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Color Consciousness in the African American Community


Alford, Nicole M. "African-American Women's Self-Esteem as a Function of Skin Color: A Quasi-Qualitative Study." Ph.D. Thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1997. 170 pp.

Averhart, Cara Janine and R. S. Bigler. "Shades of Meaning: Skin Tone, Racial Attitudes, and Constructive Memory in African American Children." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 67 (December 1997): 363-388.

Banerji, Shilpa. "Study: Darker-Skinned Black Job Applicants Face More Obstacles." Diverse Issues in Higher Education 23 (21 September 2006): 20.

Barkley, Charles. Who's Afraid of a Large Black Man" New York: Riverhead Freestyle, 2006.

Bates, Karen Grigsby. "The Color Thing: Why, in the Midst of Our Afrocentric Renaissance, Should there Still be a Better Shade of Black?" Essence 25 (September 1994): 79-80+

Berry, Bertice B. "Black-On-Black Discrimination: the Phenomenon of Colorism among African Americans."  Ph.D. Thesis, Kent State University, 1988. 164 pp.

Bielitz, Sara and Joel T. Wade. "The Differential Effect of Skin Color on Attractiveness, Personality Evaluations, and Perceived Life Success of African Americans." The Journal of Black Psychology 31 (August 2005): 215-236.

Bond, Selena and Thomas F. Cash. "Black Beauty: Skin Color and Body Images among African-American College Women." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22 (June 1992): 874-888.

Bowman, Phillip J., Ray Muhammad and Mosi Ifatunji. "Skin Tone, Class, and Racial Attitudes among African Americans." In Herring, Cedric, Verna Keith and Hayward Derrick Horton, eds. Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the "Color-Blind" Era. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004. 248 pp.

Breland, Alfiee M. "A Model for Differential Perceptions of Competence Based on Skin Tone among African Americans." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 26 (October 1998): 294-311.

Coard, Stephanie Irby, A.M. Breland and P. Raskin. "Perceptions of and Preferences for Skin Color, Black Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem among African Americans." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31 (November 2001): 2256-2274.

Coleman, M. Nikki., Jameca Woody Falconer, Deadre Holmes and Helen A. Neville. "Color-Blind Racial Ideology and Psychological False Consciousness among African Americans."  Journal of Black Psychology 31 (February 2005): 27-45.

Crawford, Zelte. Skin Color, Race, and Self Image: An Exploratory Study of a Group of High School Youths. Palo Alto, CA: R & E Research Associates, 1979. 133 pp.

Daniel, Kim. "The Relationship between Skin Color, Self-Esteem and African Self-Consciousness among African American College-Educated Women." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University, 2001. 140 pp.

Davis, Marquita Furness. "Understanding the Skin Color Perspectives of African American Kindergarten Students in an Urban School." Ph.D. Thesis, 1988. 161 pp.

Draper, Charlene Victoria. "Intrafamilial Skin Color Socialization, Racial Identity Attitude and Psychological Well-Being in African-American Women." Ph.D. Thesis, 1999. 329 pp.

Franklin, Leona M. "Skin Color, Self-Esteem, and Group Identity among African American Adolescent Girls and Adult Women." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Boston, 1996. 137 pp.

Gaines, Jane. "The Scar of Shame: Skin Color and Caste in Black Silent Melodrama." In Smith, Valerie, ed.  Representing Blackness: Issues in Film and Video. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Gocial, Tammy M, Richard D. Harvey, Nicole LaBeach, and Ellie Pridgen. "The Intragroup Stigmatization of Skin Tone among Black Americans." Journal of Black Psychology 31 (August 2005): 237-253.

Golden, Marita. " Don't Play in the Sun: One Woman's Journey through the Color Complex." New York: Doubleday, 2004.

Gorum, Wendell J. "The Relationship between Skin Color and Self-Concept among University of Maryland Black Students." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Mississippi, 1981. 93 pp.

Gunthrope, Wayne West. Skin Color Recognition, Preference, and Identification in Interracial Children: A Comparative Study. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1998. 79 pp.

