Library Committee Handbook

Executive Committee



 

New Service Models Action Plan

April 30, 2009

 

Introduction

 

Over the past 18 months, the University Library has undertaken a strategic review of its approach to the design and delivery of Library services that we have called the "New Service Models" program. The Action Items recommended to the Provost below represent the next stage of development of this ongoing process of strategic review and commitment to establishing a sustainable approach to maintaining excellence in Library services for the twenty-first century.

 

The New Service Models Program

 

The New Service Models (NSM) program was founded on the understanding that both the academic environment and the information enterprises of which the Library is an essential feature had undergone significant change over the past two decades and that these changes posed fundamental challenges to the approach to Library service that characterized the Illinois experience throughout the twentieth century. The need to address this environment of challenge and change has become even clearer since the initiation of the NSM program. Factors such as the downturn in the global economy and progress toward the resolution of the future of the "Google Books" project have suggested that we are at a critical crossroads in the history of the related enterprises of academic librarianship, scholarly publishing, and broader support for scholarly and scientific communication. While the NSM program is designed to address the challenges and opportunities unique to Illinois, the global nature of these issues within the academic environment can be seen in the conduct of similar change programs at institutions such as Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley. Our vision for change is focused on maintaining and expanding the two most important components of a preeminent research university library: a cadre of expert Library faculty and staff, and the  rich array of collections and scholarly content required by Illinois faculty and students to carry out their research, teaching, and learning.

 

Charged by the Provost to present a plan that would address these challenges in such a way as to ensure ongoing excellence in Library services for the twenty-first century, and to address how such excellence might be supported and sustained in an increasingly difficult economic environment, the Library initiated a process of identifying opportunities for change and facilitating communication among Library faculty and staff and campus colleagues. Those wishing to review the full description of the challenges and opportunities addressed through the NSM process may consult the Fall 2007 "Interim Report" of the Library's initial planning team (referred to as the "Budget Group Plus"), available at < http://www.library.uiuc.edu/nsm/background/Numbered_NSM_Interim_Report_November07_Final.pdf>, and the Spring 2008 "Final Report" of that same group, available at < http://www.library.uiuc.edu/nsm/background/nsmfinal/>.

 

The changes proposed and implemented to date as part of the NSM program are rooted in the Library's ongoing commitment to its core values of service to teaching, scholarship, and cultural heritage, and to its tradition of excellence in services and collections. As stated earlier in the NSM process:

 

At the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, we believe the academic library of the twenty-first century will be distinguished by the scope and quality of its service programs. Fundamental changes in information and academic environments demand new approaches to defining, designing, and delivering library services. An approach designed for the twentieth century holds little value if it cannot adapt to the demands of a new era in teaching, learning, and scholarship. To meet the numerous challenges of designing a library for the next generation, we must embrace changes in our organization and methods of conducting work. We must make decisions that are consistent with our core values of service to teaching, service to scholarship, and service to our cultural heritage. The Library's future must be guided by these service imperatives.

 

In order to propose actions both consistent with these service imperatives and cognizant of the challenges facing the academic library enterprise today and in the future, we have initiated discussions with colleagues from academic units across campus to review the essential elements of Library service to their disciplines, fields, and areas of interdisciplinary teaching and research in order to identify opportunities for change, as well as opportunities for establishing new collaborative endeavors in support of teaching, learning, and scholarship. The Library's "Statement on Library Services," in which these values are elaborated, is available at < http://www.library.uiuc.edu/nsm/background/service_imperatives.html>.

 

The changes proposed and implemented to date as part of the NSM program, and the changes identified in the body of this report as Action Items to be pursued in the future, are also rooted in the core commitments to Library service at Illinois outlined in the "Final Report," including the commitments to:

The University Library re-affirms its core values and core commitments as the starting point for addressing the significant (and growing) challenges that it faces in maintaining its place as a world-class academic research library, and re-affirms that its vision for sustaining these values and commitments to service are founded on an overarching commitment to collaboration as a member of the academic community.

 

The NSM process has been greatly informed and enhanced by the feedback we have received from campus colleagues, as well as by the direct involvement of colleagues in the planning and implementation of specific change programs. Several of the Action Items recommended to the Provost below have benefited from such feedback and involvement, but others are newly articulated. We recognize that successful change efforts will be based on an ongoing commitment to discussion, involvement, and collaboration between Library faculty and staff and members of the campus community. We have proposed timelines for the Action Items recommended to the Provost below that recognize the need to foster and facilitate this open approach to communication and planning, as well as the limits that must be set on any plan as ambitious as this one by available human resources, financial resources, and Library facilities and infrastructure. Our plans must be flexible enough to ensure adequate opportunity for discussion and feedback, as well as to facilitate necessary changes within the resources made available to us by the campus. We recognize, however, that maintaining a commitment to the status quo is not an option; for all the reasons noted in earlier reports, we find ourselves in an environment where substantive changes made in the short term are a pre-requisite for sustaining  excellence in the long term.

