Subject-Specific Resources and Search Strategies
|Introductory Note: Environmental
toxicology is the study of how ecological systems--their structure, dynamics, function,
etc.--are affected by pollutants. A developing subfield of environmental toxicology is
ecotoxicology, in which special concern is placed on the release of toxic pollutants into
the environment, especially into aquatic systems, by focusing on how these toxicants may
become distributed within food chains and by measuring the toxic responses made within a
particular ecosystem to such pollutants. These are by nature interdisplinary fields
drawing their knowledge from ecology, organic chemistry, molecular biology, genetics, soil
science, mathematics, and so on.
This subject gateway has been developed to aid undergraduate students researching an environmental toxicology-related topic in locating materials available through the UIUC library system or on the Web.
There is a fairly limited set of subject headings available that is specific to environmental toxicology. The Library of Congress Subject uses the subject heading 'environmental toxicology.' In literature databases, however, there is little standardization. While some use 'environmental toxicology,' others use 'ecotoxicology' instead or do not have any specific heading to refer to this discipline. More likely, the search terms picked will depend on the organism, or suite of organisms, or the specific chemical(s) under study. When searching an online card catalog, using the LCSH subdivision 'environmental aspects' to follow a chemical name, can be a helpful indicator for locating relevant works. Other key terms to consider might be 'bioaccumulation,' 'biomagnification,' 'biomarker,' 'risk assessment,' and so on.
Environmental toxicology is, by nature, a multidisciplinary topic. Relevant materials are, therefore, likely to be found scattered throughout a library collection, in chemistry, soil science, ecology, medical sciences, law, and so forth. The Dewey Decimal System, however, does classify works on environmental toxicology under the heading 'industrial toxicology,' located at 615.902. In the UIUC libraries, therefore, environmental toxicological materials are likely to be focused within this area of the library collection (i.e. 615.902), or, more generally, within the toxicology section (615.9). The Veterinary Medicine Library is the primary collector of toxicology publications within the UIUC library system.
Considering the previous discussions, it probably comes at no surprise to learn that there is no one bibliographic database for searching the environmental toxicological literature. TOXLINE, produced by the National Library of Medicine, comes closest to serving this purpose (see below for a more complete description). Although its focus is on toxicology in humans, it is probably the best database to start your search with. To obtain a more in-depth coverage of wildlife or aquatic toxicology and ecotoxicology, however, a TOXLINE search should be supplemented by searches in one or more of the databases that follow.
The NLM, along with a few other U.S. federal government agencies, has developed a rather impressive number of databases, both bibliographical and data-based, that serve as valuable information sources for the environmental toxicologist. A number of these resources are described below; of particular note is the TOXNET collection.
Several of the databases discussed below do index monographic literature (books), as well as journal articles. The following online catalogs may be helpful for locating books:
The following places should be checked to locate journals available on campus:
Books or articles not available on campus can be requested, at no charge, from the interlibrary loan department. For more help on using the online catalogs consult the UIUC library webpage or ask a librarian for assistance.
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For a complete list of electronic databases available at the UIUC Library please refer to the Article Database Page.
AGRICOLA - AGRICOLA (Agricultural Online Access) is produced by the National Agricultural Library (NAL). Journal articles and books, although other materials, including multimedia, are also included. These bibliographical citations are prepared by the NAL, as well as more specialized agricultural institutions, such as the Food and Nutrition Information Center and the American Agricultural Economics Documentation Center. Online coverage is from 1970 to the present, with monthly updates. With over three million records, AGRICOLA offers international coverage of the primary agricultural literature. Subject coverage within the agricultural sciences is very broad, including such topics as chemistry, microbiology, and cytology, as well as feed science, horticulture and so on. This database may be helpful if you are looking for environmental toxicological information relating to pesticides and fertilizers, soil science, wildlife, veterinary medicine, and so on.
