermohaline Circulation with Two Stable Regimes of Flow," Tellus 13, 224-230 (1961). This is the original paper modeling the ocean as two boxes connected by pipes, which showed that the thermohaline circulation can exist in two states.

W.S. Broecker D.M. Peteet, and D. Rind, "Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation?" Nature 315, 21-26 (1985). A review article that connects paleographic records of climate changes with changes in the thermohaline circulation.

W.S. Broecker and G.H. Denton, "What Drives Glacial Cycles?" Scientific American (Jan. 1990), pages 49-56. A less technical take on the subject of Broecker et al's earlier paper.

T.F. Stocker and D.G. Wright, "Rapid transitions of the ocean's deep circulation induced by changes in surface water fluxes," Nature 351, 729-732 (1991). Computer simulation of how a small change in freshwater transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific can change the state of the thermohaline circulation.

S. Manabe and R.J Stouffer, "Century-scale effects of increased atmospheric CO_2 on the ocean-atmosphere system," Nature 364, 215-218 (1993). Computer simulation of the effect of a 1% annual change in CO_2 on the thermohaline circulation. First paper to show that such an increase, if continued long enough, can shut the circulation down.

J.R. Toggweiler, "The ocean's overturning circulation," Physics Today (Nov. 1994), pages 45-50. A general introduction to the large-scale circulations in the world's oceans. Written for physicists, but not all that technical.

T.F. Stocker and A. Schmittner, "Influence of CO_2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation," Nature 388, 862-865 (1997). See also the introduction by S. Rahmstorf on pages 825-826. Computer simulation showing that both the _rate of increase of CO_2 and the final concentration determine whether or not the thermohaline circulation will shut down.

Other Journal Articles:

Britannica Online Article

Broecker, W.S., 1996, Glacial cooling; Is water vapor the villain?: Eos, Transactions, v.77, n.17, p.283.

Broecker, W.S., 1997, Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance?: Science, v.278, n.5343, p.1582-1588.

Broecker, W.S., 1998, The end of the present interglacial: How and when?: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.17, n.8, p.689-694.

Broecker, W.S., 1999, What if the conveyor were to shut down? Reflections on a possible outcome of the great global experiment: GSA Today, v.9, n.1, p.1-7.

Broecker, W.S., Sutherland, S., and Peng, T.H., 1999, A possible 20th-century slowdown of Southern Ocean deep water formation: Science, v.286, n.5442, p.1132-1135. [505 Sci2]

Caldeira,K., 2000, The Role of the Southern Ocean in Uptake and Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide: Science, v.287, n.5453, p.620.

Cole, J.E., Dunbar, R.B., and Muthiga, N.A., 2000, Tropical Pacific Forcing of Decadal SST Variability in the Western Indian Ocean over the Past Two Centuries: Science, v.287, n.5453, p.617.

Hodges, G., 2000, The new cold war; Stalking arctic climate change by submarine: National Geographic, v.197, n.3 (March), p.30-41.New Article

Manabe, S., and Stouffer, R.J., 1993, Century-scale effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the ocean-atmosphere system: Nature, v.364, n.6434, p.215-218. [505 N21]

Stocker, T.F., and Schmittner, A., 1997, Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation: Nature, v.388, n.6645, p.863-866.

Tziperman, E., 1997, Inherently unstable climate behaviour due to weak thermohaline ocean circulation: Nature, v.386, n.6625, p.592-595.

For many more articles, conduct a literature search of GeoRef, Current Contents, CARL, and/or General Magazine Index.

The Role of Volcanoes in Climate Change

Web Links:

Volcano World
Columbia River Flood Basalt Province: Climate
Volcanic Gases
Climate: Cooling
Gases: Man vs. the Volcanoes - Volcano World
Deccan Traps, India - Volcano World
Global Warming; NCDC
The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

Books:

Axelrod, D.I., 1984, Role of Volcanism in Climate and Evolution: Boulder, CO, Geological Society Of America, 59 p.

Blong, R.J., 1984, Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions: Orlando, FL, Academic Press, Inc., 424 p. [TRN QE522 .B6 1984]

Casadevall, T.J., ed., 1994, Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety: Washington, DC, U.S. Geological Survey, 450 p. [TRN DOCUMENT I 19.3:2047]

Chester, D., 1993, Volcanoes and Society: New York, NY, Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc., 351 p. [TRN QE522 .C46 1993]

Francis, P., 1993, Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective: Oxford University Press. [TRM QE522 .F73 1993]

Goodman, B.M., 1984, The Climatic Impact of Volcanic Activity: Thesis. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Heiken, G., 1974, An atlas of volcanic ash: Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 101 p. [TRN DOCUMENT SI 1.26:12]

Heiken, G., and Wohletz, K., 1985, Volcanic Ash: Berkeley, CA, Univ. of Calif. Press.

Sigurdsson, H., Haughton, B., Mcnutt, S.R., Rymer, H., and Stix, J., eds., 1999, The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes: New York, NY, Academic Press, 1417 p. [TRM REF. QE522 .E53 2000]

Stommel, H., and Stommel, E., 1983, Volcano Weather: The Story of The Year Without a Summer 1816: Newport, RI, Seven Seas Press. [TRN TRC QC981.8.V65 S86 1983]

Journal Articles:

Ansmann, A., Mattis, I., Wandinger, U., Wagner, F., Reichardt, J., and Deshler, T., 1997, Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol; Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over Central Europe at 53.4 degrees N: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, v.54, n.22, p.2630-2641.

Barrett, P.J., Adams, C.J., McIntosh, W.C., Swisher, C.C. III, and Wilson, G.S., 1992, Geochronological evidence supporting Antarctic deglaciation three million years ago: Nature, v.359, n.6398, p.816-818.

Blatherwick, R.D., Murcray, F.J., Liu, X., and Kosters, J., 1996, Measurements of HNO (sub 3), NO (sub 2), NO, O (sub 3), N (sub 2) O (sub 5), N (sub 2) O, and CH (sub 4) from high resolution solar occultation spectra before and after the Pinatubo eruption: Eos, Transactions, v.77, n.46, Suppl., p.121.

Bryson, R.A., and Bryson, R.U., 1997, High resolution simulations of regional Holocene climate; North Africa and the Near East, in Dalfes, H.N., Kukla, G., and Weiss, H., eds., Third millennium BC climate change and Old World collapse: NATO ASI Series I; Global Environmental Change, v.49, p.565-593.

Catchpole, A.J.W., 1985, Evidence from Hudson Bay region of severe cold in the summer of 1816, in Harington, C.R., ed., Climatic change in Canada; 5, Critical periods in the Quaternary climatic history of northern North America: Syllogeus; National Museum of Natural Sciences [Canada], v.55, p.121-146.

Evans, M.E., 1999, Magnetoclimatology: A test of the wind-vigour model using the 1980 Mount St. Helens ash: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v.172, n.3-4, p.255-259.

Houben, H., Young, R.E., Toon, O.B., and Bergstrom, R.W., 1996, Combined dynamical and microphysical simulations of the dispersion of the Mt. Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol cloud: Eos, Transactions, v.77, n.46, p.121.

Hunt, J.B., 1993, Volcanic eruptions, aerosols and climate change; A post-Pinatubo assessment: Quaternary Newsletter, v.69, p.17-22.

Johnson, W.C., May, D.W., and Valstro, S., 1998, Temporal and environmental resolution of a buried loessal pedostratigraphic unit in Kansas and Nebraska: Quaternary International, v.51-52, p.48-49.

Kerr, R.A., 1982, El Chichon forebodes climate change: Science, v.217, p.4564, p.1023.

McGee, K.A., Doukas, M.P., Kessler, R., and Gerlach, T.M., 1997, Impacts of volcanic gases on climate, the environment, and people: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-262, 7 p.

Ohkura, T., Sakagami, K.I., and Hamada, R., 1998, Olivine weathering and iron activity in buried A horizons of Holocene Paleosols in volcanic ash: Quaternary International, v.51-52, p.42.

Prueher, L.M., and Rea, D.K., 1998, Rapid onset of glacial conditions in the subarctic North Pacific region at 2.67 Ma; Clues to causality: Geology, v.26, n.11, p.1027-1030.

Schatten, K.H., and Endal, A.S., 1982, The faint young Sun; Climate paradox; Volcanic influences: Geophysical Research Letters, v.9, n.12, p.1309-1311.

Skinner, W.R., 1985, The effects of major volcanic eruptions on Canadian climate in Harington, C.R., ed., Climatic change in Canada; 5, Critical periods in the Quaternary climatic history of northern North America: Syllogeus; National Museum of Natural Sciences [Canada], v.55, p.75-106.

Smellie, J.L., 1999, The upper Cenozoic tephra record in the south polar region; A review: Global and Planetary Change, v.21, n.1-3, p.51-70.

Steenbrink, J., van Vugt, N., Hilgen, F.J., Wijbrans, J.R., and Meulenkamp, J.E., 1999, Sedimentary cycles and volcanic ash beds in the lower Pliocene lacustrine succession of Ptolemais (NW Greece); Discrepancy between (super 40) Ar/ (super 39) Ar and astronomical ages: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.152, n.3-4, p.283-303.

Yang, Q., Mayewski, P.A., Zielinski, G.A., Twickler, M., and Taylor, K.C., 1996, Depletion of atmospheric nitrate and chloride as a consequence of the Toba volcanic eruption: Geophysical Research Letters, v.23, n.18, p.2513-2516.

Zdanowicz, C.M., Zielinski, G.A., and Germani, M.S., 1999, Mount Mazama eruption; Calendrical age verified and atmospheric impact assessed: Geology, v.27, n.7, p.621-624.

Zielinsky, G.A., Mayewski, P.A., Meeker, L.D., Gronvold, K., Germani, M.S., Whitlow, S.I., Twickler, M.S., and Taylor, K.C., 1997, Volcanic aerosol records and tephrochronology of the Summit, Greenland, ice cores: Journal of Geophysical Research, C., Oceans, v.102, n.12, p.26,625-26,640.

These are only a few of the many articles on the subject. Conduct a search of GeoRef, Current Contents, or CARL UnCover to find more articles.

