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Afrik, Hannibal T. Education or Self-Reliance, Idealism to Reality: An Analysis of the Independent School Movement. Stanford, CA: Council of Independent Black Institutions, 1981.

_____. Institutional Development: The Need for Black Educational Models and is the Community Control of Schools Still Alive? Chicago: Black Spear Press, 1981.

Akoto, K. A. Nationbuilding: Theory and Practice in Afrikan Centered Education. Washington, DC: Pan Afrikan World Institute, 1992.

Bowers, Margaret A. "The Independent Black Educational Institution: An Exploration and Identification of Selected Factors that Relate to Their Survival." Phd. Thesis, Atlanta University, 1984.

Brown, E. "Black Like Me? 'Gangsta' Culture, Clarence Thomas, and Afrocentric Academies." New York University Law Review 2000 75(2): 308-353.

Bush, Lawson V. "Access, School Choice, and Independent Black Institutions: A Historical Perspective." Journal of Black Studies (January 2004): 386-401.

_____. "Independent Black Institutions in America: A Rejection of Schooling, an Opportunity for Education." Urban Education 1997 32(1): 98-116.

Carter, D. "Parental Schooling Choice: African-American Parents' Choice of Black Independent Schools." Sankofa 1987 1 (1): 11-13.

Cooper, Camille Wilson. "School Choice and the Standpoint of African American Mothers: Considering the Power of Positionality."  Journal of Negro Education 74 (Spring 2005): 174-189.

Dent, David J. "A Black Private School Prepares for a New Home." New York Times, February 10, 1999, Section B, p. 12.  Cush Campus Schools has quietly provided a low-tuition alternative for inner-city youth since 1971. There are about 150 private secular schools founded by African-Americans across the country, including 21 in the New York metropolitan region.

Datnow, Amanda and Robert Cooper. "Peer Networks of African American Students in Independent Schools: Affirming Academic Success and Racial Identity." Journal of Negro Education 66 (Winter 1997): 56-72.

Davidson, Joe. "Private Schools for Black Pupils are Flourishing." Wall Street Journal, April 15, 1987, p. 1.  At least 250 independent black schools, about half of them church-affiliated, are in operation in the U.S., according to the National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise, a Washington, D.C., research organization.

Davis, Gerald N. "Educational Opportunities for Black Americans at Independent Schools." Crisis (August-September 1978): 231.

Davis Ratteray, Joan.  "Independent Schools." American Visions (March-April 1986): 55.

Doughty, James Jefferson. "A Historical Analysis of Black Education: Focusing on the Contemporary Independent Black School Movement." Phd. Thesis, Ohio State University, 1975.

Dove, Nah. "Beyond Desegregation: The Politics of Quality in African-American Schooling." Journal of Negro Education 65 (Spring 1996): 240-241.

Dove, Nah E. "The Emergence of Black Supplementary Schools as Forms of Resistance to Racism in the United Kingdom." In Shujaa, Mwalimu J., ed. Too Much Schooling, Too Little Education: A Paradox of Black Life in White Societies.  Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1994, pp. 343-359.

Edwards, Ralph , Lisa M. Gonslaves and Charles V. Willie. "The School Reform Movement and the Education of African American Youth." Journal Of Negro Education (Fall 2000): 252.

Foster, Gail. "New York City's Wealth of Historically Black Independent Schools." Journal of Negro Education 1992 61(2):186-200.

Foster, Gail and Evelyn Foster. New York and New Jersey Directory of Historically Black Independent Schools: Including East Coast Boarding Schools. New York: Toussaint Institute Fund, 1997.

"From Relevance to Excellence." Black Books Bulletin 1974 2(3-4): 20-22.

Giles, Dari. "Black Independent Schools." Essence 1995 26(5): 124+

Henry, Annette. "'Invisible' and 'Womanish': Black Girls Negotiating their Lives in an African-Centered School in the USA." Race, Ethnicity and Education 1998 1(2): 151-170.

Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes. "The Nairobi Day School: An African American Independent School, 1966-1984." Journal of Negro Education 1992 61(2): 201-210.

Johnson, Ayanna. "Excerpt from the Independent School Guide: How to Start Maintain and Expand the Independent School." Black News 1978 25(3): 8-11.

Johnson, Sylvia T. and D. Kamili Anderson. "Legacies and Lessons from Independent Schools." Journal of Negro Education 1992 61(2):121-124.

Kabugi, Njuguna. "Independent Black Schools, another Voice, another Choice." Crisis 1997 104(2): 34+

Kaurouma, Patricia Ann. "An Evaluation of the History of the Development of the Black Free School Movement in America, 1954 to 1973: A Search for Alternatives." Phd. Thesis, University of Colorado, 1974.