Agricultural and Environmental Biotechnology Abstracts - This literature database contains over 29,000 records, dating from 1993 to the present. It is updated on a bimonthly basis. The publication indexes international literature, including patents, related to the applications of microbiology and genetics to agriculture and the environmental sciences. Although the subject coverage appears to currently emphasize agricultural engineering, and, in particular, plant genomic studies, environmental toxicological topics, like bioremediation or waste treatment and disposal, are also covered.
Biological and Agricultural Index - This bibliographical database provides full indexing of over 225 international English-language periodicals. This means that the citations included are not just to research articles, but are also to book reviews, journal supplements, letters to the editor, and so on. Online coverage starts in 1982, but the print version goes back to 1916. It is updated monthly. Particular emphasis is placed on the agricultural sciences, but the index is also well-suited for undergraduate students in the life sciences. Coverage of environmental toxicology is particularly well represented in the area of agricultural waste pollution of aquatic systems.
Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS) - BIOSIS is the primary English-language service offering worldwide coverage of the life sciences. This is the best source for research literature relating to wildlife toxicology, especially ecological field studies and marine biology. Research journals articles represent the main bulk of the database, but conference papers, patents, and books are also indexed. Online coverage starts in 1980 and is updated weekly.
Chemical Abstracts - This is the primary index for both basic and applied chemical literature. Subject coverage includes analytical and physical chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry, environmental chemistry, toxicology, and so on. Chemical Abstracts indexes a variety of materials, including journal articles, technical reports, dissertations, patents, conference proceedings, and books on an international scale. Greater than fourteen million records are available online, dating back to 1967.
Current Contents - Current Contents was intitially developed as a table of contents service for current awareness in all academic disciplines. More than 7500 journals are indexed from cover to cover, meaning that complete bibliographic citations are provided for all articles, reviews, letters, notes, and editorials appearing in these journals. Given the multidisciplinary subject coverage, Current Contents is recommended as a resource for locating recent research literature on environmental toxicology. There is no subject indexing, so you should base your searches on key words and phrases. Online coverage starts in 1994 with weekly updates.
Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management - This database contains a multidisciplinary selection of citations drawn from conference proceedings, books, technical reports, scientific journals, and other publications. Over 1.2 million records, dating from 1981 to the present, are contained in the database. It is updated on a monthly basis. The subject coverage includes a wide spectrum of environmental science topics, from ecology to biotechnology. Although particular focus has been placed on pollution of the air, land, and water and pollution management, environmental toxicology is also covered.
MEDLINE - Produced by the National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE is internationally known for its coverage of biomedical literature. Abstracts are included for most records since 1975, although citations can date back to 1966. The database provides bibliographic citations for journal articles only. Subject coverage ranges across the whole spectrum of the biomedical sciences, including toxicology and environmental health. Although veterinary medical literature is included, the focus of the database remains that of human health. Other databases, such as BIOSIS or TOXLINE, provide better coverage of topics relating to environmental toxicology in non-human species.
National Technical Information Service (NTIS) - This database is primarily a place to locate abstracts of U.S. government-sponsored research project reports. NTIS does provide a certain level of international coverage, however, especially now that English, French, Japanese, German agencies have started contributing to the database. The publications included are primarily technical reports (in microform, government document, etc.), but bibliographies, conference proceedings, theses, patents and standards are among the other forms indexed by NTIS. Subject coverage is broad and includes biomedical research, chemistry, atmospheric science, environmental pollution and control, and so on. If you find a report that will be helpful to you, please ask a librarian to help you determine whether a copy is available on campus.
TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) - TOXNET functions as a gateway to a number of toxicological databases produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). These databases are broken down into three groups: those providing data on toxicity and other chemical hazards (1-7); toxicological literature (8-10); and toxic release data (11). Of particular note is the bibliographic index TOXLINE, which aims at offering a common index to the international literature available on the toxicological effects of chemical substances. TOXLINE currently contains over 2.7 million citations to literature dating as far back as 1900. Materials indexed include journal articles, books, reports, conference papers, and so forth. The citations are uploaded from around seventeen secondary sources, including MEDLINE, NTIS, BIOSIS, Pesticide Abstracts, RISKLINE, etc. As a result TOXLINE provides fairly in-depth coverage of topics related to environmental toxicology, such as environmental mutagens, toxicology, chemical carcinogens, pesticides and environmental pollutants, and so forth. Despite the citations taken from BIOSIS, however, species coverage does favor Homo sapiens and domestic and laboratory animals (e.g. rats, guinea pigs, dogs) over that of animal and plant wildlife. The databases available through TOXNET include:
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A variety of reference sources provide useful environmental toxicological information. Particularly helpful may be a special class of publications, known as toxicological profiles, which summarize substance-specific chemical and physical properties and toxicological data.
