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Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System



Alexander, Rudolph, Jr. and Jacquelyn Gyamerah. "Differential Punishing of African Americans and Whites who Possess Drugs: A Just Policy or a Continuation of the Past?" Journal of Black Studies 28 (September, 1997): 97-111.

Alfieri A.V. "Prosecuting Race." Duke Law Journal 48 (April, 1999): 1157-1264.  (About the Abner Louima police brutality case.)

Armour, Jody David.  Negrophobia and Reasonable Racism: The Hidden Costs of Being Black in America. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Asim, Jabari, ed. Not Guilty: Twelve Black Men Speak Out on Law, Justice, and Life. New York: Amistad, 2001.

Austin, R. L. and M. D. Allen. "Racial Disparity in Arrest Rates as an Explanation of Racial Disparity in Commitment to Pennsylvania's Prisons." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 37 (May, 2000): 200-220.

Bachman, R. "Victim's Perceptions of Initial Police Responses to Robbery and Aggravated Assault: Does Race Matter?" Journal of Quantitative Criminology 12 (December, 1996): 363-390.

Barkan, Steven E. and Steven F. Cohn. "Why Whites Favor Spending More Money to Fight Crime: The Role of Racial Prejudice." Social Problems 2 (May, 2005): 300-314.

Barsamian, David. "Angela Davis: African American Activist on Prison-Industrial Complex."  The Progressive 65 (February, 2001): 33-38.

Berry, Mary Frances.  The Pig Farmer's Daughter and other Tales of American Justice: Episodes of Racism and Sexism in the Courts from 1865 to the Present.  New York: Knopf, 1999.

"Black America in Uproar over Police Brutality." Jet 96 (June 28, 1999): 4-9+

Bobo, Lawrence D. and Victor Thompson. "Unfair by Design: The War on Drugs, Race, and the Legitimacy of the Criminal Justice System." Social Research 2 (Summer, 2006): 445-472

Bottom, Anthony. "The American Ethnic Cleansing." Z Magazine 12 (November, 1999): 17-19.

Butler, Edgar W. and Hiroshi Fukurai. "Sources of Racial Disenfranchisement in the Jury and Jury Selection System." National Black Law Journal 13 (1995): 238-275.

Coker, Donna. Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 4 (Fall, 2003): 827-879.

Cole, David. No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System. New York: New Press, 1999.

_____. "Race, Class and Criminal Prosecutions: The Supreme Court's Role in Targeting Minorities."  The Guild Practitioner 57 (Winter 2000): 38-40.

Collins, Erica Marcia.  "Disparities in Juvenile Justice Processing of African-American Males in Champaign County, Illinois, 1998-1999."  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1999.

Crenshaw, Kimberle, ed. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement.  New York:  New Press, 1995.

D'Amato, Paul. "The Color of Justice." International Socialist Review 12 (June, 2000): 29-31.

Davis-Wagner, Dianne LaVerne.  "An Exploratory Study of the Overrepresentation of Incarcerated African American Males."  Ph.D. Thesis, Norfolk State University, 1999.

Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 2nd ed.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

Daniels, Ron. "Brutality Crisis." Emerge 11 (May, 2000): 44-49.

"Death by Discrimination: Racism is at the Heart of the US Death Penalty." Toward Freedom 48 (August, 1999): 17-18.

Edds, Margaret.  An Expendable Man: The Near-Execution of Earl Washington, Jr. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Elmore, John V. Fighting for Your Life: The African-American Criminal Justice Survival Guide. Phoenix, AZ: Amber Books, 2004.

Free, Marvin D. African Americans and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.

_____.  Racial Issues in Criminal Justice: The Case of African Americans. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Fleury-Steiner, Benjamin.  Jurors' Stories of Death: How America's Death Penalty Invests in Inequality.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Fredrickson, Darin D. Racial Profiling: Eliminating the Confusion between Racial and Criminal Profiling and Clarifying what Constitutes Unfair Discrimination and Persecution Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 2002.