Glacial History of North Dakota

Web Links:

Agassiz Valley Glacier
Drumlins in North Dakota - NDGS
Ice Thrusting in North Dakota - NDGS
What is Glaciation; What Causes it?
A quick background to the last ice age
Ice Ages

Books:

Anderson, B.G., 1997, The Ice Age world: An introduction to Quaternary history and research with emphasis on North America and northern Europe during the last 2.5 million years: Cambridge, MA, Scandinavian Univsersity Press, 208 p.

Bluemle, J.P., 1991, The Face of North Dakota, revised edition: North Dakota Geological Survey, 177 p.

Teller, J.T., and Clayton, L., 1983, Glacial Lake Agassiz: The Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 26, 451 p.

Trimble, D.E., 1980, The geologic story of the Great Plains. See Glaciated Missouri Plateau.

Upham, W., 1895, The Glacial Lake Agassiz. See Chapters IV and V.

Journal Articles:

Anderson, T.W., and Lewis, C.G.M., 1992, Climatic influences of deglacial drainage changes in southern Canada at 10 to 8 ka suggested by pollen evidence: Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, v.46, n.3, p.255-272.

Anderson, T.W., and Lewis, C.F.M., 1992, Evidence for ice margin retreat and proglacial lake [Agassiz?] drainage by about 11 Ka, Clearwater River spillway area, Saskatchewan: Current research; Part B, Interior Plains and Arctic Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, p.7-11.

Ashworth, A.C., and Cvancara, A.M., 1983, Paleoecology of the southern part of the Lake Agassiz basin, in Teller, J.T., and Clayton, L., eds., Glacial Lake Agassiz, Geological Association of Canada, Dept. of Geology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, p.133-156.

Baker, C.H., Jr., 1967, New observations on the Sheyenne delta of glacial Lake Agassiz, in Geological Survey research 1967, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 575-B, p.B62-B68.

Barber, D.C., Dyke, A., Hillaire, M.C., Jennings, A.E., Andrews, J.T., Kerwin, M.W., Bilodeau, G., McNeely, R., Southon, J., Morehead, M.D., and Gagnon, J.M., 1999, Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes: Nature, v.400, n.6742, p.344-348.

Bartlein, P.J., and Whitlock, C., 1993, Paleoclimatic interpretation of the Elk Lake pollen record, in Bradbury, J.P., and Dean, W.E., eds., Elk Lake, Minnesota; Evidence for rapid climate change in the north-central United States: Geological Society of America Special Paper 276, p.275-293.

Biek, B., 1993, Warped beaches of glacial Lake Agassiz: NDGS Newsletter, v.20, n.3, p.7-12.

Bluemle, J.P., 1972, Pre-Herman strandlines in southeastern North Dakota (abstract): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 4, no. 6, p.367.

Bluemle, J.P., 1974, Early history of Lake Agassiz in southeast North Dakota: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 85, no. 5, p. 811-814.

Bluemle, J.P., 1972, Pre-Herman strandlines in southeastern North Dakota: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 4, no. 6, p. 367.

Brevik, E.C., 1994, Isostatic rebound in the Lake Agassiz Basin since the late Wisconsinan: Master's thesis. Grand Forks, ND, Univesity of North Dakota, 127 p.

Brophy, J.A., 1964, Evidence for Lake Agassiz I-II interval in the southern lake basin: Geological Society of America Special Paper 76, p.23.

Brophy, J.A., 1967, Some aspects of the geological deposits of the south end of the Lake Agassiz basin, in Life, land and water--Conference on environmental studies of the glacial Lake Agassiz region, 1966, Proceedings: University of Manitoba Department of Anthropology Occasional Paper 1, p. 97-105.

Brophy, J.A., and Bluemle, J.P., 1983, The Sheyenne River; Its geological history and effects on Lake Agassiz in, Teller, J.T., and Clayton, L., eds., Glacial Lake Agassiz, Geological Association of Canada, Dept. of Geology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, pp. 173-186.

Clayton, L., Laird, W.M., Klassen, R.W., and Kupsch, W.O., 1965, Intersecting minor lineations on Lake Agassiz plain: Journal of Geology, v. 73, no. 4, p.652-656.

Colman, S.M., Keigwin, L.D., and Forester, R.M., 1994, Two episodes of meltwater influx from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Lake Michigan Basin and their climatic contrasts: Geology, v.22, n.6, p.547-550.

Colman, S.M., Clark, J.A., Clayton, L., Hansel, A.K., and Larsen, C.E., 1995, Deglaciation, lake levels, and meltwater discharge in the Lake Michigan Basin: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.13, n.9-10, p.879-890.

Curry, B.B., 1997, Paleochemistry of lakes Agassiz and Manitoba based on ostracodes: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.34, n.5, p.699-708.

Davis, D.M., Carlson, D.A., and Johnson, M.D., 1994, River Warren flood deposits near St. Peter, MN: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.26, n.5, p.11-12.

Egan, W.E., 1967, The developing hypothesis of Glacial Lake Agassiz: Second Annual Northern Great Plains History Conference Proceedings, Winnipeg, p.36-42.

Elson, J.A., 1957, Lake Agassiz and the Mankato-Valders problem: Science, v.126, n.3281, p.999-1002.

Elson, J.A., 1963, History of Glacial Lake Agassiz (revised) in Problems of the Pleistocene epoch and Arctic area, v.2: McGill University Museum Publication 2, p. 1-16.

Elson, J.A., 1967, Geology of Glacial Lake Agassiz in Life, land and water--Conference on environmental studies of the Glacial Lake Agassiz region, Proceedings: University of Manitoba, Department of Anthropology Occasional Paper 1, p. 37-96.

Eronen, M., 1984, Insight into the history of glacial lake Agassiz: Boreas, v.13, p.299-300.

Fisher, T.G., and Smith, D.G., 1994, Glacial Lake Agassiz; Its northwest maximum extent and outlet in Saskatchewan (Emerson Phase): Quaternary Science Reviews, v.13, n.9-10, p.845-858.

Fisher, T.G., and Smith, D.G., 1992, Glacial Lake Agassiz; The northwest outlet and paleoflood: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.24, n.7, p.272.

Fisher, T.G., 1993, Glacial Lake Agassiz; the northwest outlet and paleoflood spillway, N.W. Saskatchewan and N.E. Alberta: Doctoral dissertation. Calgary, AB, Canada, University of Calgary, 206 p.

Fisher, T.G., and Souch, C., 1997, NW Lake Agassiz outlet channels, isostatic tilting and a migrating continental drainage divide: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.29, n.6, p.111.

Fisher, T.G., and Souch, C., 1998, Northwest outlet channels of Lake Agassiz, isostatic tilting and a migrating continental drainage divide, Saskatchewan, Canada: Geomorphology, v.25, n.1-2, p.57-73.

Franco, H., and Johnson, M.D., 1997, Catastrophic flood deposits of the Minnesota River valley: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.29, n.4, p.15-16.

Gong, Z., Shane, L.C.K., Ito, E., Rosen, M.R., Han, Y., and Kelts, K.R., 1993, Stable isotopic and sedimentologic studies of the late Pleistocene climate from upper Midwest lakes: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v.74, n.43, Suppl., p.364-365.

Hall, C.M., 1904, A brief history of Glacial Lake Agassiz: N. Dak. Agr. Coll. Survey 2d Bienn. Rept., p.27-30.

Hall, C.M., 1904, The rivers and drainage of southeastern North Dakota: N. Dak. Agr. Coll. Survey 2d Bienn. Rept., p. 30-35.

Harington, C.R., and Ashworth, A.C., 1986, A mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) tooth from late Wisconsin deposits near Embden, North Dakota, and comments on the distribution of woolly mammoths south of the Wisconsin ice sheets: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.23, n.7, p.909-918.

Harris, K.L., 1996, Late Wisconsin "Des Moines Lobe" (Red River Lobe) recessional deposits in the southern Red River valley, northwestern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 28, n. 6, p.43.

Harrison, S.S., 1965, Relationship of the Turtle, Forest, Park Rivers to the history of Glacial Lake Agassiz: M.S. thesis. Grand Forks, ND, University of North Dakota, 50 p.

Heinselman, M.L., 1970, Landscape evolution, peatland types, and the environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands National Area, Minnesota: Ecological Monographs, v.40, n.2, p.235-261.

Horberg, L., 1951, Intersecting minor ridges and periglacial features in the Lake Agassiz Basin, North Dakota: Journal of Geology, v. 59, no. 1, p. 1-18.

Hu, F.S., Lease, K., Slawinski, D., Ito, E., and Wright, H.E., Jr., 1996, Holocene climatic and ecosystem changes in northwestern Minnesota; A multiproxy study of varved sediments: American Quaternary Association Program with Abstracts, v.14, p.89.

Hu, F.S., Wright, H.E., Jr., and Ito, E., and Lease, K., 1997, Climatic effects of glacial Lake Agassiz in the Midwestern United States during the last deglaciation: Geology, v.25, n.3, p.207-210.

Johnston, W.A., 1916, The genesis of Lake Agassiz: A confirmation: Journal of Geology, v.24, n.7, p.625-638.

Kehew, A.E., and Lord, M.L., 1987, Glacial-lake outbursts along the mid-continent margins of the Laurentide ice-sheet, in Mayer, L., and Nash, D., eds., Catastrophic flooding; Binghamton Symposia in Geomorphology, International Series No.18: London, UK, Allen & Unwin, p.95-120.

Kehew, A.E., and Teller, J.T., 1993, History and paleohydrology of the Laurentide Ice Sheet runoff to southern Lake Agassiz: International Geological Correlation Project 253 Meeting, Abstracts, p. 24.

Kehew, A.E., and Teller, J.T., 1994, History of late glacial runoff along the southwestern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.13, n.9-10, p.859-877.

Kirvan, C.V., and Colson, R.O., 1996, Geochemical stratigraphy in glacial Lake Agassiz sediments: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.28, n.6, p.49.

Kompelien, M.G., and Schwert, D.P., 1986, Paleoenvironmental implications of insect remains from the Seminary site, Cass County, North Dakota: Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science, v.40, p.131.