 

The Action Plan

 

In January 2009, the University Library was charged by the Provost to continue, accelerate, and expand the successful approach to strategic change that we have called the New Service Models program. In light of the broader economic challenges facing the University of Illinois, she asked us to "expand [our] work to integrate library collections and service points in a way that will allow the greatest economies of scale, while also recognizing the need to support an array of library services . . . appropriate to the needs of different populations and disciplinary communities." While concern for possible budget reduction is never far from any campus planning activity, we have approached this renewed charge from the Provost not as an effort to ensure maximum reductions in budget, but as one designed to address broader challenges in the Illinois library environment with an eye toward maximum impact, flexibility, and benefit to users in the long term. While several of the Action Items recommended below may provide opportunities for cost reduction (or for avoidance of future costs), others are focused on the opportunities to re-allocate resources for maximum benefit to the Library and the campus, and to ensure that the resources with which we are entrusted are employed to their greatest effect. 

 

The body of this Action Plan is organized into the three broad areas of concern raised in the Provost's letter of January 2009: opportunities for change in the provision of Library services to the physical sciences and engineering disciplines; opportunities for change in the provision of Library services to the life sciences; and opportunities for change in the provision of Library services within the Main Library facility. The Action Plan continues with an initial overview of the costs and benefits associated with the actions proposed and an articulation of issues of campus concern raised during the Action Plan development process that have relevance across the University Library. An initial timeline of projects scheduled to take place across the Library over the next several semesters is provided in the Appendix.

By endorsing these Action Items, we commit to immediately begin planning to implement the recommendations made below, and to doing so in a manner that will continue to allow broad input and involvement among members of the Illinois community. Several of these recommendations appeared in the "Final Report" of the Budget Group Plus, and others are among those that have been made following ongoing discussion among Library faculty, staff, and users, and in light of the dramatic changes in the global economy since Fall 2008.

Undertaking these Action Items will require substantial one-time investments in Library facilities, collections, technology, and human resources (as well as ongoing investments in areas of strategic significance for the future), but promises to provide long-term savings, as well as opportunities to ensure maximum return on the investment made by the University and its donors in the Library and improved service to users of the Library's physical and digital collections and services. 

Physical Science and Engineering Libraries

The Provost's letter of 15 January 2009 asked that we consider the integration of the following Library units into the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center: Chemistry Library, Geology Library, Mathematics Library, and Physics & Astronomy Library.

Following consultation with Library faculty and staff, as well as with constituent academic programs, we recommend that the University Library:

Following review of the service programs of the Chemistry Library and the Mathematics Library, initial evaluation of the patterns of use of Library services and materials in those units, and receipt of feedback from faculty in the School of Chemical Sciences and the Department of Mathematics, we recommend  maintaining these units in their current space for the time being while pursuing opportunities to share resources across these units and the Grainger Library in order to ensure the most effective use of funds and expertise across our remaining physical science and engineering libraries.

Rationale

Integration of the Physics and Astronomy Library and the Geology Library into the Grainger Library will allow us to establish a more robust "hub" for physical and virtual Library services relevant to teaching, learning, and research in the physical sciences and engineering disciplines.

Integration of the Grainger, Physics and Astronomy, and Geology service programs recognizes the significant changes that have occurred in the ways in which faculty and students access scholarly content across the disciplines since the advent of electronic journals and electronic books, as well as the need shared across the  disciplines for access to digital content, print materials, and specialized technology tools. While the need to provide more robust support for e-scholarship is not unique to the physical sciences and engineering disciplines, there are challenges and opportunities common across these fields that may be better supported from a "physical sciences hub" at Grainger, including the development of customized information search and discovery tools, support for digital content creation and curation, and other research support services. Faculty and students, too, will be better served by the provision of Library services through a core Library facility already offering 24/5 access during the academic year, and designed to support an array of needs, including individual study, group study, and meeting space. While we recommend maintaining the independent Chemistry and Mathematics libraries for the time being, we believe that greater coordination of service programs and greater sharing of faculty and staff across these units will allow faculty and students in Chemistry, Mathematics, and related fields of study to benefit from the innovative approaches to science library service that will be fostered in the Grainger Library. We recognize, too, that ongoing changes to access to digital services and content as well as economic concerns will require us to revisit this recommendation in the coming years.

Finally, vacating Library space in Loomis Laboratory and the Natural History Building will allow the Provost to re-allocate space to critical academic priorities while allowing the Library the opportunity to collaborate with academic units housed in those buildings in order to establish new models for face-to-face and digital delivery of library and information services in the areas of Physics, Astronomy, and the Earth Sciences.