Hall, Ronald E. "Bias among African-Americans Regarding Skin Color: Implications for Social Work Practice." Research on Social Work Practice 2 (October 1992): 479-486.

_____. "The Bleaching Syndrome: African Americans' Response to Cultural Domination vis-a-vis Skin Color." Journal of Black Studies 26 (November 1995): 172-184.

_____. " An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Skin Color on African-American Education, Income, and Occupation." Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 2005.

_____. "The Euro-Americanization of Race: Alien Perspective of African Americans vis-a-vis Trivialization of Skin Color." Journal of Black Studies 36 (September 2005): 116-128.

Harris, Michael D. " Colored Pictures: Race and Visual Representation." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. 296 pp.

Hughes, Michael and Bradley R. Hertel. "The Significance of Color Remains: A Study of Life Chances, Mate Selection, and Ethnic Consciousness among Black Americans." Social Forces 68 (June 1990): 1105-1120.

Hunter, Margaret L.  Race, Gender, and the Politics of Skin Tone.  New York: Routledge, 2005.  150 pp.

Jenkins, Susan M. "The Socially Constructed Meaning of Skin Color among Young Afrikan-American Adults." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 1993. 132 pp.

Kerr, Audrey Elisa. "The History of Color Prejudice at Howard University." Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 54 (Winter 2006-2007): 82-87.

Kinnon, Joy Bennett. "Is Skin Color Still an Issue in Black America?" Ebony 55 (April, 2000): 52+

Lake, Obiagele.  Blue Veins and Kinky Hair: Naming and Color Consciousness in African America.  Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. 142 pp.

"Light vs. Darker-Skinned Women: Do Some Black Men have a Preference." Ebony Man 7 (March 1992): 46-47.

McClain, Carol Shepherd. "Black by Choice: Identity Preferences of Americans of Black/White Parentage." Black Scholar 34 (Summer 2004): 43-54.

Mercer, Florence Maida. "The Color Preferences of One Thousand and Six Negroes." Journal of Comparative Psychology 5 (April 1925): 109-146.

One Drop Rule. San Francisco, CA: California Newsreel, 2001. 1 videocassette (49 min.).

Powell-Hopson, Darlene and Derek S. Hopson "Implications of Doll Color Preferences among Black Preschool Children and White Preschool Children." In Burlew, A. Kathleen Hoard, ed. African American Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992. 424 pp.

A Question of Color. San Francisco, CA: California Newsreel, 1994. 1 videocassette (58 min.).

Russell, Kathy, Midge Wilson and Ronald Hall. The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color among African Americans. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. 200 pp.

Sandler, Kathe. "Finding a Space for Myself in My Film about Color Consciousness." In Willis, Deborah, ed. Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography. New York: New Press, 1994. 209 pp.

Seltzer, Richard and Robert C. Smith. "Color Differences in the Afro-American Community and the Differences they make." Journal of Black Studies 21(March 1991): 279-286.

Tucker, Jennifer. "The Role of Skin Color, Hair Texture, Facial Features, and Body Shape, Size and Weight on the Self-Esteem and Body Satisfaction of Professional African American Women: An Exploratory Study." Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, 2000. 180 pp.

Ward, Janie V. and Tracy L. Robinson. "African American Adolescents and Skin Color." Journal of Black Psychology 21 (August 1995): 256-274.

"Why Skin Color Suddenly is a Big Issue Again." Ebony 47 (March 1992): 120-122.

Wilder, JeffriAnne. "Revisiting “Color Names and Color Notions”." Journal of Black Studies 41, no. 1 (September 2010): 184-206.

Wilder, JeffriAnne and Colleen Cain. “Teaching and Learning Color Consciousness in Black Families: Exploring Family Processes and Women’s Experiences With Colorism.” Journal of Family Issues 32, no. 5  (May 2011): 577-604.

Woodson, Kamilah Marie. "The Impact of Hair Texture and Skin Color among African American Men and Women During Mate Selection on the Expression of Risky Sexual Behaviors." Los Angeles: Alliant International University, 2002.



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