Gabbidon, Shaun L. and Greene, H. T.  Race and Crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005.

Georges-Abeyie, Daniel. The Criminal Justice System and Blacks. New York: C. Boardman Co., 1984.

Gibbons, Don C. Review Essay: Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Social Policy. By: Crime & Delinquency. No. 3 (July 97)

Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor. Race and Justice: Rodney King and O. J. Simpson in a House Divided San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

Glick, Ted. "Amadou Diallo and the Problem of the Color Line." Progressive Populist 6 (April 1, 2000): 19.

Goluboff, R. L. "Search and Destroy: African-American Males in the Criminal Justice System."  Yale Law Journal 106 (May, 1997): 2299-2304.

Gorton, Joe and John L. Boies. Sentencing Guidelines and Racial Disparity Across Time: Pennsylvania Prison Sentences in 1977, 1983, 1992, and 1993. Social Science Quarterly 1  (March, 1999): 37-54.

Gray-Ray, Phyllis, Melvin C. Ray, Sandra Rutland and Sharon Turner. "African Americans and the Criminal Justice System." Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 21 (1995): 105-117.

Henderson, Martha L. and Francis T. Cullen. "The Impact of Race on Perceptions of Criminal Injustice." Journal of Criminal Justice 6 (November-December, 1997).

Heumann, Milton and Lance Cassak.  Good Cop, Bad Cop: Racial Profiling and Competing Views of Justice.  New York: P. Lang, 2003.

Ho, Taiping. "Examination of Racial Disparity in Competency to Stand Trial Between White and African American Retarded Defendants." Journal of Black Studies 29 (July, 1999): 771-789.

Hochschild, Jennifer L. and Vesla Weaver. " The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order." Social Forces 2 (December, 2007).

Hodge, Michael, Kevin E. Early and Harry Gold. "Institutionalized Discrimination in the Legal System: A Socio-Historical Approach." Explorations in Ethnic Studies 16 (1993): 19-34.

Hurwitz, Jon and Mark Peffley. "Explaining the Great Racial Divide: Perceptions of Fairness in the U.S. Criminal Justice System." Journal of Politics 3 (August, 2005): 762-783.

Jackson, Jesse and Jesse Jackson, Jr.  Legal Lynching: Racism, Injustice and the Death Penalty. New York: Marlowe & Co., 1996.

James, Joy, ed. Warfare in the American Homeland: Policing and Prison in a Penal Democracy. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Devon. "Crime Salience, Perceived Racial Bias, and Blacks' Punitive Attitudes." Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 4 (2006): 1-18.

Kennedy, Randall. "You Can't Judge a Crook by His Color: Racial Profiling may be Justified, but It's Still Wrong." Utne Reader 97 (January, 2000): 71-74.

Kerley, Kent R., Michael L.Benson, Matthew R. Lee, and, Francis T. Cullen. "Race, Criminal Justice Contact, and Adult Position in the Social Stratification System." Social Problems 4 (November, 2004): 549-568.

Landis, Dan, Mickey R. Dansby and Michael Hoyle. "The Effects of Race on Procedural Justice: The Case of the Uniform Code of Military Justice." Armed Forces & Society 2 (Winter, 1997): 183-219.

Lewis, Ida E. "Diallo: A Case of Racial Mythology." Crisis 107 (January-February, 2000): 7.

Lusane, Clarence. Pipe Dream Blues: Racism and the War on Drugs Boston, MA : South End Press, 1991.

Lynch, Michael J. and E. Britt Patterson. Race and Criminal Justice. New York: Harrow and Heston, 1991.

Manning, Marable, Ian Steinberg and Keesha Middlemass, eds. Racializing Justice, Disenfranchising Lives: The Racism, Criminal Justice, and Law Reader New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Markowitz, Michael W. and Delores D. Jones-Brown. The System in Black and White: Exploring the Connections between Race, Crime, and Justice. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.