Timeline

The possibility of closing the Physics and Astronomy Library has been discussed for several years, and significant changes to the make-up of the on-site Library collection as well as to the service space have already been made. Based on this progress toward a new service model for Physics and Astronomy, we plan to close the Physics and Astronomy Library to the public on June 12, 2009. Materials will be transferred to Grainger or to the Oak Street Library Facility during Summer 2009, and the space will be vacated by the University Library no later than August 15, 2009.

The possibility of closing the Geology Library has been discussed over the past three years as part of broader planning for the future of the Natural History Building. While progress has been made during this time in processing materials currently held in the Geology Library, considerable work still needs to be completed prior to vacating the space. Equally important, focused discussions with faculty and students in the School of Earth, Society, and the Environment (SESE) must be pursued in order to determine the array of physical and virtual Library services (including on-site print and map collections) appropriate to the needs of faculty and students pursuing study and research in the earth sciences. The Library will establish a planning team charged with facilitating engagement with the SESE community on the future of Library services, and making recommendations specific to the integration of the Geology Library with the Grainger Library. Recommendations from this team will be due to the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries no later than October 16, 2009, and should facilitate the closing of the Geology Library at a date to be determined, but no later than the conclusion of the Summer 2010 term on August 7, 2010.

As part of the process of engaging campus faculty in the development of this Action Plan, we have received feedback from both the School of Chemical Sciences and the School of Molecular and Cellular Biology that our plans for the future of the service programs currently housed in the Biology Library and the Chemistry Library may benefit from broader discussion. The Library will establish a planning team charged with facilitating engagement with the community represented by these Schools, as well as the School of Integrative Biology, on the future of Library services specific to the proposal discussed earlier this semester to wholly integrate the service program of the Biology Library with that of the Funk Family College of ACES Library. Recommendations from this team will be due to the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries no later than October 16, 2009, and should facilitate the closing of the Biology Library at a date to be determined following review of the team's recommendations.

During 2009-2010, the Library will pursue ongoing discussions of the future of Library services for the physical sciences and engineering disciplines, review with key constituents the plans for the necessary revision of the Grainger Library service program, and pursue opportunities for greater sharing of resources among existing Library units in these fields.  As part of these discussions, the Library will pursue the possibility of installing compact shelving in a portion of the Grainger Library in order to increase its capacity for access to on-site collections, reduce the need to transfer materials into already-crowded conditions in the Main Stacks, and provide greater flexibility within Grainger for its service program to evolve as these discussions continue into the future.

Life Sciences Libraries

The Provost's letter of 15 January 2009 asked that we consider the integration of the following Library units into the Funk Family College of ACES Library: Applied Health Sciences Library, Biology Library, and Veterinary Medicine Library.

Following consultation with Library faculty and staff, as well as with constituent academic programs, we recommend that the University Library:

Following review of the service program of the Veterinary Medicine Library, initial evaluation of the patterns of use of Library services and materials in that unit, and in consideration of the unique role played by the Veterinary Medicine Library in supporting a clinical educational program, as well as the demands of its accrediting body, we recommend maintaining this unit in its current space for the time being while pursuing opportunities to share resources across this unit and the Funk Family Library in order to ensure the most effective use of funds and expertise across our remaining life science libraries.

Rationale

Integration of some or all of the service program currently housed in the Biology Library into the Funk Family Library while pursuing opportunities to integrate a wider array of Library faculty into the provision of Funk Family Library services will allow us to establish a more robust "hub" for physical and virtual Library services relevant to teaching, learning, and research in the life sciences. At the same time, we recognize that a number of factors related to the organization of support for basic and applied teaching and research in the life sciences argue for a comprehensive review of challenges and opportunities, as well as for planning for University Library services to the life sciences within the broader context of the Urbana campus library environment, which includes service programs housed in affiliated units, e.g., the University of Illinois at Chicago's Library of the Health Sciences and the Institute for Natural Resource Sustainability.

Integration and alignment of the Library service programs in the life sciences recognizes the significant changes that have occurred in the ways in which faculty and students access scholarly content across the  disciplines since the advent of electronic journals and electronic books, as well as the need shared across for access to print materials and specialized expertise, and the Urbana campus commitment to interdisciplinary initiatives in the life sciences. Faculty and students will be better served by the provision of services through a core Library facility that can be supported for longer hours of access during the academic year, and that is designed to support an array of needs, including individual study, group study, and meeting space. While we recognize that the continued operation of affiliated units managed by the University of Illinois at Chicago and the Institute for Natural Resource Sustainability may not allow us to achieve the greatest economies of scale in terms of rationalizing Library services across the life sciences across campus, we believe that greater coordination of service programs and greater sharing of faculty and staff across these units will allow faculty and students in a variety of fields to benefit from innovative approaches to science library service that will be fostered in the Funk Family Library. We recognize, too, that ongoing changes to access to digital services and content as well as economic concerns will require us to revisit this recommendation in the coming years.