1. Wexler, Philip et al., eds. Information Resources in
Toxicology. 3rd ed. San Diego, CA; London, U.K.: Academic Press,
2000. xxviii, 921 p. Includes glossary and index. ISBN: 0127447709.
Call #: Q.616.9 W3i 2000 (Veterinary Medicine Reference); earlier editions held at Biology Reference (1st ed.) and
Veterinary Medicine (1st & 2nd ed.)
This book provides both subject-specific bibliographies and directories. Each chapter is devoted to a specific group of information resources, such as history of history of toxicology (Chapt.1), journals (Chapt.3), internet resources (Chapt.6), poison control centers (Chapt.19), and so on. Print sources for environmental toxicology are covered in Chapt.2 (p.105-136). This bibliography is divided into six sections: general works; aquatic environmental toxicology; atmospheric; hazardous waste; terrestiral; and wildlife. A directory of graduate programs in environmental chemistry, engineerging, and toxicology is also included (p.499-511). The index at the back of the book will aid in locating other environmental toxicology resources described in this volume.
2. Exposure Assessment Tools and
Models.Washington, D.C.: Economics, Exposure, and Technology Division,
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
This online resource has been developed to allow access to the various chemical exposure assessment methods, models, and databases that have been developed by the OPPT. These tools are freely available online, but is intended primarily as aids to professional scientists and engineers in evaluating the environmental fate of chemicals and exposure mechanisms in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems or for obtaining environmental release and monitoring data. Resources available from the OPPT include:
3. Gangolli, S., ed. The Dictionary of Substances and Their
Effects. 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of
Chemistry, c1999. 7 v.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and index (v.7). ISBN: 0854048030.
Call #: 615.9003 D5611999 (Chemistry Reference); Also available online.
DOSE contains data on over 4,100 chemicals of environmental concern. Each entry includes information on chemical and physical properties of the substance, as well as data on its occupational exposure limits, mammalian and avian toxicity, genotoxicity, ecotoxicity, environmental fate, and regulatory legislation. The information is provided in summary form and is fully referenced. The online DOSE Database brings this well-respected reference work to a whole new dimension, allowing the entries to be searched by chemical name, formula, CAS Registry number, and keyword.
4. Dictionary of Toxicology. 2nd ed. London, U.K.: Macmillan Reference;
New York, N.Y.: Grove Dictionaries,
1998. Includes bibliographical references. 504 p.: ill. ISBN: 1561592161.
Call #: 615.9003 H668m1998 (Veterinary Medicine Reference)
This is a technical dictionary designed to provide the terms and concepts of toxicology needed by students on the undergraduate or graduate level, as well as scientists working in other fields. The entries vary in length from a few sentences to several paragraphs and are supplemented by drawings of molecular structures and illustrative tables. Cross-references are provided.
5. Klaassen, Curtis D. and John B. Watkins III, eds. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The
Basic Science of Poisons:
Companion Handbook. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1999. Includes bibliographical references and
indexes. 861 p.: ill. ISBN: 0070349630.
Call #: 615.9 C26t1999 (Veterinary Medicine Reference)
A handbook associated with the classic textbook of the same title, this companion text is meant as a reference source accessible to the undergraduate student. For more in-depth information the 1111 page textbook is the authoritative reference source for toxicology. The handbook mirrors the content of the textbook, covering general principles, toxicity mechanisms of the organs, carcinogenesis and other nonorgan-directed toxicities, toxic agents (e.g. pesticides, metals, industrial solvents and vapors, biotoxins), environmental toxicology, and toxicological applications.