Laird, W.M., 1965, The problem of Lake Agassiz: North Dakota Academy of Science Proceedings, 1964, v.18, p.114-134.

Last, W.M., and Teller, J.T., 1983, Holocene climate and hydrology of Lake Manitoba, in Teller, J.T., and Clayton, L., eds., Glacial Lake Agassiz: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 26, p.333-353.

Leighton, M.M., 1958, Some reflections on certain aspects of the problems of the Des Moines Lobe and Lake Agassiz in Friends of the Pleistocene Midwestern Section Guidebook 9th Ann. Field Conf., East-Central North Dakota, 1958: N. Dak. Geol. Survey Misc. Ser. no. 10, p. 58-61.

Lewis, C.F.M., and Anderson, T.W., 1991, Did meltwater runoff variations drive climate change in the Great Lakes Basin?: Geological Association of Canada Program with Abstracts, v.16, p.74.

Lewis, C.F.M., and Anderson, T.W., 1992, Did meltwater runoff variations drive climate change in the Great Lakes Basin?: Geological Association of Canada Program with Abstracts, v.16, p.74.

Mooers, H.D., and Wiele, S., 1989, Glacial Lake Agassiz; Glacial surges and large outflow events: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.21, n.6, p.A54.

Moore, T.C., Rea, D.K., Shane, L.K., and Lewis, C.F.M., 1995, The Laurentian Great Lakes, their detailed meltwater history and high resolution records of climate variability: Linked earth Systems; Congress Program and Abstracts; SEPM, v.1, p.92-93.

Moore, T.C., Walker, J.C.G., Rea, D.K., Lewis, C.F.M., Shane, L.C.K., and Smith, A.J., 2000, Younger Dryas interval and outflow from the Laurentide ice sheet: Paleoceanography, v.15, n.1, p.4-18.

Schwert, D.P., and Bajc, A.F., 1989, Fossil Coleoptera associated with the Moorhead low-water phase of Lake Agassiz in northwestern Ontario, Canada: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.21, n.6, p.345.

Pengelly, J.W., Tinkler, K.J., Parkins, W.G., and McCarthy, F.M., 1997, 12,600 years of lake level changes, changing sills, ephemeral lakes and Niagara Gorge erosion in the Niagara Peninsula and eastern Lake Erie basin: Journal of Paleolimnology, v.17, n.4, p.377-402.

Phillips, B.A.M., and Fralick, P.W., 1994, A post-Lake Minong transgressive event on the north shore of Lake Superior, Ontario; Possible evidence of Lake Agassiz inflow: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.31, n.11, p.1638-1641.

Porter, S.C., Sauchyn, D.J., and Delorme, L.D., 1999, The ostracode record from Harris Lake, southwestern Saskatchewan; 9200 years of local environmental change: Journal of Paleolimnology, v.21, n.1, p.35-44.

Rodriques, C.G., and Vilks, G., 1994, The impact of glacial lake runoff on the Goldthwait and Champlain seas; the relationship between glacial Lake Agassiz runoff and the Younger Dryas: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.13, n.9-10, p.923-944.

Romanowicz, E.A., Siegel, D.I., and Glaser, P.H., 1993, Hydraulic reversals and episodic methane emissions during drought cycles in mires: Geology, v.21, n.3, p.231-234.

Siegel, D.I., Reeve, A.S., Glaser, P.H., and Romanowicz, E.A., 1995, Climate-driven flushing of pore water in peatlands: Nature, v.374, n.6522, p.531-533.

Smith, D.G., and Fisher, T.G., 1993, Glacial Lake Agassiz; The northwestern outlet and paleoflood: Geology, v.21, n.1, p.9-12.

Smith, D.G., and Fisher, T.G., 1996, Termination of the Younger Dryas; The northwest outlet flood of Lake Agassiz causal mechanism: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.28, n.7, p.110.

Teller, J.T., and Bluemle, J.P., 1982, Geological setting of the Lake Agassiz region: Geological Association of Canada Meeting Abstracts, v.7, p.84.

Teller, J.T., and Bluemle, J.P., 1983, Geological setting of the Lake Agassiz region in, Teller, J.T., and Clayton, L., eds., Glacial Lake Agassiz, Geological Association of Canada, Dept. of Geology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, p.7-20.

Teller, J.T., 1987, Deglacial chronology along the southwestern Laurentide ice sheet and the initiation of Lake Agassiz: Congress of the International Union for Quaternary Research, p.275.

Teller, J.T., and Thorleifson, L.H., 1987, Catastrophic flooding into the Great Lakes from Lake Agassiz, in Mayer, L., and Nash, D., eds., Catastrophic flooding; Binghamton Symposia in Geomorphology, International Series No.18: London, UK, Allen & Unwin, p.121-138.

Teller, J.T., and Mahnic, P., 1988, History of sedimentation of the northwestern Lake Superior Basin and its relation to Lake Agassiz overflow: Canadian Journal of Earth, v.25, n.10, p.1660-1673.

Teller, J.T., 1989, Lake Agassiz did it; From Upham to Elson to catastrophy to global change: Geological Association of Canada Program with Abstracts, v.14, p.110.

Teller, J.T., 1990, Meltwater and precipitation runoff to the North Atlantic, Arctic, and Gulf of Mexico from the Laurentide ice sheet and adjacent regions during the Younger Dryas: Paleoceanography, v.5, n.6, p.897-905.

Teller, J.T., 1994, Lake Agassiz; Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and Minnesota (Canada and USA), in Gierlowski, K.E., and Kelts, K., eds., Global geological record of lake basins; Volume 1: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, p.363-370.

Tinkler, K.J., and Pengelly, J.W., 1995, Great Lakes response to catastrophic inflows from Lake Agassiz; some simulations of a hydraulic geometry for chained lake systems: Journal of Paleolimnology, v.13, n.3, p.251-266.

Walker, J.C.G., Moore, T.C., Rea, D.K., Lewis, C.F.M., Gareau, P., and Smith, A.J., 1998, The early Holocene glacial meltwater flow into the North Atlantic from the Laurentide ice sheet: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.30, n.7, 163-164.

Yansa, C.H., and Ashworth, A.C., 1998, Holocene vegetation in southeastern North Dakota during the Moorhead phase of glacial Lake Agassiz: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.30, n.7, p.168.

Wright, H.E., Jr., 1989, The amphi-Atlantic distribution of the Younger Dryas paleoclimatic oscillation: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.8, n.4, p.295-306.

Climate Cyclicity

Web Links:

Drought

NOAA's Palmer Drought Index Animation
NOAA'S PDI interpretation to 1700 based on tree ring analysis
NOAA's CLIMVIS Drought Data

Cycles/Sun/Sunspots/Milankovitch Cycles

The Sun and Climate
Current Solar Images
Solar Sun Spot Activity is Increasing
A Primer on the Space Environment
Solar Variability and Outer Solar Atmosphere (SVOSA)
Why We Study the Sun
Astronomical Theory of Climate Change
Effects of Sunspots on Earth
Milankovitch Cycles: Changes in Earth-Sun Interaction

Milankovitch Cycles in Paleoclimate

Books:

Anonymous, 1997, Climate change; State of knowledge: Washington, DC, Executive Office of the President, 17 p. [TRN DOCUMENT PREX 23.2:C 61]

Anonymous, 1998, Climatology interdisciplinary data collection (CIDC) (computer file): Monthly means of over 70 climate parameters for research and teaching: Greenbelt, MD, Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, 4 computer laser optical discs; 12 p. users' guide. [TRN DOCUMENT COMPUTER FILE NAS 1.86:C 61/v.1-4/CD]

Berger, A.L., 1984, Milankovitch & Climate; Understanding the Response to Astronomical Forcing: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Clark, P.U., and Lea, P.D., eds., 1992, The last interglacial-glacial transition in North America: Boulder,CO, Geological Society of America, 317 p. [TRN QE697 .L294 1992]

Hoyt, D.V., 1997, The role of the sun in climate change: New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 279 p. [TRN QC883.2.S6 H69 1997]

Nesme-Ribes, E., ed., 1994, The Solar Engine and Its Influence on Terrestrial Atmosphere and Climate (NATO Asi Series; Series I, Global Environmental Change, Vol 25): Springer Verlag.

Parrish, J.T., 1998, Interpreting pre-Quaternary climate from the geological record: New York, NY, Columbia University Press. [QC 884 .P37 1998]

Read, J.R., 1995, Milankovitch Sea-Level Changes, Cycles, & Reservoirs on Carbonate Platforms in Greenhouse & Icehouse Worlds: Tulsa, OK, SEPM, 212 p.

Journal Articles:

Drought Cycles and the Great Plains

Biondini, M.E., Patton, B.D., and Nyren, P.E., 1998, Grazing intensity and ecosystem processes in a northern mixed-grass prairie, USA: Ecological Applications, v.8, n.2, p.469-479.

Chen, G., Olsen, O.G., Leavitt, P.R., and Laird, K.R., 1998, Drought frequency in North America; predicting the future using conditional probability analysis of paleoclimatic record: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.30, n.7, p.218.

Donovan, J.J., and Duffy, C.J., 1992, Chemical response of salinity in groundwater-dominated lakes to perturbations in climate: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.24, n.7, p.301.

Fritz, S.C., 1990, Twentieth-century salinity and water-level fluctuations in Devils Lake, North Dakota; Test of a diatom-based transfer function: Limnology and Oceanography, v.35, n.8, p.1771-1781.

Fritz, S.C., 1991, Diatom-based salinity and climate reconstructions in the North American Great Plains, in Sedimentary and paleolimnological records of saline lakes: Saskatoon, SK, Canada, Natl. Hydrol. Res. Inst.. Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Fritz, S.C., Juggins, S., Battarbee, R.W., and Engstrom, D.R., 1991, Reconstruction of past changes in salinity and climate using a diatom-based transfer function: Nature, v.352, n.6337, p.706-708.

Fritz, S.C., Engstrom, D.R., and Haskell, B.J., 1996, "Little Ice Age" aridity in the North American Great Plains; A high-resolution reconstruction of salinity fluctuations from Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA; Reply: The Holocene, v.6, n.4, p.490-493.