_____. "The Independent Black Free School: A Preliminary Report." Black Collegian 1976 7(2): 28-29+.

Kifano, S. "Afrocentric Education in Supplementary Schools: Paradigm and Practice at the Mary Mcleod Bethune Institute." Journal of Negro Education 1996 65(2): 209-218.

Lee, Carol D. "Profile of an Independent Black Institution: African-Centered Education at Work." Journal of Negro Education 61 (Spring 1992): 160-177.

Lomotey, Kofi. "Independent Black Institutions: A Cultural Perspective." In Slaughter, D.T. and D.J. Johnson, eds. Visible Now: Blacks in Private Schools.  New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

_____. "Independent Black Institutions: African-Centered Education Models." Journal of Negro Education 1992 61(4): 455-462.

Madzimoyo, Wekesa. "Afrikan-Americans Educate their Own." Southern Exposure 1980 8(3): 42-46.

Mazama, Ama, and Garvey Lundy. "African American Homeschooling as Racial Protectionism." Journal of Black Studies 43, no. 7 (October 2012): 723-748

Mcgovern, James R. "Miz Lillie and Her Special School." Gulf Coast Historical Review 1986 1(2): 23-32.

Mirza, Heidi Safia and Reay, D. "Spaces and Places of Black Educational Desire: Rethinking Black Supplementary Schools as a New Social Movement." Sociology: The Journal of the British Sociological Association 2000 34(3): 521-544.

Murrell, Peter C. "Chartering the Village: The Making of an African-Centered Charter School." Urban Education 1999 33(5): 565-583.

Newton, Edmund. "Black Independent Schools: An Alternative to Public Education." Black Enterprise, September 1984, pp. 61-65.  Has a short list of schools and how to get a longer list.

Nichols, Julie Burnett and Chiquita R. Nalls. "Emancipatory Notions of African American Education." 21st Century Afro Review 1995 1 (3): 71-85.

Pollard, Diane S. and Cheryl S. Ajirotutu. "Lessons from America: The African American Immersion Schools Experiment."  In Majors, Richard, ed.  Educating Our Black Children: New Directions and Radical Approaches.  New York:  Routledge, 2001, pp. 79-89.

Rashid, Hakim M. and Muhammad, Zakiyyah. "The Sister Clara Muhammad Schools: Pioneers in the Development of Islamic Education in America." Journal of Negro Education 1992 61(2): 178-185.

Ratteray, J. D. "African-American Achievement: A Research Agenda Emphasizing Independent Schools." InLomotey, Kofi, ed. Going to School: The African-American Experience.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1990, pp. 197-208.

Ravitch, Diane. "A Different Kind of Education for Black Children." Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (Winter 2000-2001): 98-106.

Reay, D. and Heidi Safia Mirza. "Uncovering Genealogies of the Margins: Black Supplementary Schooling." British Journal of Sociology of Education 1997 18(4): 477-499.

Ridley, June Arden. The Independent Black (Educational) Institution: An Exploratory Study with Implications for the Institutionalization of American Schools. Phd. Thesis, University of Michigan, 1971.

Satterwhite, F.J. Planning an Independent Black Educational Institution. New York: Afram Associates, 1971.

Schneider, Barbara. "Children of Color in Independent Schools: An Analysis of the Eighth-Grade Cohort from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988." Journal of Negro Education 61 (Spring 1992): 223.

Shockley, Kmt G. "Literature and Definitions: Toward Understanding Africentric Education."  Journal Of Negro Education 76 (Spring 2007): 103-117.

Shujaa, Mwalimu J. "Afrocentric Transformation and Parental Choice in African-American Independent Schools." In Shujaa, Mwalimu J., ed.  Too Much Schooling, Too Little Education: A Paradox of Black Life in White Societies.  Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1994, pp. 361-376.

Shujaa, Mwalimu J. and Hannibal T. Afrik. "School Desegregation, the Politics of Culture, and the Council of Independent Black Institutions." In Shujaa, Mwalimu J., ed. Beyond Desegregation: The Politics of Quality in African-American Schooling.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1996.

Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T. "Parental Education Choice: Some African American Dilemmas." Journal of Negro Education (Summer 1991) 354-360.

Warfield-Coppock, Nsenga. "The Rites Oo Passage Movement: A Resurgence of African-American Youth." Journal Of Negro Education (Fall 1992): 471.

Wilkinson, Deborah M. "Black Independent Schools: Reality of Alternative Education Schools in Philadelphia, Pa." Integrated Education 21 (January/December 1983): 219-226.



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