Finally, vacating Library space in Burrill Hall will allow the Provost to re-allocate space to critical academic priorities while allowing the Library the opportunity to collaborate with academic units housed in those buildings in order to establish new models for face-to-face and digital delivery of library and information services in the areas including Biology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, and Bioinformatics.

Timeline

Following review of the service program of the Applied Health Sciences Library, initial evaluation of the patterns of use of Library services and materials in that unit, and in consideration of feedback from faculty in the College of Applied Health Sciences, we believe that the current AHS Library service model is not sustainable. In the time provided, however, we have not successfully settled on an approach to addressing the issues related to developing a more appropriate model to serve the faculty and students of the College and related disciplines. There are significant overlaps in the current AHS Library program with complementary programs in the life sciences and social sciences, and the potential for such overlap will grow as the Library addresses how to build service support for emergent programs such as i-Health < http://www.ihealth.illinois.edu/> The Library will establish a planning team charged with facilitating engagement with the College of Applied Health Sciences and related communities on the future of Library services. Recommendations from this team will be submitted to the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries no later than October 16, 2009, and should facilitate the closing of the AHS Library at a date to be determined following review of the team's recommendations. Determination of the future use of the space currently occupied by the AHS Library will be made following review of the team's recommendations.

As noted above, we have received feedback from both the School of Chemical Sciences and the School of Molecular and Cellular Biology as part of the process of engaging campus faculty in the development of this Action Plan, and they have suggested that our plans for the future of the service programs currently housed in the Biology Library and the Chemistry Library may benefit from broader discussion. The Library will establish a planning team charged with facilitating engagement with the community represented by these Schools, as well as the School of Integrative Biology, on the future of Library services specific to the proposal discussed earlier this semester to wholly integrate the service program of the Biology Library with that of the Funk Family College of ACES Library. Recommendations from this team will be due to the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries no later than October 16, 2009, and should facilitate the closing of the Biology Library at a date to be determined following review of the team's recommendations.

Main Library

The Provost's letter of 15 January 2009 asked that we pursue the development of interdisciplinary service programs in the humanities, social sciences, and area studies within the Main Library facility in an effort to improve services and to continue the alignment of Library services with those provided by complementary campus programs and initiatives. Following consideration of a wide range of options for re-alignment of Main Library space in the absence of a major renovation, consultation among Library faculty and staff, as well as interested campus constituents, we recommend that the University Library:

Rationale

In general, reducing the number of small, departmental library units within the Main Library will allow us to provide more consistent levels of service to all users, while also allowing us to explore opportunities for new service programs and approaches to support for campus-wide initiatives within the Main Library facility. Building on the progress made in recent semesters to coordinate and consolidate access services and technical services functions, a strategic re-envisioning of the array of service spaces and programs in the Main Library will allow us to address long-term concerns regarding the sustainability of discrete departmental libraries while also providing us with greater flexibility for the Main Library service program to evolve as these discussions continue into the future. In addition, the opportunities provided to take a more coordinated view of services and collections housed in the Main Library will provide us with the organizational flexibility that will be required to allow us to maintain our commitment to the professional expertise and the range and depth of collections that have long characterized the Library at Illinois.

Establishing central access service programs within the Main Library will allow us to reduce duplication of staffing and infrastructure within the Main Library, and to facilitate greater access by Library users to print collections and to Library faculty and staff.

Establishing a "Central Reference and Government Information Services" unit will allow us to maintain our historic commitment as a land-grant library to provide a range of services to the public, and to maintain flagship public service programs currently provided by two independent units in adjacent space. Identifying a  "Coordinator for Government Information Services" from among our current Library faculty will allow us to rationalize and extend government information services across the Library and the campus.

The "International and Area Studies Library" will provide focus for services and resources relevant to the study of the world outside the United States, as well as for the study of global and transnational issues of significance within the United States. The service program for the new unit will incorporate and extend beyond those currently associated with the following Main Library units: Africana Library Unit, Asian Library, Latin American & Caribbean Studies Library, Modern Languages & Linguistics Library, and Slavic & East European Library. In addition, it will incorporate the services currently associated with existing "virtual service programs" in European Union Studies and Global Studies. This new unit will be designed to facilitate collaboration with complementary Library service programs housed in units such as Central Reference and Government Information Services, the History, Philosophy, & Newspaper Library, and the Undergraduate Library. The International and Area Studies Library will highlight the unique investment in international materials and services characteristic of the University of Illinois, allow us to pursue the question of how the success of the grant-funded Slavic Reference Service might inform the development of future "international reference service" programs, and support the campus commitment to an "International Illinois."