6. RAIS Glossary. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Risk Assessment Information System, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Although not as extensive as the Dictionary of Toxicology (3), the advantage to this resource is its focus on the vocabulary, acronyms, and concepts specific to environmental toxicology.
7. Rattner, Barnett A., et al. Biological and Ecotoxicological Characteristics of
Terrestrial Vertebrate Species
Residing in Estuaries. Reston, Va.: Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Program, Geological
Survey, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Includes bibliographical references.
Presents species-specific summaries of biological characteristics (e.g. feeding habits, range, abundance, nomenclature, etc.) and contaminant exposure and effects data (dry-weight concentrations and toxicological effects) for terrestrial vertebrates residing in estuaries. The data comes from free-ranging specimens rather than controlled laboratory studies. Currently the site contains only 25 entries, which range in length from three to 46 pages in length. Primarily avian species, these species have been selected as appropriate biomarkers for monitoring estuarine contamination.
8. Comprehensive Toxicology. 1st ed. [New York, N.Y.]:
Pergamon, c1997. 13 v.: ill. Includes bibliographical
references and indexes. ISBN: 0080423019.
This set provides an encyclopedic treatment of the field of toxicology, with an emphasis on human systems. The first volume introduces the general concepts involved in toxicology, such as toxicokinetics, physiological mechanisms, or associated methodology like risk assessment. The second volume presents an overview of the toxicological testing and assessment methods used for pharmaceutical agents, chemicals, pesticides, and consumer products. A special emphasis is placed on experimental design, regulation guidelines, and standards. The third volume considers biotransformation, that is, the enzymatic processes involved in an organism's response to toxicants. The next eight volumes adopt a system-based approach, moving through the anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and special toxicological considerations of each of the organ systems. A weak point in the subject coverage of this set is that it does not cover eyes or the integumentary system. The twelfth volume concludes with a discussion of chemical carcinogens, while author and subject indexes are contained in the final volume.
Environmental toxicology is not in the scope of this work, per se; rather the value of these volumes is in their detailed overview of the methodological framework onto which toxicological subdisciplines like environmental toxicology, and the related aquatic toxicology, wildlife toxicology, and ecotoxicology, have built. Furthermore the writing style is clear, and supplemented with plenty of illustrative tables, charts, and other figures. The methodical structure of the set, including its in-depth subject indexing, the systems-based arrangement of the subject-matter, and so on, make the location of specific information easy to find. Thus each volume can be read as a self-contained textbook, or used as a set for quick reference purposes.
9. Environmental Contaminants
Encyclopedia. Fort Collins, Col.: National Park Service, Water Resources Division.
Includes bibliographical references and search engine.
Originally developed as a reference tool for National Park Service staff and other federal employees, the articles have been available online to the public as .PDF files since March 1998. Ranging from 30-200Kb, these articles can be quite lengthy (ca. 50 p.). A total of 118 articles are available on various petroleum compounds, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds that are most commonly found contaminating fresh and marine water systems. Numbered references within the text refer to the bibliographical citations given in a separate bibliography file. There is also a separate file on chemical name synonyms.
These authored entries cover such topics as: chemical properties; synonyms; natural and industrial uses; potential impacts to fish, wildlife, invertebrates, and plants; potential hazards to humans; summaries of possible carcinogenic, endocrine, genotoxic, reproductive, or developmental effects; descriptions of environmental fate and uptake pathways; discussions on bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biotransformation; toxic concentrations in water, sediments, and soils, along with the related federal standards and regulations for monitoring; data on plant and animal tissue levels; food concentrations related to critical doses; and reviews of laboratory and field analyses. The value of this resource is its focus on environmental toxicology in fish, wildlife, invertebrates, and other non-human organisms.
N.B. Besides those cited below, resources included elsewhere in this bibliography will also provide toxicity profile data, in particular: the Toxicological Profiles series, DOSE, and the Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia.