Fritz, S.C., Engstrom, D.R., and Haskell, B.J., 1996, Nineteenth-century climate in the Devils Lake region as reconstructed from palaeolimnological proxies - Reply: Holocene, v.6, n.4., p.490-493.

Fritz, S.C., Ito, Y.Z., Laird, K.R., and Engstrom, D.R., 1998, High-resolution reconstruction of lake hydrochemistry and climate in the Northern Great Plains over the last 2000 years: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.30, n.7, p.250.

Fritz, S.C., 2000, Hydrologic variation in the northern Great Plains during the last two millennia: Quaternary Research, v.53, n.2, p.175- .

Gasse, F., Barker, P., Gell, P.A., Fritz, S.C., and Chalie, F., 1997, Diatom-inferred salinity in palaeolakes; An indirect tracer of climate change: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.16, n.6, p.547-563.

Gerla, P.J., 1992, Hydrological response of a prairie discharge wetland to climate variability: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.24, n.6, p.13.

Gerla, P.J., and Aadland, H., 1997, Geologic and climatic factors contributing to the disastrous 1997 Grand Forks flood: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.29, n.6, p.146.

Gosnold, W.D., Jr., Lefever, R.D., Boss, S.K., and Hartman, J.H., 1998, Flood frequency on the Red River of the north; Can it be predicted?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.30, n.7, p.169.

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Response of Organisms to Climate Change

Web Links:

Impacts of Climate Change on Life and Ecosystems
Global Atlas of Palaeovegetation Since the Last Glacial Maximum
Ultimate Tree-Ring Web Pages
QBib
BUGS Coleopteran Ecology Package
SiteSeer - NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
ShowTime - Visualization of plant movement following the last glaciation
Palynology - University of Arizona

Books:

Betancourt, J.L., Van Devender, T.R., and Martin, P.S., 1990, Packrat Middens: Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona Press, 467 p. [QE720 .P3 1990]

Dillehay, T.D., 1989, Monte Verde, a late Pleistocene settlement in Chile: Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, v.1, Paleo-environment and site context. [TRM OVERSIZE F3069 .D55 1989]

Elias, S., 1993, Quaternary insects and their environments: Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 284 p.

Ennis, C.A., 1996, Biological consequences of global climate change: Sausalito, CA, University Science Books, 53 p. [TRC QH545.T4 E56 1996]

Grayson, D.K., 1993, The desert's past; A natural prehistory of the Great Basin: Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 356 p.

Martin,R.A., and Barnosky, A.D., eds., 1993, Morphological change in Quaternary mammals of North America: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Ward, P.D., 1997, The call of distant mammoths; Why the Ice Age mammals disappeared: New York, NY, Copernicus, 241 p.

Journal Articles:

Beetles

Aalbersberg, G. and Litt, T., 1998, Multiproxy climate reconstructions for the Eemian and early Weichselian: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.13, n.5, p.367-390.

Ashworth, A.C., 1978, Deep gullying in eastern North Dakota; A catastrophic event: Ann. Proc. North Dakota Acad. Sci., v.30, pt.2, p.20-24.

Ashworth, A.C., 1979, Quaternary Coleoptera: Studies in North America: Past and Present, in Erwin, T.L., Carabid beetles: Their evolution, natural history and classification: Proceedings of the first International Symposium of Carabidology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., p.395-406.

Ashworth, A.C., 1983, Paleoecology of the southern part of the Lake Agassiz Basin: Geol. Assoc. Canada, v.26, p.133-156.

Ashworth, A.C., and Markgraf, V., 1989, The late glacial and Holocene climate of the Chilean channels: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.21, n.6, p.211.

Ashworth, A.C., and Hoganson, J.W., 1993, The magnitude and rapidity of the climate change marking the end of the Pleistocene in the mid-latitudes of South America: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.101, n.3-4, p.63-270.

Ashworth, A.C., 1994, Climate change from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene in the mid-latitudes of South America based on fossil beetles: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.26, n.7, p.445.

Ashworth, A.C., 1994, Donnees stratigraphiques relatives aux changements a la fin du Pleistocene dans la partie meridionale de l'Amerique du Sud: L'Anthropologie, v.98, n.1, p.3-24.

Ashworth, A.C., Harwood, D.M., and Webb, P.N., 1994, Beetle and seed fossils from the Meyer Desert Formation, Sirius Group; New records for Antarctica: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-588, 3 p.

Ashworth, A.C., 1996, The response of arctic Carabidae (Coleoptera) to climate change based on the fossil record of the Quaternary period: Ann. Zool. Fennici, v.33, p.125-131.

Ashworth, A.C., Miller, N.G., Schmidt, V.E., and Willenbring, J., 1997, The Sixmile Creek site, Ithaca, New York, and potential problems with mid-Wisconsinan regional paleoclimatic interpretations: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.29, n.6, p.37.

Ashworth, A.C., and Willenbring, J., 1998, Fossil beetles and climate change at Sixmile Creek, Ithaca, New York: American Paleontologist, v.6, n.1, p.2-3.

Buckland, P.C., and Hammond, P.M., 1997, The origins of the biota of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.59-69.

Coard, R., and Chamberlain, A.T., 1999, The nature and timing of faunal change in the British Isles across the Pleistocene/ Holocene transition: The Holocene, v.9, n.3, p.372-376.

Cong, S., and Ashworth, A.C., 1996, Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of middle and late Wisconsinan fossil coleopteran assemblages from western Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.11, n.5, p.345-356.

Cong, S., and Ashworth, A.C., 1997, The use of correspondence analysis in the analysis of fossil beetle assemblages, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.79-82.

Coope, G.R., 1968, Insect remains from silts below till at Garfield Heights, Ohio: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v.79, n.6, p.753-755.

Coope, G.R., 1959, A late Pleistocene insect fauna from Chelford, Cheshire: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, v.151, n.942, p.70-86.

Coope, G.R., and Lemdahl, G., 1995, Regional differences in the lateglacial climate of northern Europe based on coleopteran analysis: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.10, n.4, p.391-395.

Coope, G.R., Lemdahl, G., Lowe, J.J., and Walkling, A., 1998, Temperature gradients in northern Europe during the last glacial-Holocene transition (14-9 (super 14) C kyr BP) interpreted from coleopteran assemblages: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.13, n.5, p.419-433.

Coope, G.R., 1962, Coleoptera from a peat interbedded between two boulder clays at Burnhead near Airdrie: Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, n.24, Pt.3, p.279-286.

Elias, S.A., 1997, Palaeoenvironmental significance of late glacial insect fossil assemblages from the Aubrey site, north-central Texas, USA, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.105-111.

Elias, S.A., 1992, Late Quaternary beetle faunas of southwestern Alaska; evidence of a refugium for mesic and hydrophilous species: Arctic and Alpine Research, v.24, n.2, p.133-144.

Elias, S.A., Anderson, K.H., and Andrews, J.T., 1996, Late Wisconsin climate in the Northeastern USA and southeastern Canada, reconstructed from fossil beetle assemblages: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.11, n.5, p.417-421.

Elias, S.A., Andrews, J.T., and Anderson, K.H., 1999, Insights on the climatic constraints on the beetle fauna of coastal Alaska, U.S.A., derived from the Mutual Climatic Range method of paleoclimate reconstruction: Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, v.31, n.1, p.94-98.

Falder, A.B., Rothwell, G.W., Mapes, G., Mapes, R.H., and Doguzhaeva, L.A., 1998, Pityostrobus milleri sp. nov., a pinaceous cone from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) of southwestern Russia: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v.103, n.3-4, p.253-261.

Garry, C.E., Baker, R.W., Gilbertson, J.P., and Huber, J.K., 1997, Fossil insects and pollen from late Illinoian sediments in midcontinental North America, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.113-123.

Guiot, J., de Beaulieu, J.L., Cheddadi, R., David, F., Ponel, P., and Reille, M., 1993, The climate in Western Europe during the last glacial/ interglacial cycle derived from pollen and insect remains: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.103, n.1-2, p.73-93.

Heusser, C.J., 1998, Deglacial paleoclimate of the American sector of the Southern Ocean; late glacial-Holocene records from the latitude of Canal Beagle (55 degrees S), Argentine Tierra del Fuego: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.141, n.3-4, p.277-301.

Hoganson, J.W., and Ashworth, A.C., 1982, The Chilean lake region Late-glacial climate; interpreted from beetle assemblages: American Quaternary Association Program and Abstracts, v.7, p.106.

Hoganson, J.W., and Ashworth, A.C., 1982. The late-glacial climate of the Chilean Lake region implied by fossil beetles: North American Paleontological Convention Proceedings, v.3, p.251-256.

Hoganson, J.W., and Ashworth, A.C., 1992, Fossil beetle evidence for climatic change 18,000-10,000 years B.P. in south-central Chile: Quaternary Research, v.37, n.1, p.101-116.

Lavoie, C., and Payette, S., 1995, Microfossils analysis of a peat palsa; Subarctic Quebec: Canadian Journal of Botany, v.73, n.4, p.527-537.

Lemdahl, G., 1997, Late Weichselian and early Holocene colonisation of beetle faunas in S. Sweden, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.153-164.

Lowe, J.J., Birks, H.H., Brooks, S.J., Coope, G.R., Harkness, D.D., Mayle, F.E., Sheldrick, C., Turney, C.S.M., and Walker, M.J.C., 1999, Journal of the Geological Society of London, v.156, pt.2, p.397-410.

Lowe, J.J., and Walker, M.J.C., 1997, Temperature variations in NW Europe during the last glacial-interglacial transition (14-9 (super 14) C ka BP) based upon the analysis of coleopteran assemblages; The contribution of Professor G. R. Coope, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.165-175.

Maddy, D., Coope, G.R., Gibbard, P.L., Green, C.P., and Lewis, S.G., 1994, Reappraisal of middle Pleistocene fluvial deposits near Brandon, Warwickshire and their significance for the Wolston glacial sequence: Journal of the Geological Society of London, v.151, pt.2, p.221-233.

Mayle, F.E., Bell, M., Birks,H.H., Brooks, S.J., Coope, G.R., Lowe, J.J., Sheldrick, C., Li, S., Turney, C.S.M., and Walker, M.J.C., 1999, Journal of the Geological Society of London, v.156, pt.2, p.411-423.