A new Library unit dedicated to the study of language, literary texts, and emergent forms of scholarship in the humanities will provide focus for services and resources relevant to the study of language, world literature, and other forms of textual analysis. The new unit will serve as a gateway to the rich Library collections relevant to these fields of study and its service program will incorporate and extend beyond those currently associated with the following Main Library units: English Library, and Modern Languages & Linguistics Library. This new unit will be designed to facilitate collaboration with complementary Library service programs housed in units such as the Architecture and Art Library, the Classics Library, the History, Philosophy, & Newspaper Library, the Music and Performing Arts Library, the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, the Scholarly Commons, and the International and Area Studies Library. The new unit will highlight the unique investment in literary and textual materials from around the world that is a distinctive characteristic of the University of Illinois and will support the campus commitment to scholarship in the humanities, including digital humanities, building on opportunities for greater collaboration with campus programs such as the Center for Translation Studies, the Illinois Informatics Institute, I-CHASS, and the Illinois Program for Research in the Humanities, as well as with other initiatives centered in the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the University of Illinois Press, and the Dalkey Press.

A new Library unit dedicated to the study of the social and behavioral sciences will provide focus for services and resources relevant to research and teaching in these fields. The service program for the new unit will incorporate and extend beyond those currently associated with the following Main Library units: Education and Social Science Library, and Business and Economics Library, and may expand to encompass relevant aspects of the service program currently associated with the Applied Health Sciences Library (as appropriate to the recommendations made regarding the future of that unit). This new unit will build on the successful experience providing integrated service to social scientists over many years in the Education and Social Science Library. This new unit will be designed to facilitate collaboration with complementary Library service programs housed in units such as the Communications Library, the History, Philosophy, & Newspaper Library, the International and Area Studies Library, and the Scholarly Commons, and will serve as a Main Library service point for fields including Labor & Employment Relations and Library & Information Science (both of which will continue to be served through programs embedded in their respective Schools).

Timeline

Establishing  "central access services" programs has been the subject of Library discussion and planning for the past several years, and has already resulted in the integration of service points for circulation and interlibrary loan services, as well as movement toward a centralized approach to processing electronic reserves. The Central Circulation Desk will be reconfigured during Summer 2009 to establish a "Central Reserves" function providing a single service point for all print reserves currently held by units in the Main Library. "Central Reserves" will launch as a pilot project to serve courses in the Graduate School of Library & Information Science during Fall 2009, and will be available for use by all Main Library units in time for the Spring 2010 semester.

The Government Documents Library will close on June 30, 2009. The "Central Reference and Government Information Services" unit will provide uninterrupted public service with an integrated service point to be established no later than July 1, 2009.

The "International and Area Studies (IAS) Library" and the new Library unit dedicated to the study of language, literature, textual analysis, and emergent forms of scholarship in the humanities will be established in appropriate spaces in the Main Library, with attention currently focused on the use of three existing spaces: 225 Library (currently the Slavic & East European Library), 321 Library (currently the English Library), and 325 Library (currently the Asian Library). Establishing these new Library units will require a phased approach, and will benefit from a process of ongoing engagement with key constituents in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (LAS), the College of Fine and Applied Arts (FAA), and other international centers and programs. The Library will establish a planning team for each of the new Library units, and each will be charged with facilitating engagement with members of relevant academic communities, including administrators and faculty leaders in affected academic programs, the directors of Title VI Area Studies Centers and other programs affiliated with the Office of the Associate Provost for International Affairs, and the LAS Humanities Council. Recommendations from these teams will be due to the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries no later than October 16, 2009, and should facilitate the establishment of the new Library units at a date to be determined following review of the team's recommendations.

The model for Library services to the social and behavioral sciences has evolved consistently over the past several decades. An overview of the development of the current Education and Social Science Library, for example, is available at < http://www.library.uiuc.edu/edx/libhistory.html> and demonstrates how an array of related academic programs can be effectively served through an integrated service program similar to those proposed above. With recent changes to the service models for other social science disciplines, this is an appropriate time to review Library service to the social sciences and to identify opportunities to enhance support for teaching, learning, and research in the social and behavioral sciences, and in allied, applied fields of study. The Library will establish a planning team charged with engaging relevant communities in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, the College of Business, the College of Education, the College of Applied Health Sciences, and the School of Social Work in discussions on the future of Library services. Given the relationship between this work to that described earlier in relation to the Applied Health Sciences Library, recommendations from this team will be due to the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries no later than December 17, 2009, and should address relevant recommendations from the AHS Library planning team.