10. The ATSDR
Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of
Toxicology. Includes a search engine.
This is a series of toxicological summaries, excerpted from the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles (34) and Public Health Statements. It is intended as a ready reference resource to provide understandable information on hazardous substances and their effects on human health. Currently there are about 110 of these summaries available. Text is minimized by using bulleted lists that summarize the salient points, in layman terms, regarding what the chemical is, how it enters into the environment, how likely humans are to be exposed to the compound and what the possible health effects may be. Molecular models of the chemical substances are included as stereo GIF files and XYZ 3D files. The latter are better quality but require access to molecular modeling software, such as the free web browser plug-in, MDL Medscape Chime. The site provides a search engine.
11. Chemicals in
the Environment: OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets. Washington, D.C.: Office of Pollution
and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Includes bibliographical references.
Like the ATSDR ToxFAQs (9), the OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets are produced to provide brief summaries of chemical profiles. Information included in the 40 chemical summaries covers chemical properties, production and use by humans, environmental fate, health and environmental effects, as well as laws under which the chemical is regulated and phone numbers for EPA offices and other government agencies that can be contacted for further information. The summaries are available online as either ASCII text or PDF. Each substance has two articles: a fact sheet which provides a brief description and the contact information; and more in-depth chemical summary that includes chemical properties, a toxicological profile and bibliographical references. Publication of these fact sheets began in August 1994; updates are made as needed.
12. Pesticide Information
Profiles (PIPs). EXTOXNET (The
Extension Toxicology Network). Includes
bibliographical references, glossary, and search engine.
Produced by EXTOXNET, PIPs is a set of documents which provide specific pesticide information relating to health and environmental effects. It is intended for use by the general public. The profiles were developed primarily by toxicologists and chemists working for the land-grant extension services of the universities that make-up EXTOXNET. Currently about 140 pesticides and herbicides are covered. A glossary and ten bibliographical references files are also included. All files are provided in HTML format. The database can be searched used a keyword search engine. Included in the profiles is information on synonyms, chemical and physical properties, exposure guidelines and regulations, manufacturers, agricultural uses, toxicological effects (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, reproductive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects, and organ toxicity), fate in animals, ecological effects (i.e. effects in birds, aquatic organisms, and other wildlife), and environmental fate.
Toxicity Profiles. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Risk Assessment Information System, Oak Ridge
Includes bibliographical references.
This is yet another useful online source for information on toxicants. These toxicity profiles were developed from EPA data available in IRIS, Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST), and other literature sources. Each profile is available in a condensed version, running about one page in length, or the formal version. Both are available in HTML format. The formal version can also be downloaded as a Word Perfect 5.1 file. Topics covered include metabolism and disposition, exposure routes (inhalation or oral), target organs, critical effects, and carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health effects. The articles are signed. Currently about 75 chemical profiles are available. The substances covered are primarily metals and hydrocarbons, particularly those that present occupational toxicity risks to humans (e.g. asbestos).
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These books and monographic series have been selected to give an idea of the range of information that is available in environmental toxicology, from experimental design (e.g. modelling or statistics, etc.) to collections of papers on specific ecosystems, organisms, or chemical substances, and is by no means intended as a definitive bibliography. This section has been broken down into three sections: textbooks; methodologies or special topics; and monographic series.
14. Christakos, George and Dionissios T. Hristopoulos. Spatiotemporal
Environmental Health Modeling: A
Tractatus Stochasticus (Topics in Environmental Chemistry). Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
c1998. 400 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 0792382110.
Call #: 616.98015118 C464s (Veterinary Medicine)
This book is intended to serve as a textbook on the applications of stochastics to environmental health. Although the focus of the books is on human populations, the principles outlined should presumably hold for modeling the effects of environmental toxicants in animal populations in general. There are nine chapters, each broken down into subsections. Each subsection is concluded with illustrative examples. The authors have made heavy use of illustrations, equations, and mathematical vocabulary. The book is, therefore, not recommended for those unfamiliar with multivariable calculus. It should be a helpful source for environmental toxicologists, who are in the process of developing an experiment, in its discussion of what kinds of variables, time scale, and sample size should be considered and how to go about analyzing such nonlinear data.