Miller, R.R., 1997, Late-glacial Coleoptera in Maritime Canada and the transition to the Younger Dryas chronozone, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.177-184.

Morgan, A.V., 1991, Paleoentomology and the resolution of the Younger Dryas in western Europe and in eastern North America: Atlantic Geology, v.27, n.3, p.240. 1991.

Motz, J.E., and Morgan, A.V., 1997, Late-glacial climate and ecology of a kettle section at Brampton, Ontario, Canada, as determined from fossil Coleoptera: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.34, n.7, p.926-934.

Osborne, P.J., 1997, Insects, man and climate in the British Holocene, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.193-198.

Osborne, P.J., 1988, A late Bronze Age insect fauna from the River Avon, Warwickshire, England; its implications for the terrestrial and fluvial environment and for climate: Journal of Archaeological Science, v.15, n.6, p.715-727.

Pearson, R.G., 1963, Coleopteran associations in the British Isles during the late Quaternary period: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, v.38, n.3, p.334-363.

Pearson, R.G., 1962, The Coleoptera from a detritus mud deposit of full-glacial age at Colney Heath, near Saint Albans: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, v.173, pt.1, p.37-55.

Phelps, W.T., and Ekdale, A.A., 1997, Insect and arachnid burrows in modern and Pleistocene eolian deposits, Sonora, Mexico: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs v.29, n.6, p.463-464.

Ponel, P., and Coope, G.R., 1990, Lateglacial and early Flandrian Coleoptera from La Taphanel, Massif Central, France; climatic and ecological implications: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.5, n.3, p.235-249.

Ponel, P., 1997, Late Pleistocene coleopteran fossil assemblages in high altitude sites; A case study from Prato Spilla (northern Italy), in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.207-218.

Ponel, P., 1995, Rissian, Eemian and Wuermian Coleoptera assemblages from La Grande Pile (Vosges, France): Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.114, n.1, p.1-41.

Raymond, A., and Cutlip, P.G., 1996, Evolutionary ecology of terrestrial invertebrate detritivores; implications for nutrient cycling and primary productivity: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.28, n.7, p.176.

Rayner, R.J., Bamford, M.K., Brothers, D.J., Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S., McKay, I.J., Oberprieler, J.G., and Waters, S.B., 1997, Palaeontologia Africana, v.33, p.55-65.

Retallack, G.J., 1984, Trace fossils of burrowing beetles and bees in an Oligocene Paleosol, Badlands National Park, South Dakota: Journal of Paleontology, v.58, n.2, p.571-592.

Schwert, D.P., and Ashworth, A.C., 1988, Late Quaternary history of the northern beetle fauna of North America: A synthesis of fossil and distributional evidence: Mem. Ent. Soc. Can., v.144, p.93-107.

Schwert, D.P., and Ashworth, A.C., 1990, Ice Age beetles: Natural History, [January], p.10, 12, 14.

Schwert, D.P., 1992, Faunal transitions in response to an ice age: The Late Wisconsinan record of Coleptera in the north-central United States: The Coleopterists Bulletin, v.46, p.68-95.

Schwert, D.P., Torpen-Kreft, H.J., and Hajic, E.R., 1997, Characterization of the late-Wisconsinan tundra/ forest transition in midcontinental North America using assemblages of beetle fossils, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.237-243.

Wagner, P.E., 1997, Human impact or cooling climate? The "Little Ice Age" and the beetle fauna of the British Isles, in Ashworth, A.C., Buckland, P.C., and Sadler, J.P., eds., Studies in Quaternary entomology; An inordinate fondness for insects: Quaternary Proceedings, v.5, p.269-276.

Webb, P.N., Harwood, D.M., Mabin, M.G.C., and McKelvey, B.C., 1996, A marine and terrestrial Sirius Group succession, middle Beardmore Glacier-Queen Alexandra Range, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: Marine Micropaleontology, v.27, n.1-4, p.273-297.

Whitehead, P.F., 1992, Terraces of the River Avon at Twyning, Gloucestershire; their stratigraphy, climate and biota: Quaternary Newsletter, v.67, p.3-29.

Whitehouse, N.J., Boswijk, G., and Buckland, P.C., 1997, Peatlands, past, present and future; Some comments from the fossil record, in Parkyn, L, Stoneman, R.E., and Ingram, H.A.P., eds., Conserving peatlands: Wallingford, UK, CAB International, p.54-64.

Witte, H.J.L, Coope, G.R., Lemdahl, G., and Lowe, J.J., 1998, Regression coefficients of thermal gradients in northwestern Europe during the last glacial-Holocene transition using beetle MCR data: Journal of Quaternary Science, v.13, n.5, p.435-445.

For many more references use GeoRef. Using the search terms "climate change and paleoecology" will result in over 350 references covering organisms from diatoms and foraminifera to mammoths.

Mammals

Agusti, J., and Moya, S.S., 1996, The early Pleistocene mammal turnover in Spain; Evidence against an "end-Villafranchian" Event, in The dawn of the Quaternary; Proceedings of the SEQS-EuroMam symposium 1996, p.513-519.

Akersten, W.A., 1996, Diversity bottlenecks, oddball survivors, and negative keys, in Stewart, K.M., and Seymour, K.L., eds., Palaeoecology and palaeoenvironments of late Cenozoic mammals; Tributes to the career of C. S. (Rufus) Churcher: Toronto, ON, Canada, University of Toronto Press, p.3-15.

Alberdi, M.T., Caloi, L., Dubrovo, I., Palombo, M.R., and Tsoukala, E., 1997, Large mammal faunal complexes and palaeoenvironmental changes in the middle late and late Pleistocene; A comparison between Eastern Europe and Mediterranean area: in Satkunas, J., ed., The late Pleistocene in Eastern Europe; Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironment and climate: Vilna, Llithuania, Geological Survey of Lithuania, p.5-6.

Alroy, J., 1996, Constant extinction, constrained diversification, and uncoordinated stasis in North American mammals: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.127, n.1-4, p.285-311.

Amann, A.W. Jr., Bezy, J.V., Ratkevich, R., and Witkind, W.M., 1998, Ice age mammals of the San Pedro River valley, southeastern Arizona: Arizona Geological Survey Down-to-Earth Series, n.6, 19 p.

Anonymous, 2000, Ecology; How climate change alters rhythms of the wild: Science, v.287, n.5454, p.793- .

Arslanov, K.A., Cook, G.T., Gulliksen, S., Harkness, D.D., Kankainen, T., Scott, E.M., Vartanyan, S., and Zaitseva, G.I., 1998, Consensus dating of mammoth remains from Wrangel Island: Radiocarbon, v.40, n.1, p.289-294.

Barnosky, A.D., Rouse, T.I., Hadly, E.A., Wood, D.L., Keesing, F.L., and Schmidt, V.A., 1996, Comparison of mammalian response to glacial-interglacial transitions in the middle and late Pleistocene: in Stewart, K.M., and Seymour, K.L., eds., Palaeoecology and palaeoenvironments of late Cenozoic mammals; Tributes to the career of C. S. (Rufus) Churcher: Toronto, ON, Canada, University of Toronto Press, p.16-33.

Barnosky, A.D., Rouse, T.I., Hadly, E.A., Wood, D.L., Keesing, F.L., and Schmidt, V.A., 1996, Comparison of mammalian response to glacial-interglacial transitions in the middle and late Pleistocene, in Stewart, K.M., and Seymour, K.L., eds., Palaeoecology and palaeoenvironments of late Cenozoic mammals; Tributes to the career of C. S. (Rufus) Churcher: Toronto, ON, Canada, University of Toronto Press, p.16-33.

Beck, M.W., 1996, On discerning the cause of late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: Paleobiology, v.22, n.1, p.91-103.

Bennike, O., 1997, Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland; A review: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.16, n.8, p.899-909.

Berger, J., 1983, Ecology and catastrophic mortality in wild horses; Implications for interpreting fossil assemblages: Science, v.220, n.4604, p.1403-1404.

Betancourt, J.L., 1998, The call of distant mammoths; Why the ice age mammals disappeared; book review: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.141, n.1-2, p.167-168.

Biswas, G., 1999, Quaternary mammals of India in reconstruction of palaeoecology: Gondwana Geological Magazine, v.4, p.321-328.

Burney, D.A., 1995, Recent animal extinctions; Recipes for disaster, in McKinney, M.L., and Tolliver, R.L., eds., Current issues in geology; Selected readings; 1995 edition: St. Paul, MN, West Publishing Co., p.293-300.

Chase, L.R., and Tieszen, L.L., 1992, Use of fossil bison collagen delta (super 13) C values to reconstruct Holocene climate changes in Wyoming: Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science, v.71, p.154.

Cheng, J., Tian, M., and Cao, B., 1997, A marked climatic change and mammal migration during early Pleistocene time in North China, in An, Z., and Zhou, W., eds., Quaternary geology: Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress, n.30, v.21, p.33-39.

Cheng, J., Tian, M., and Cao, B., 1997, A marked climatic change and mammal migration during early Pleistocene time in North China, in An, Z., and Zhou, W., eds., Quaternary geology: Proceedings of the ... International Geological Congress, 30, v.21, p.33-39.

Cheylan, G., 1991, Patterns of Pleistocene turnover, current distribution and speciation among Mediterranean mammals, in Groves, R.H., and Di Castri, F., Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, p.227-262.

Coard, R., and Chamberlain, A.T., 1999, The nature and timing of faunal change in the British Isles across the Pleistocene/ Holocene transition: The Holocene, v.9, n.3, p.372-376.

Culotta, E., 1995, Many suspects to blame in Madagascar extinctions: Science, v.268, n.5217, p.1568-1569.

Dayan, T., Simberloff, D., and Tchernov, E., 1993, Morphological change in Quaternary mammals; A role for species interactions?, in Martin,R.A., and Barnosky, A.D., eds., Morphological change in Quaternary mammals of North America: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, p.71-83.

deMenocal, P.B., 1995, Plio-Pleistocene African climate: Science, v.270, n.5233, p.53-59.

Diamond, J.M., 1992, Palaeontology; Twilight of the pygmy hippos: Nature, v.359, n.6390, p.15.