While we cannot begin detailed planning for the establishment of the new Library units prior to review of the recommendations to be provided by the planning teams, the general directions established and endorsed by the Library's Executive Committee allow us to take intermediate steps that will be beneficial to our achieving the longer-term goals with limited disruptions to current service. Among the steps we propose to take while active planning continues for the new Library units are the following:

In addition to providing the Library with the opportunity to pursue specific recommendations already underway as part of the New Service Models process, the integration of the Latin American and Caribbean Library and the Africana Library unit will allow the Library to provide greater support to users of the services currently associated with these units by drawing together faculty and staff resources into an arrangement that will ensure more consistent hours of services and access to a greater range of relevant materials on site during the planning for the International and Area Studies Library.

Additional steps may be identified and implemented during the planning process, as appropriate, as consensus is achieved on issues relevant to the goal of establishing the new Library units. Main Library timeline dates will also be influenced by the demands of major projects unrelated to the Action Plan and the New Service Models process, e.g., the replacement of outdated HVAC systems serving the Rare Book and Manuscript Library (currently scheduled to begin in January 2010).

Costs, Benefits, and Opportunities

As noted above, there are significant costs associated with each of the Action Items outlined above, but there are also significant benefits, both tangible and intangible. The full scope of these benefits cannot be known until after the change efforts have been completed, but, taken together, the items outlined in this Action Plan promise a future for Library services that is more sustainable from an economic perspective, more flexible from an organizational perspective, more attentive to concerns raised in recent years by Library staff and Library users regarding the support we have been able to provide to those who work in our many campus libraries, and better able to support excellence in Library services and collections in an era of unprecedented change in the history of the library, the enterprise of higher education, and the related processes of publishing and scholarly communication. An initial overview of major categories of cost and benefit in each of the program areas identified above is provided below.

Physical Science and Engineering Libraries

The cost of these actions can only be estimated as the final cost will be greatly influenced by decisions that will be pursued as part of their implementation, e.g., the decision on how many print materials to transfer from the Geology Library to Grainger and/or to Oak Street, and the decision to pursue a compact shelving program for Grainger. With these caveats in mind, we present the following as areas that will require financial support from the Library as well as the Office of the Provost:

The Library has already committed substantial financial and human resources to implementing these recommendations, including over $5,000 in FY09 student wages dedicated to transferring materials currently held in the Physics & Astronomy Library to other Library locations and over $50,000 in FY09 funds to acquire relevant digital backfiles. We estimate the cost of treating and transferring the geology map collection alone to be approximately $50,000, and the cost of simply transferring other print collections currently held in Geology to be approximately $50,000 (with the cost of records maintenance and enhancement, and the creation of digital finding aids for materials transferred to Oak Street dependent on future decisions regarding the composition of the on-site collection in Grainger). The cost of furnishings and collection management systems appropriate to the new Grainger collection will likewise be significant.

The opportunities that pursuing these actions will provide in terms of cost reduction and future cost avoidance are substantial, and include the following:

Life Sciences Libraries

The cost of these actions can only be estimated as the final cost will be greatly influenced by decisions that will be pursued as part of their implementation, e.g., the decision on how many print materials to transfer from the Biology Library to other Library locations. With these caveats in mind, we present the following as areas that will require financial support from the Library as well as the Office of the Provost:

The Library has already committed substantial financial and human resources to implementing these recommendations, including over $50,000 in FY09 funds to acquire relevant digital backfiles. We estimate the cost of simply transferring print collections currently held in Biology to be approximately $90,000 (with the cost of records maintenance and enhancement for materials transferred to Oak Street dependent on future decisions regarding the composition of the on-site collection in other Library locations).

The opportunities that pursuing these actions will provide in terms of cost reduction and future cost avoidance are substantial, and include the following:

Main Library

The cost of these actions can only be estimated as the final cost will be greatly influenced by decisions that will be pursued as part of their implementation, e.g., costs associated with the renovation of space to serve newly-established Library units, and those associated with the transfer of materials from existing Library units to new locations. With these caveats in mind, we present the following as areas that will require financial support from the Library as well as the Office of the Provost:

Over the last two fiscal years, the Library has committed substantial financial and human resources to establishing a foundation for moving forward on these recommendations, including: using FY08 end-of-year funds to purchase bibliographic records (for both electronic resources such as ECCO and for individual monographs) and to license electronic resources (including new JSTOR packages and the complete Sage backfile); providing supplemental FY09 funds for the purchase of databases of 19 th century periodicals; providing supplemental funds for the purchase of expanded access to Project Muse titles; and providing funds for the purchase of significant resource from Gale, ProQuest, and others through the CIC's consortial purchasing program. We estimate the cost of simply transferring print collections currently housed in Main Library units to be approximately $40,000 (with the cost of records maintenance and enhancement for materials transferred to Oak Street dependent on future decisions regarding the composition of the on-site collection of new and reconfigured Main Library units). The Library has already committed $38,000 from FY09 funds to begin preparing appropriate collection management and public service space for the Illinois History and Lincoln Collection on the 3 rd floor of the Main Library. In addition, the Library has identified a current faculty member to undertake permanent responsibility as subject specialist in the fields of German and Scandinavian Studies in order to replace a tenure-line position lost to retirement.