15. Crosby, Donald G. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. New York,
N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1998.
xiv, 336 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references, glossary, and index. ISBN: 0195117131.
Call #: 615.902 C883e (Veterinary Medicine)
One of the few textbooks devoted specifically to instruction in environmental toxicology. Written in an approachable style, this textbook provides an overview of the chemical principles important to environmental applications, such as chemodynamics, environmental transport, abiotic transformations (e.g. oxidation, hydrolysis, etc.), and biotransformation in animals and plants. Toxicological topics like intoxication and quantitative toxicology (e.g. toxicokinetics) are also covered. The textbook then moves on to discuss specific classes of pollutants and concepts specific to environmental toxicology and chemistry (e.g. risk and hazard assessment, modeling environmental fate and effects). The text is supplemented by numerous tables and other illustrative figures, diagrams, and formulae. Each chapter concludes with an article on special topics, like ecotoxicology, environmental persistence, epidemiology, free radicals, and so on.
16. Klaassen, ed. Casaret and Doull's Toxicology:
The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th edition. New York, NY:
McGraw-Hill, c1996. xv, 1111 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and an index. ISBN: 0071054766.
Call #: 615.9 C26T1996 (Veterinary Medicine Reserves; earlier editions shelved in Vet-Med stacks)
This book has become a classic among toxicology textbooks. For the purposes of an undergraduate research paper, however, the Companion Handbook may be a more helpful place to start.
17. Landis, Wayne G. and Ming-Ho Yu. Introduction to Environmental Toxicology:
Impacts of Chemicals Upon
Ecological Systems. Boca Raton, Fl.: Lewis Publishers, c1995. 328 p.: ill. With bibliographical references and
index. ISBN: 0873715152.
Call #: 571.95 L235i (Veterinary Medicine)
Like (14), this is a textbook intended for an undergraduate class in environmental toxicology. Similar topics, that is, basic mechanisms and processes, are covered, but from a slightly different perspective that places emphasis on the organisms and ecosystems rather than the chemistry. This book is less formula-intensive. Definitions of terms are provided within the text, instead of in a glossary. Each chapter is concluded with a set of study questions.
18. Schwarzenbach, René P, P.M. Gschwend, and Dieterr M. Imboden. Environmental
Organic Chemistry. New
York, N.Y.: Wiley, 1993. x, 681 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 0471839418.
Call #: 628.168 Sch96e (Chemistry)
Along with Casarett and Doull (§16), this was, until recently, the only textbook available that covered environmental toxicology and chemistry in any depth. This book focuses on the underlying chemical dynamics and processes by which chemicals move through biotic systems.
19. Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling: Integrated Studies of
Agroecosystems: Proceedings of the
Ninth Pellston Workshop, Kiawah Island, South Carolina, July 22-27, 1990. (SETAC Special Publications
Series; 8). Boca Raton, Fl.: Lewis Publishers, c1994. 576 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and index.
Call #: 598.25222 W646 (Natural History; Veterinary Medicine)
Sponsored by the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the SETAC Foundation for Environmental Education, this is, by definition, a conference publication. However it was designed to serve as a textbook. The publication consists of 53 papers on the topic of the adaptation of ecological population modeling techniques to wildlife toxicology. The papers have been arranged into a logical progression from reviews of the principles involved in current ecological models, to overviews of ecotoxicological issues and concepts. It concludes with papers on statistical analyses of ecotoxicological data and the applicability of ecological modeling techniques to modeling environmental risk. There is a nice balance made between case studies, theory, and methodology.
Although there are relatively few textbooks on environmental toxicology, many monographs and monographic series are available on special topics in environmental toxicology. The following are meant to provide a sample of the range of topics covered by the monographic literature, from books focusing on research methodology, to reviews of particular chemical classes or ecosystems.