Dubrovo,N.A., Giterman, R.Y., Gorlova, R.N., and Rengarten, N.V., 1982, Upper Quaternary deposits and paleogeography of the region inhabited by the young Kirgilyakh mammoth: International Geology Review, v.24, n.6, p.621-634.

Duckler, G.L., 1997, An osteopathological assessment of the health of North American mammals from the upper Pleistocene (40,000-11,000 BP): Doctoral dissertation. Los Angeles, CA, University of California, LA, 162 p.

Ducrocq, S., 1993, La Lente disparition des mammouths [Translated Title: The mammoths slow extinction]: La Recherche, v.24, n.259, p.1288-1289.

Dundas, R.G., 1992, The demise of the late Pleistocene dire wolf (Canis dirus); Implications for assessing carnivore extinctions: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v.12, n.3, Suppl., p.27A-28A.

Dundas, R.G., 1999, Quaternary records of the dire wolf, Canis dirus, in North and South America: Boreas, v.28, n.3, p.375-385.

Ferguson, D.K., 1993, The impact of late Cenozoic environmental changes in East Asia on the distribution of terrestrial plants and animals, in Jablonski, N.G., nad So, C.L., eds., Evolving landscapes and evolving biotas of East Asia since the mid-Tertiary: Occasional Papers and Monographs - Centre of Asian Studies, Hong Kong, University of Hong Kong, n.107, p.145-196.

Ferigolo, J., 1993, Mammalian Pleistocene extinctions; The infection hypothesis retried; A solution from immunology: Ameghiniana, v.30, n.3, p.331.

Foronova, I.V., 1998, Early Quaternary mammals from the Kuznetsk Basin, south of western Siberia, in van Kolfschoten, T., and Gibbard, P.L., eds., The dawn of the Quaternary; Proceedings of the SEQS-EuroMam symposium 1996: Haarlem, Netherlands, Mededelingen Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO, 60; p.353-374.

Frafjord, K., and Hufthammer, K., 1994, Subfossil records of the Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) compared to its present distribution in Norway: Arctic, v.47, n.1, p.65-68.

Fricke, H.C., O'Neil, J.R., and Lynnerup, N., 1995, Oxygen isotope composition of human tooth enamel from medieval Greenland; linking climate and society: Geology, v.23, n.10, p.869-872.

Fricke, H.C., and O'Neil, J.R., 1996, Inter- and intra-tooth variation in the oxygen isotope composition of mammalian tooth enamel phosphate; Implications for palaeoclimatological and palaeobiological research: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.126, n.1-2, p.91-99.

Gillette, D.D., 1996, Utah's wildlife in the Ice Age: Survey Notes - Utah Geological Survey, v.28, n.3, p.5-8.

Hadiwisastra, M.S., and Hantoro, W.S., 1994, Quaternary Stegodon fossils in Sumba; Faunal migration and climatic changes in island arcs, in Hantoro, W.S., Climates of the past, third field meeting: UNESCO, International Union of Geological Sciences, International, p.19.

Harington, C.R., and Cing, M.J., 1995, Radiocarbon dates on saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) fossils from Yukon and the Northwest Territories: Arctic, v.48, n.1, p.1-7.

Heywood, V.H., Mace, G.M., May, R.M., and Stuart, S.N., 194, Uncertainties in extinction rates: Nature, v.368, n.6467, p.105.

Hooker, J.J., 1999, Mammalian faunal change across the Paleocene-Eocene transition in Europe, in Aubry, M.P., Lucas, S.G., and Berggren, W.A., eds., Late Paleocene-early Eocene; Climatic and biotic events in the marine and terrestrial records: New York, NY Columbia University Press, p.428-450.

Hoppe, K.A., Koch, P.L., Carlson,R.W., and Webb, S.D., 1999, Tracking mammoths and mastodons; Reconstruction of migratory behavior using strontium isotope ratios: Geology, v.27, n.5, p.439-442.

Kalbe, J.E., 1995, Fossil elephantoids, Awash paleolake basins, and the Afar triple junction, Ethiopia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.114, n.2-4, p.357-368.

Kaye, C.A., 1962, Early postglacial beavers in southeastern New England: Science, v.138, n.3543, p.906-907.

Kerr, R.A., 1992, When climate twitches, evolution takes great leaps: Science, v.257, n.5077, p.1622-1624.

Kerr, R.A., 1996, New mammal data challenge evolutionary pulse theory: Science, v.273, n.5274, p.431-432.

Khromov, A.A., 1999, The paleogeographical range of the genus Elasmotherium in the Eopleistocene and Pleistocene of Eastern Europe: Paleontological Journal, v.33, n.2, p.192-197.

Koch, P.L., Hoppe, K.A., and Webb, S.D., 1998, The isotopic ecology of late Pleistocene mammals in North America; Part 1, Florida: Chemical Geology, v.152, n.1-2, p.119-138.

Lambert, W.D., and Holling, C.S., 1993, Body mass distribution in two Rancholabrean mammal faunas; Implications for late Pleistocene community structure and the great megafaunal extinction event: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v.13, n.3, Suppl., p.45-46.

Leonhardy, F.C., 1996, Late Pleistocene research at Domebo; A summary and interpretation, in Domebo--A Paleo-Indian mammoth kill in the Prairie-Plains: Museum of the Great Plains Contributions 1, p.51-53.

Leonhardy, F.C., 1996, Late Pleistocene research at Domebo; A summary and interpretation, in Domebo--A Paleo-Indian mammoth kill in the Prairie-Plains: Museum of the Great Plains Contributions 1, p.51-53.

Lepper, B.T., Frolking, T.A., Fisher, D.C., Goldstein, G., Sanger, J.E., Wymer, D.A., Ogden, J.G. III, and Hooge, P.E., 1991, Intestinal contents of a late Pleistocene mastodont from Midcontinental North America: Quaternary Research, v.36, n.1, p.120-125.

Lessa, E.P., and Farina, R.A., 1996, Reassessment of extinction patterns among the late Pleistocene mammals of South America: Palaeontology, v.39, pt.3, p.651-662.

Lessa, E.P., Van Valkenburgh, B., and Farina, R.A., 1997, Testing hypotheses of differential mammalian extinctions subsequent to the Great American Biotic Interchange: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.135, n.1-4, p.157-162.

Lister, A.M., and Sher, A.V., 1995, Ice cores and mammoth extinction: Nature, v.378, n.6552, p.23-24.

Long, A., Martin, P.S., and Lagiglia, H.A., 1998, Ground sloth extinction and human occupation at Gruta del Indio, Argentina: Radiocarbon, v.40, n.2, p.693-700.

MacFadden, B.J., and Shockey, B.J., 1997, Ancient feeding ecology and niche differentiation of Pleistocene mammalian herbivores from Tarija, Bolivia; Morphological and isotopic evidence: Paleobiology, v.23, n.1, p.77-100.

Marean, C.W., 1992, Implications of late Quaternary mammalian fauna from Lukenya Hill (south-central Kenya) for paleoenvironmental change and faunal extinctions: Quaternary Research, v.37,n.2, p.239-255.

Martin, P.S., Sabels, B.E., and Shutler, Dick Jr., 1961, Rampart Cave coprolite and ecology of the shasta ground sloth: American Journal of Science, v.259, n.2, p.102-107.

Martin, P.S., and Stuart, A.J., 1995, Mammoth extinction; Two continents and Wrangel Island: Radiocarbon, v.37, n.1, p.7-10.

Martin, R.A., 1992, Generic species richness and body mass in North American mammals; Support for the inverse relationship of body size and speciation rate: Historical Biology, v.6,n.3, p.73-90.

McFarlane, D.A., MacPhee-Ross, D.E., and Ford, D.C., 1998, Body size variability and a Sangamonian extinction model for Amblyrhiza, a West Indian megafaunal rodent: Quaternary Research, v.50, n.1, p.80-89.

Mead, J.I., and Lawler, M.C., 1995, Skull, mandible, and metapodials of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat (Oreamnos harringtoni: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v.14, n.4, p.562-576.

Meltzer, D.J., 1993, Coming to America: Discover, v.14, n.10, p.90-97.

Mitchell, G.F., and Parkes, H.M., 1949, The giant deer in Ireland (Studies in Irish Quaternary deposits, no. 6Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section B: Biological, Geological and Chemical Science, v.52, n.7, p.291-314. 7, Pages 291-314.

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Roberts, N., Eastwood, W.J., Lamb, H.F., and Tibby, J.C., 1997, The age and causes of mid-late Holocene environmental change in southwest Turkey, in Dalfes, H.N., Kukla, G., and Weiss,H., eds., Third millennium BC climate change and Old World collapse: NATO ASI Series. Series I: Global Environmental Change, v.49, p.409-429.

Rouse, T.I., 1993, The role of climate change in Pleistocene sciurid evolution at Porcupine Cave, Colorado: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v.13, n.3, Suppl., p.55.

Rustioni, M., and Mazza, P., 1992, The genus Ursus in Eurasia; Dispersal events and stratigraphical significance: Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, v.98, n.4, p.487-494.

Saether, B.E., Tufto, J., and Skatan, J.E., 2000, Population dynamical consequences of climate change for a small temperate songbird: Science, v.287, n.5454, p.854- .

Sardella, R., Caloi, L., Di Stefano, G., Palombo, M.R., Petronio, C., Abbazzi, L., Azzaroli, A., Ficcarelli, G., Mazza, P., Mezzabotta, C., Rook, L., Torre, D., Argenti, P., Capasso, B.L., Kotsakis, T., Gliozzi, E., Masini, F., and Sala, B., 1998, Mammal faunal turnover in Italy from the middle Pliocene to the Holocene, in The dawn of the Quaternary; Proceedings of the SEQS-EuroMam symposium 1996, p.499-511.

Sher, A., and Sulerzhitzkiy, L.D., 1991, Did mammoth escape from Arctic Siberia during the "bad times"; A review of the (super 14) C dating: Occasional Paper - University of Alaska Museum, Alaskan Quaternary Center, n.4, p.90-91.