The opportunities that pursuing these actions will provide in enhancing services to users and to ensuring the greatest impact for the campus investment in Library faculty, staff, and student assistants are substantial, and include the following:

The full range of benefits that will accrue to the Library and its users as a result of pursuing these proposals to their greatest potential will only become clear as the full scope of the proposed changes are outlined through the work of the planning teams.

Overarching Opportunities

While there are costs, benefits, and opportunities specific to each of the program areas noted above, it is clear that there are several issues that are relevant to the Library, and the campus, as a whole. Among these are the opportunities to provide enhanced access to print and digital content, to pursue Library service models that facilitate the ongoing engagement of Library faculty with the faculty, staff, and students of academic programs across campus, and to explore the role that the Main Library can continue to play in a transformed academic and information environment as a central "academic social space" at the University of Illinois.

Over the past decade, the Library has transformed the access it provides to scholarship through the creation and acquisition of access to digital content. The impact of our investment in digital content, including electronic books and journals, cannot be overestimated. Surveys of faculty, staff, and students at Illinois confirm trends reported in national studies that demonstrate broad interest in access to digital content, and the extensive use of digital content and services (including electronic reserves) is documented in usage statistics maintained both through local systems and through reports provided by vendors and other partner programs. The landmark "return on investment" study conducted at Illinois in 2007 identified the significance placed on access to digital content by faculty and other campus researchers, as well as the degree to which access to digital content and innovations in information search and retrieval (including our locally-developed "Easy Search" product) facilitate interdisciplinary inquiry in ways more difficult to achieve in the traditional print environment. Making substantial new investments in digital content across the disciplines ensures broader access to scholarship, builds on the successful foundation for academic support established by our earlier efforts, and provides us with the opportunity to better manage our print collections in order to ensure their long-term survival as artifacts currently endangered by the sub-standard environmental conditions found in most Library collection storage spaces around campus.

As part of the New Service Models process, the Library has also made new commitments to providing access to traditional scholarly content, including print materials and primary source materials such as archives and manuscripts. We have made a substantial commitment for FY09 and FY10 to address long-standing backlogs in the processing of manuscript materials held as part of the Illinois History and Lincoln Collections, and this is only one of several such projects undertaken over the past 18 months. Through central alignment and targeted allocation of resources, including state funds, endowment funds, and funds made available through the Library/IT Fee, we have increased user access to print materials through enhancement of records found in the Library catalog, and through the processing of previously-inaccessible materials in fields including Labor and Employment Relations, Library and Information Science, Children's Literature, Spanish Language and Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, and cartographic materials. As each NSM project proceeds, we will locate, and provide targeted resources to address, many long-standing issues in cataloging, conserving, and ensuring enhanced, long-term access to the treasures of the Illinois collection.

Throughout the NSM process, we have identified the greatest strengths of the "departmental library" service model as the degree to which it supports active engagement between the Library and its users (as defined by academic programs, disciplines, and fields of study), and the degree to which it supports active collaboration between Library faculty and faculty in liaison programs on issues related to teaching, learning, scholarship, and the acquisition and use of scholarly materials and other Library content. The rapid development of digital content and services in recent years have allowed us explore new approaches to fostering this active engagement and collaboration between Library faculty and Library users, as demonstrated in the work of our  subject specialists in areas such as Biotechnology, Labor & Employment Relations, and Library & Information Science. As we pursue the actions described above, and as we vacate traditional departmental library spaces in facilities such as Burrill Hall, Loomis Laboratory, and the Natural History Building, we propose that plans for future use of space in those facilities allow subject specialist librarians to maintain a physical presence near their liaison programs, as appropriate to the specific needs of the faculty, staff, and students of those programs. We propose pursuing similar opportunities in cases where a departmental library unit currently housed in the Main Library may be closed. Finally, we encourage all subject specialist librarians to pursue the opportunity to collaborate with campus colleagues to develop customized digital portals to relevant Library services and content that may provide an identifiable "virtual service space" similar to the identifiable physical service space currently associated with the traditional departmental library, and building on the establishment of successful portals for areas including Biotechnology < http://www.library.uiuc.edu/biotech/>and Labor & Employment Relations < http://www.library.uiuc.edu/ler/>.