20. Arts, Michael T. and Bruce C. Wainman, eds. Lipids in
Freshwater Ecosystems. New York, N.Y.: Springer,
c1999. 319 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references, index, and glossary. ISBN: 0387985050.
Call #: 577.614 Ar79l (Veterinary Medicine)
This book is a collection of or articles on the role of lipids in aquatic ecology. Topics considered include their biochemical origins, their functions in both biotic and abiotic processes, and environmental fates. Organisms considered are primarily limited to zooplankton, bacteria, and other invertebrates. Although this does not specifically consider environmental toxicology, it offers important information on the class of chemicals that act as the primary means by which contaminants are taken up and, then, stored within an animal's tissues.
21. Beyer, W. Nelson, Gary H. Heinz, and Amy W. Redman-Norwood, eds.
Environmental Contaminants in
Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations (SETAC Special Publications Series). Boca Raton, Fl.: CRC;
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, c1996. 494 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and
index. ISBN: 156670071X.
Call #: 615.902 EN892 (Natural History; Veterinary Medicine)
This book is a collection of twenty-two review-length articles on the topic of wildlife toxicology. The articles have been grouped according to chemical families, such as chorlinated hydrocarbons (e.g. the pesticide DDT or the industrial PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)), lead, mercury, and so on. A good balance has been struck within these sections between consideration of birds and mammals, as well as covering both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. There is also a balance between research articles and reviews.
22. Braunbeck, T., D.E. Hinton, and B. Streit, eds. Fish
Ecotoxicology (EXS; 86). Basel, Switzerland; Boston, Mass.:
Birkhäuser Verlag, 1998. x, 396 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 081765819X (U.S.).
Call #: 571.9517 F526 (Veterinary Medicine)
Twelve review articles are included in this collection, arranged to progress systematically, starting with studies on the cellular level (cytology) and then moving on to tissues (histology), immunochemistry, toxicant cycles, and, finally, to the bioaccumulation of toxicants within aquatic ecosystems. The collective emphasis is on toxicology (i.e. physiological mechanisms, laboratory studies, etc.), rather than on the ecological effects of environmental contaminants. Written in an accessible style, the articles also use tables, photographs, and other illustrative figures to supplement the text.
23. Crompton, T.R. Toxicants in the Aqueous Ecosystem.
Chicester, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons,
c1997. xiii, 382 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references, index, and appendices. ISBN: 047197272X.
Call #: 571.95 C88t (Veterinary Medicine)
This book's strengths are its extensive bibliographical references and, especially, tables of toxicological data. The focus is on summarizing methods and results of previous studies. There is little discussion of the concepts and issues. In fact, the book is primarily made up of data tables. A downfall to the scope of the book is that there is little coverage of aquatic mammal species. Altogether, this publication is intended for specialists. Undergraduates are less likely to find this a useful source.
24. Langston, William J. and Maria João Bebianno, eds. Metal
Metabolism in Aquatic Environments (Ecotoxicology
Series; 7). London, U.K.; Weinham, Germany; New York, N.Y.: Chapman & Hall, 1998. 448 p.: ill. Includes
bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 0412803704.
Call #: 577.62753 M564 (Veterinary Medicine)
Thirteen lengthy review articles are contained in this volume. The book is very text-based and could benefit from more illustrations, especially diagrams. However the style is not too technical. Species emphasis is on algae, invertebrates, and fish. Metabolic processes are the focus of these papers. Although the concept of bioaccumulation and other ecological processes are not ignored, the uptake and environmental fate of metals within ecosystems is not particularly included within the scope of this book.
25. Rose, J., ed. Environmental Toxicology: Current
Developments (Environmental Topics; 7). Amsterdam,
Netherlands: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c1998. xv, 397 p.: ill. + 3 col. plates. Includes
bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 905699140X.
Call #: 615.902 En893
This book offers eighteen review articles on a variety of topics in environmental toxicology written in an accessible style. Socioeconomic and legal issues are covered, as well as the expected chemical, toxicological, and ecological topics.