Simons, E.L., Burney, D.A., Chatrath, P.S., Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., and Rakotosamimanana, B., 1995, AMS 14C dates for extinct lemurs from caves in the Ankarana Massif, northern Madagascar: Quaternary Research, v.43, n.2, p.249-254.

Smith, F.A., Betancourt, J.L., and Brown, J.H., 1995, Evolution of body size in the woodrat over the past 25,000 years of climate change: Science, v.270, n.5244, p.2012-2014.

Smith, F.A., and Betancourt, J.L., 1998, Response of bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea) to late Quaternary climatic change in the Colorado Plateau: Quaternary Research, v.50, n.1, p.1-11.

Stafford, T.W. Jr., Semken, H.A. Jr., Graham,R.W., Klippel, W.F., Markova, A.,Smirnov,N.G., and Southon, J., 1999, First accelerator mass spectrometry (super 14) C dates documenting contemporaneity of nonanalog species in late Pleistocene mammal communities: Geology, v.27, n.10, p.903-906.

Stanley, S.M., 1995, Climatic forcing and the origin of the human genus, in Stanley, S.M., Effects of past global change on life: Washington, DC, National Academy Press, p.233-243.

Stirling, I., 2000, Running out of ice? Polar bears need plenty of it: Natural History, v.109, n.2, p.92.

Stuart, A.J., 1991, Mammalian extinctions in the late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia and North America: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, v.66, n.4, p.453-562.

Stuart, A.J., 1992, Death of the megafauna; Mass extinction in the Pleistocene: Geoscientist, v.2, n.6, p.17-20.

Stuart, A.J., 1993, The failure of evolution; Late Quaternary mammalian extinctions in the Holarctic: Quaternary International, v.19, p.101-107.

Stuart, A.J., 1995, Insularity and Quaternary vertebrate faunas in Britain and Ireland, in Preece, R.C., ed., Island Britain; A quaternary perspective: Geological Society Special Publications 96, p.111-125.

Sulerzhitsky, L.D., and Romanenko, F.A., 1999, The "twilight" of the mammoth fauna in the Asiatic Arctic: Ambio, v.28, n.3., p.251-255.

Sutcliffe, A.J., 1995, Insularity of the British Isles 250,000-30,000 years ago; The mammalian, including human, evidence, in Preece, R.C., ed., Island Britain; A quaternary perspective: Geological Society Special Publications 96, p.127-140.

Sulerzhitsky, L.D., and Romanenko, F.A., 1999, The "twilight" of the mammoth fauna in the Asiatic Arctic: Ambio, v.28, n.3, p.251-255.

Turner, A., and Anton, M., 1996, The giant hyaena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Mammalia, Carnivora, Hyaenidae): Geobios, v.29, n.4, p.455-468.

Van Devender,T.R., and Spaulding, W.G., 1979, Development of vegetation and climate in the southwestern United States: Science, v.204, n.4394, p.701-710.

Vartanyan, S.L., Arslanov, K.H., Tertychnaya,T.V., and Chernov, S.B., 1995, Radiocarbon dating evidence for mammoths on Wrangel Island, Arctic Ocean, until 2000 BC: Radiocarbon, v.37, n.1, p.1-6.

Vrba, E.S., 1996, The fossil record of African antelopes (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., and Burckle, L.H., eds., Paleoclimate and evolution, with emphasis on human origins: New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, p.385-424.

Werdelin, L., and Barthelme, J., 1997, Brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) from the Pleistocene of Kenya: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v.17, n.4, p.758-761.

White, T.D., 1996, African omnivores; Global climatic change and Plio-Pleistocene hominids and suids, in Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., and Burckle, L.H., eds., Paleoclimate and evolution, with emphasis on human origins: New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, p.369-384.

Wilson, M., 1978, Archaeological kill site populations and the Holocene evolution of the genus Bison, in Davis, L.B. and Wilson, M., eds., Plains Anthropologist, Memoir 14, volume 23, issue 82, part 2, p. 9-22.

Worthy, T.H., and Holdaway, R.N., 1994, Quaternary fossil faunas from caves in Takaka Valley and on Takaka Hill, Northwest Nelson, South Island, New Zealand: Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, v.24, n.3, p.297-392.

Xu, Q., and Huang, Y., 1993, Periodic table of climatic changes during the Quaternary, in Jablonski, N.G., nad So, C.L., eds., Evolving landscapes and evolving biotas of East Asia since the mid-Tertiary: Occasional Papers and Monographs - Centre of Asian Studies, Hong Kong, University of Hong Kong, n.107, p.93-114.

Zale, R., Glazovskiy, A., and Naslund, J.O., 1994. Radiocarbon dating the extinct caribou on Franz Josef Land: Boreas, v.23, n.3, p.254-258.

Plants

Alley, N.R., 1998, Cainozoic stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and geological evolution of the Lake Eyre Basin: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.144, n.3-4, p.239-263.

Anderson, R.S., Betancourt, J.L., Mead, J.I., Hevly, R.H., and Adam, D.P., 2000, Middle- and late-Wisconsin paleobotanic and paleoclimatic records from the southern Colorado Plateau, USA: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.155, n.1-2, p.31-57.

Behling, H., Berrio, J.C., and Hooghiemstra,H., 1999, Late Quaternary pollen records from the middle Caqueta River basin in central Colombian Amazon: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.145, n.1-3, p.193-213.

Bird, M.I., and Cali, J.A., 1998, A million-year record of fire in sub-Saharan Africa: Nature, v.394, n.6695, p.767-769.

Brauer, A., Endres, C., Guenter, C., Litt, T., Stebich, M., and Negendank-Joerg, F.W., 1999, High resolution sediment and vegetation responses to Younger Dryas climate change in varved lake sediments from Meerfelder Maar, Germany: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.18, n.3, p.321-329.

Burchard, I., 1998, Anthropogenic impact on the climate since man began to hunt: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.139, n.1-2, p.1-14.

Davis, O.K., 1998, Palynological evidence for vegetation cycles in a 1.5 million year pollen record from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.138, n.1-4, p.175-185.

Fauquette, S., Guiot, J., and Suc, J.P., 1998, A method for climatic reconstruction of the Mediterranean Pliocene using pollen data: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.144, n.1-2, p.183-201.

Ganopolski, A., Kubatzki, C., Claussen, M., Brovkin, V., and Petoukhov, V., 1998, The influence of vegetation-atmosphere-ocean interaction on climate during the mid-Holocene: Science, v.280, n.5371, p.1916-1919.

Gasse, F., and Van Campo, E., 1994, Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa monsoon domains: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v.126, n.4, p.435-456.

Harle, K.J., 1997, Late Quaternary vegetation and climate change in southeastern Australia; Palynological evidence from marine core E55-6: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.131, n.3-4, p.465-483.

Hatte, C., Fontugne, M., Rousseau, D.D., Antoine, P., Zoeller, L., Tisnerat-Laborde, N., and Bentaleb, I., 1998, Delta (super 13) C variations of loess organic matter as a record of the vegetation response to climatic changes during the Weichselian: Geology, v.26, n.7, p.583-586.

Hope, G., and Pask, J., 1998, Tropical vegetational change in the late Pleistocene of New Caledonia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.142, n.1-2, p.1-21.

Huang,Y., Freeman, K.H., Eglinton, T.I., and Street-Perrott, F.A., 1999, Delta (super 13) C analyses of individual lignin phenols in Quaternary lake sediments; A novel proxy for deciphering past terrestrial vegetation changes: Geology, v.27, n.5, p.471-474.

Johnson, B.J., Miller, G.H., Fogel, M.L., Magee, J.W., Gagan, M.K., and Chivas, A.R., 1999, 65,000 years of vegetation change in central Australia and the Australian summer monsoon: Science, v.284, n.5417, p.1150-1152.

Li, X., and Sun, X., 1999, A pollen record of the last 37 ka in deep sea core 17940 from the northern slope of the South China Sea: Marine Geology, v.156, n.1-4, p.227-244.

Liu, K.B., Yao, Z., and Thompson, L.G., 1998, A pollen record of Holocene climatic changes from the Dunde ice cap, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Geology, v.26, n.2, p.135-138.

MacDonald, G.M., 1989, Postglacial palaeoecology of the subalpine forest-grassland ecotone of southwestern Alberta; New insights on vegetation and climate change in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and adjacent foothills: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.73,n.3-4, p.155-173.

Mancini, M.V., 1998, Vegetational changes during the Holocene in extra-Andean Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.138, n.1-4, p.207-219.

O'Connell, M., Huang, C.C., and Eicher, U., 1999, Multidisciplinary investigations, including stable-isotope studies, of thick late-glacial sediments from Tory Hill, Co. Limerick, western Ireland: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.147, n.3-4, p.169-208.

Payette, S., Filion, L., Delwaide, A., and Begin, C., 1989, Reconstruction of tree-line vegetation response to long-term climate change: Nature, v.341, n.6241, p.429-432.

Pellatt, M.G., Smith, M.J., Mathewes, R.W., and Walker, I.R., 1998, Palaeoecology of postglacial treeline shifts in the northern Cascade Mountains, Canada: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.141, n. 1-2, p.123-138.

Peng, C.H., Guiot, J., and Van Campo, E., 1998, Estimating changes in terrestrial vegetation and carbon storage; Using palaeoecological data and models: Quaternary Science Reviews, v.17, n.8, p.719-735.

Prentice, K.C., and Fung, I.Y., 1990, The sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to climate change: Nature, v.346, n.6279, p.48-51.

Wang, X., van der Kaars, S., Kershaw, P., Bird, M., and Jansen, F., 1999, A record of fire, vegetation and climate through the last three glacial cycles from Lombok Ridge Core G6-4, eastern Indian Ocean, Indonesia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.147, n.3-4, p.241-256.

White, J.M., Ager, T.A., Adam, D.P., Leopold, E.B., Liu, G., Jette, H., and Schweger, C.E., 1997, An 18 million year record of vegetation and climate change in northwestern Canada and Alaska; tectonic and global climatic correlates: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.130, n.1-4, p.293-306.

Whitlock, C., and Bartlein, P.J., 1997, Vegetation and climate change in Northwest America during the past 125 kyr: Nature, v.388, n.6637, p.57-61.