Finally, we have come to further appreciate the ongoing importance of the "Library as place" through the discussions we have had with campus colleagues over the past 18 months. As we prepared this Action Plan, faculty from different departments noted the need for study space on campus, and the role that campus libraries have played in providing such space. We share this concern, and recognize that libraries provide important study and social space for undergraduate and graduate students. We do not believe, however, that this concern presents a compelling argument for the ongoing maintenance of an infrastructure-heavy Library service model, or for the support of redundant Library spaces to accommodate study needs. We will consider this concern explicitly as we plan for the future of major Library facilities on the Urbana campus, including the current review of the Main Library and Undergraduate Library, and we recommend that academic units that articulate this need work with campus to identify appropriate spaces to produce desired results, which include community-building among students who study in spaces designated for their units. We hope that several of the spaces that we propose to vacate following the endorsement of this Action Plan, e.g., Library spaces in Burrill Hall, Loomis Laboratory, and the Natural History Building, may be re-envisioned as space that will include support for individual and group study, as well as other academic programs, and we look forward to future discussions of the role that the Library may play in integrating information resources and services into those spaces.

Conclusion

Although the Library accelerated its planning timeline, we are confident that these recommendations are based on the best thinking of Library faculty and staff, with input both on many of the planning teams and through open meetings and other venues, with members of the campus community. It is no understatement to say that many faculty, students, and administrators will not agree with our conclusions and subsequent actions. However, we must also recognize the willingness of so many to engage in discussion with open minds and broad perspectives and the courage of many deans and department heads to challenge the perhaps more conservative thinking of some members of their units. We are grateful to everyone who contributed to our thinking and our hard work, and recognize all the ways in which this final product is the better for their contributions.

Appendix

Timeline

This initial timeline provides an overview of major planning and implementation activities that the University Library will pursue as part of the New Service Models program and other major initiatives. Dates are approximate, and are provided simply to demonstrate the multiple, overlapping deadlines under which many central service units within the Library will be required to operate as we pursue this ambitious, but necessary, program of change.

May 8, 2009                                     Action Plan Submitted to Provost for Review and Endorsement

May 15, 2009                                   Library & Information Science Library Closes to the Public

May 15, 2009                                   Latin American & Caribbean Library Closes to the Public, and LAC Services Relocated to Modern Languages & Linguistics Library (LACL currently holds no collections on site, and thus there is no need to "transfer" materials to the new public service point)

May - June 2009                             Materials Processed and Transferred from Library & Information Science Library

May - August 2009                        "Oak Street Serials" Project (200,000+ Volumes Selected as Appropriate for Remote Storage Transferred to Oak Street Library Facility)

May - August 2009                        Illinois History & Lincoln Collection Relocates to 324 Library

June 12, 2009                                   Physics & Astronomy Library Closes to the Public

June - August 2009                        Planning Teams Established in Areas Requiring Further Discussion and Review, including: Applied Health Sciences, Biology, Geology, International and Area Studies, and the Establishment of New Main Library Units Focused on the Humanities and the Social and Behavioral Sciences

June - August 2009                        Materials Processed and Transferred from the Physics & Astronomy Library

June - August 2009                        Illinois Informatics Institute (I3), Institute for Computing in Humanities, Arts, & Social Science (I-CHASS), and ATLAS Data Services Move onto Third Floor, Main Library

June - August 2009                        Reconfiguration of Central Circulation Desk, Main Library

June - August 2009                        Establish Retrospective Reference Collection on 2 nd Floor, Main Library

June - August 2009                        Africana Library Unit Closes to the Public and Africana Services Relocated to Modern Languages & Linguistics Library (Closing Date and Plan for Transfer of Materials to be Announced, but to be Completed Prior to Fall 2009)

July 1, 2009                                      Central Reference and Government Information Services Established

August 2009                                     Central Reserves Pilot Project

August 15, 2009                              Library Vacates Physics & Astronomy Library Space in Loomis Laboratory

August 16, 2009                              Assistant Biology Librarian Joins Funk Family Library Faculty

October 16, 2009                            Recommendations from Planning Teams Established in Summer 2009 (Except Social and Behavioral Sciences) Due to the Office of the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries

December 17, 2009                        Recommendations from Social and Behavioral Sciences Planning Team Due to the Office of the University Librarian and Dean of Libraries

January 2010                                   Rare Book and Manuscript Library HVAC Replacement Project Begins

January 2010                                   Central Reserves Established

March 2010                                      Rare Book and Manuscript Library HVAC Replacement Project Moves into Current Circulating Collection Space (350,000+ volumes must be relocated prior to March 2010)

May 15, 2010                                   Veterinary Medicine Librarian Joins Funk Family Library Faculty (.5 FTE)

June - August 2010                        Rare Book and Manuscript Library Collection Shift to Accommodate HVAC Replacement Project

August 7, 2010                                Geology Library Closes to the Public

September 2010                             Google Books Project Enters Active Participation Phase (Transfer of Materials To/From Google Scanning Centers)