26. Sparks, Tim, ed. Statistics in Ecotoxicology (Ecological and
Environmental Toxicology Series). Chicester, U.K.;
New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, c2000. xiii, 320 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical, index, and appendices.
ISBN: 047196851X (hardcover); 0471972991 (pbk.)
Call #: 577.270727 St29 (Veterinary Medicine)
The focus of this book is on presenting an overview of the statistical methods used in ecotoxilogical research. The authors have tried to minimize mathematical 'jargon,' although there is still heavy use of equations. Nevertheless, a balance is struck by the presence of high quality figures and accessible writing styles. In addition to articles on methods, there are also a few case studies done in the field. This book is probably a more specialized source than is required for an undergraduate research paper.
27. Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Scientific Publishing. 25 v. (as of 2000). Some recent examples:
28. Current Topics in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Chemistry. Philadelphia, Penn: Taylor & Francis. For example:
29. Current Topics in Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry. Amsterdam, The
Netherlands: Gordon and Breach;
Marston. 17 v. (as of 2000). Some examples:
30. Ecotoxicology Series. London, U.K.; Weinham, Germany; New York, N.Y.: Chapman & Hall. 7 v. (as of 2000):
31. Ecological and Environmental Toxicology Series (Jason M. Weeks, Sheila
O'Hare, and Barnett Rattner, series eds.).
Chicester, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. 4 v. (as of 2000):
32. Environmental Topics. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach. (John Rose, ed.) 8 v. (as of 2000). [Example]
33. SETAC Special Publications Series. (T.W. La Point, series editor.) Pensacola,
Fl.: SETAC. ca. 24 v. (as of 2000).
Some recent examples:
34. Topics in Environmental Chemistry. (John W. Birks, series ed.) New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
35. Toxicological Profiles. Atlanta, Georgia: ASTDR.
This important series provides in-depth peer-reviewed profiles of hazardous substances. The size of the series is hard to judge, but probably is equivalent to the number of ASTDR ToxFAQs. Profiles are revised and republished as necessary, but at no less than three year intervals. Each monograph reviews the information available on health effects, toxicokinetics, chemical and physical properties, production and use, regulations, biomarkers indicative of exposure and effects, and methods for reduction. Bibliographical references, a glossary, and abbreviations and acronyms are also included. Check the UIUC online catalog holdings by searching for the series title Toxicological Profile. One example:
- Toxicological Profile for Polybrominated Biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1995. xvii, 257 p.: ill. Includes bibliographical references, glossary, and appendices.
Call #: 615.951 T6675 (Veterinary Medicine); or
DOC. HE20.7918:P76/2 (Main Stacks--Gov't. Docs)
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There are too many journals covering environmental toxicology topics to be included here. This list provides just a sampling of journals that specialize in the area.
36. Aquatic Toxicology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 1981 - .
Six issues yearly since 1983.
Call #: 574.5263 AQ35 (Natural History)
37. Environmental Toxicology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1999
- . Five issues yearly. ISSN: 1520-4081.
Former titles: Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality (1991-1998); Toxicity Assessment (1986-1990).
Call #: 628.16105 TO1a (Natural History). Also available online.
38. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. New York, N.Y.: Pergamon;
SETAC, 1982 - . Monthly since 1986.
Call #: 363.738405 EN (Chemistry)
39. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. New York, N.Y.:
Springer-Verlag, 1987 - .
Irregular. ISSN: 0179-5953.
Call #: 615.9 R31a (Natural History)
40. The Science of the Total Environment. Amsterdam, The Netherlands:
Elsevier, 1972 - . Monthly since 1983.
Call #: 614.705 SC (Grainger). Also available online.
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Effects of agricultural wastes on aquatic ecosystems?
You might be interested in the run-off of pesticides. But in this search I am looking for articles on animal waste contamination, particularly of slurry from large swine farms.
Click on the button marked 'index' in the right-hand column. Type 'animal-w' into the search box and click on the button labelled 'Go to term.' Glance through the list of words and phrases that is brought up. Check the box to the left of any that seem appropriate. You can click as many as you wish. You can jump around
Polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine mammals.
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