Yan, G., Wang, F.B., Shi, G.R., and Li, S.F., 1999, Palynological and stable isotopic study of palaeoenvironmental changes on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau in the last 30,000 years: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.153, n.1-4, p.147-159.

Zheng, Z., and Lei, Z.Q., 1999, A 400,000 year record of vegetational and climatic changes from a volcanic basin, Leizhou Peninsula, southern China: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v.145, n.4, p.339-362.

Paleoclimate Change and Humans

Cullen, H.M., deMenocal, P.B., Hemming, S., Hemming, G., Brown, F.H., Guilderson, T., and Sirocko, F., 2000, Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire; Evidence from the deep sea: Geology, v.28, n.4, p.379-382. [550.5 G294]

Global Warming

Web Links:

Articles on Global Warming - NASA
BMRC Climate Change Modelling Group
Catastrophic Weather and Climatic Change
CCSR; Center for Climate System Research - Univ. Tokyo
CDIAC Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
CDIAC's Global Climate Change Links Page
Chapman Conference on Mechanisms of Millennial-Scale Global Climate Change
Climate Change
Climate Change and Arctic Sea Ice
Climate Change (1999) - UMAC
Climate Dynamics and the Global Change Perspective; Index by Country
Climate Prediction Center - NOAA
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EPA Global Warming
Extreme Sea Level Changes - Ray Sterner
Global Change Master Directory
Global Climate Change
Global Climate Change Briefing Book - Congressional Research Service
Global Warming
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Greening Earth Society
Impact of Climate Change and Land Use in the Southwestern United States - U.S. Global Change Research Program
National Library for the Invironment
NOAA Paleoclimatology Program
NOAA Paleo Global Warming
A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming - NOAA
Rapid Climate Change - by Kendrick Taylor; American Scientist
Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change (2000)
- National Academy Press
Simulated Changes in Plant Distribution - USGS Circular 1153
A Study of Climate Change
Sudden climate transitions during the Quaternary - by Jonathan Adams, Mark Maslin, & Ellen Thomas
UMAC - E-News
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United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change
Variability in the earth climate system: Decadal and longer timescales
What is Climate Change?
WRCC Climate Division Monitoring Products - Time history plots; Precipitation or Temperature
WWF's Climate Change Campaign

Books:

Anonymous, 1997, USDA Forest Service Global Change Research Program highlights, 1991-95: Radnor, PA, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, 122 p.

Anonymous, 1998, Climatology interdisciplinary data collection (CIDC) (computer file): Monthly means of over 70 climate parameters for research and teaching: Greenbelt, MD, Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, 4 computer laser optical discs, 12 p. user's guide. [TRN DOCUMENT COMPUTER FILE NAS 1.86:C 61/v.1-4/CD]

Attfield, R., 1999, The ethics of the global environment: West Lafayette, IN, Purdue University Press, 232 p. [GE42 .A88 1999]

Casten, T.R., 1998, Turning off the heat; Why America must double energy efficiency to save money and reduce global warming: Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 269 p. [TRM TJ163.4.U6 C38 1998]

Christianson, G.E., 1999, Greenhouse; The 200-year story of global warming: New York, NY, Walker and Company, 305 p. [TRM QC981.8.G56 C48 1999]

Committee on Global Change Research, Board on Sustainable Development, Policy Division, National Research Council, 1999, Global environmental change; Research pathways for the next decade: Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 595 p. [TRN GE150 .G56 1999]

Ennis, C.A., 1996, Biological consequences of global climate change: Sausalito, CA, University Science Books, 53 p. [TRC QH545.T4 E56 1996]

Flavin, C., Tunali, O., and Peterson, J.A., eds., 1996, Climate of hope; New strategies for stabilizing the world's atmosphere: Washington, DC, Worldwatch Institute, 84 p. [TRC TRM TRN QC981.8.C5 F44 1996]

Frakes, L.A., 1979, Climates through geologic time: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 310 p.

Gardner, R., 1998, Warnings from the ice [videorecording]: South Burlington, VT, WGBH Boston Video/ Boston Science Unit, 60 minute videocassette [TRC QC981.8.G56 W37 1998]

Gelbspan, R., 1997, The heat is on: The high stakes battle over Earth's threatened climate: Reading MA, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 278 p. [TRC QC981.8.G56 G45 1997]

Grove, J., 1988, The Little Ice AGe: London, Methuen, 498 p.

Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P., and Schrag, D.P., 1998, A Neoproterozoic snowball earth: Science, v.281, p.1342-1346.

Hoffman, P.F., and Schrag, D.P., 2000, Snowball earth: Scientific American, v.282, n.1, p.68-75.

Hoffman, P.F., and Schrag, D.P., 2000, Snowball Earth: Scientific American.

Houghton, J.T., 1997, Global warming; The complete briefing, 2nd ed.: New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 251 p.

Jarvis, P.G., ed., 1998, European forests and global change; The likely impacts of rising CO2 and temperature: New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 379 p.

Karl, T.R., and Trenberth, K.E., 1999, The human impact on climate: Scientific American, v.281, n.6, p.100-105.

Lamb, H.H., 1995, Climate, history, and the modern World, 2nd ed.: London, Routledge, 433 p.

Leutwyler, K., 2000, The first ice age: Scientific American.

Leverson, V., 1997, Potential regional impacts of global warming on precipitation in the western United States: Denver, CO, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, 31 p. [TRN MICROFICHE DOCUMENT I 27.2:G 51/17]

Moore, P.D., Chaloner, B., and Stott, P., 1996, Global envirnomental change: Oxford, Blackwell Science, 244 p.

Moore, T.G., 1998, Climate of fear; Why we shouldn't worry about global warming: Washington, DC, Cato Institute, 175 p. [TRN QC981.8.G56 M64 1998]

Moran, E., ed., 1999, The global ecology: New York, NY, H.W. Wilson, 213 p. [TRN GE140 .G55 1999]

Philander, S.G., 1998, Is the temperature rising?; The uncertain science of global warming: Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press, 262 p. [TRN QC981.8.G56 P48 1998]

Roleff, T.L., ed., 1997, Global warming; Opposing viewpoints: San Diego, CA, Greenhaven Press, 192 p. TRC TRM TRN QC981.8.G56 G581945 1997]

Ruddiman, W.F., ed., 1997, Tectonic uplift and climate change: New York, Plenaum Press, 535 p.

Singer, S.F., 1997, Hot talk, cold science; Global warming's unfinished debate: Oakland, CA, The Independent Institute, 110 p. [TRM QC981.8.G56 S55 1997]

Steig, E.J., and Brook, E.J., 1998, Synchronous Climate Changes in Antarctica and the North Atlantic: Science, v. 282, n. 5386, p. 92- .

Stocker, T.F., 1998, Climate change; The seesaw effect: Science, v. 282, n. 5386, p.61- .

United States General Accounting Office, 1998, Climate change [microform]; Information on the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation; Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives: Washington, DC, United States General Accounting Office, 29 p. TRM U.S. DOCS. GA 1.13:RCED-98-154 MICRO FICHE]

United States Congress, 1997, Bonn to Kyoto; The administration's position on the climate change treaty; Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, first session, November 13, 1997: Washington, DC, U.S. G.P.O., 47 p. [TRM U.S. DOCS. Y 4.IN 8/16:B 64/2]

United States Congress, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, 1998, Examining the Kyoto Treaty on Climate Change and its effect on the agricultural economy; Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry,

United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, second session ... March 5, 1998: Washington, DC, U.S. G.P.O., 162 p. [TRM TRN DOCUMENT Y 4.AG 8/3:S.HRG.105-823]

United States Congress Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 1996, Global climate change; Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session ... September 17, 1996: Washington, DC, U.S. G.P.O., 139 p. [TRM TRN DOCUMENT Y 4.EN 2:S.HRG.104-760]

United States Congress, 1995, Scientific integrity and public trust; The science behind federal policies and mandates; Case study 2--climate models and projections of potential impacts of global climate change; Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment of the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, November 16, 1995: Washington, DC, G.P.O., 1190 p. [TRM U.S. DOCS. Y4.SCI2:104/35]

Journal Articles:

Anonymous, 2000, Global Warming: Draft Report Affirms Human Influence: Science, v.288, n.5466, p.589- .

Anonymous, 2000, Climate Change; Globe's 'Missing Warming' Found in the Ocean: Science, v. 287, n. 5461, p. 2126- .

Anonymous, 2000, NRC sure global warming is 'real': Nature, v.403, n.6767, p.233.

Anonymous, 2000, Ice-age cycles: Timings and triggers: Nature, v.404, n.6773, p.61.

Azar,C., and Rodhe, H., 1997, Targets for stabilization of atmospheric CO (sub 2): Science, v.276, n.5320, p.1818-1819.

Bentley, C.R., 1997, Rapid sea-level rise soon from West Antarctic ice sheet collapse?: Science, v.275, n.5303, p.1077-1078.

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Recreational Reading:

Future-fiction by Kim Stanley Robinson:

The Mars trilogy, published by Bantam Books:
Red Mars, 1993
Green Mars, 1995
Blue Mars, 1997

Global Climate Change Series:
Forty Signs of Rain, 2005
Fifty Degrees Below, 2005 (November)

Bison Chip Cookies

(Seminar Refreshments)

Ingredients

2 cups brown sugar
2 cups white sugar
2 cups margarine
4 eggs
1 tablespoon vanilla
4 cups flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
2 teaspoons baking soda
1 teaspoon salt
2 cups nuts, coarsely chopped
3 cups corn flakes
12-oz package of chocolate chips (or 6-oz of choc. Chips, and 6-oz of butterscotch chips)
1 cup coconut, shredded
2 cups oats

Cream sugars, margarine, eggs, & vanilla
Sift & add flour, soda, powder, & salt
Add & mix in remainder of ingredients

Drop large tablespoon sized portions onto greased cookie sheets
Bake at 350 degrees for 10-12 minutes or until lightly browned

Makes 5 to 6 dozen, depending on size
(They are named "Bison" Chip Cookies due to the large size, as well as appearance. :)

Content by lej
Posted 3/9/02
Moved with permission

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Comments to UIUC Geology Library
Modified on: 1/52010 lej