Matthews, Frank L. "Nullifying Inequities in the Criminal Justice System." Black Issues in Higher Education 17 (March 16, 2000): 18-24.

Mauer, Marc. Race to Incarcerate [and] the Sentencing Project. New York: New Press, 2006.

Mauer, Marc and Meda Chesney-Lind, eds. Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment. New York: New Press, 2002.

McCaffrey, Bruce R. "Cocaine: Will Congress Act? New Rules Could Lessen Perceived Race Bias." Crisis 105 (September-October, 1998): 18+

McDonald, Douglas C.  Sentencing in the Federal Courts: Does Race Matter? : The Transition to Sentencing Guidelines, 1986-90: Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993.

Meeks, Kenneth.  Driving While Black: Highways, Shopping Malls, Taxicabs, Sidewalks: How to Fight Back If You Are.  New York: Broadway Books, 2000.

Miah, Malik. "The Reality of Racial Profiling." Against the Current 14 (July, 1999): 5-6.

Miller, Jerome G.  Search and Destroy: African-American Males in the Criminal Justice System.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Milovanovic, Dragan and Katheryn K. Russell. Petit Apartheid in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: The Dark Figure of Racism. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2001.

Morrison, Toni and Claudia Brodsky Lacour, eds. Birth of a Nation'hood: Gaze, Script, and Spectacle in the O. J. Simpson Case. New York: Pantheon Books, 1997.

Mustard, D. B.  "Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the US Federal Courts."  Journal of Law and Economics 44 (April, 2001):  285-314.

Muwakkil, Salim. "The Other Side of 'Zero-Tolerance': in New York, Get-Tough Policing Once Again Turns into Cruelty." In These Times 21 (October 5, 1997): 13-15.

Nicholas, Lorie A. "Black Youths, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice." Journal of Black Psychology 23 (May, 1997): 192-198.

Nolan, Thomas J. "Racism in the Criminal Justice System: Problems and Suggestions." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 2 (Winter 1997): 417-421. 

Ogletree, Charles J. Beyond the Rodney King Story: An Investigation of Police Conduct in Minority Communities. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1995.

Peffley, Mark and Jon Hurwitz. "Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America."  American Journal of Political Science 4 (October, 2007): 996-1012.

Peoples, Betsy. "Advocates Fight a War on Drug Sentencing." Emerge 9 (May, 1998): 50+

Petersilia, Joan. Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp. 1983.

Peterson, Ruth D., Lauren J. Krivo and John Hagan, eds. The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Provine, Doris Marie. Unequal under Law: Race in the War on Drugs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007

­­­__________ "Too Many Black Men: The Sentencing Judge's Dilemma." Law and Social Inquiry: Journal of the American Bar Foundation 23 (Fall 1998): 823-856.  

"Race-ing Justice: Black America vs. the Prison Industrial Complex. Souls 2 (Winter, 2000): Special Issue.

Redmond, Helen. "The War on Drugs: Myth and Reality." International Socialist Review no. 15 (December 2000): 35-43.

Reese, Renford.  Prison Race.  Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2006.

Robinson, Amanda and Meghan Chandek. "Differential Police Response to Black Battered Women."  Women and Criminal Justice 12 (2000): 29-61.

Russell-Brown, Katheryn. Underground Codes: Race, Crime, and Related Fires. New York: New York University Press, 2004.

_____.  The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White fear, Black Protectionism, Police Harassment, and other Macro-aggressions.  New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Russell, Gregory D.  The Death Penalty and Racial Bias: Overturning Supreme Court Assumptions Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Sampson, R. J. and J. L. Lauritsen. "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Crime and Criminal Justice in the United States." Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration 21 (1997): 311-374.

Simms, Margaret C. and Samuel L. Myers, Jr., eds. The Economics of Race and Crime. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1988.

Spohn, Cassia C. "Courts, Sentences, and Prisons." Daedalus 124 (1995): 119-144.

Tonry,  Michael.  Malign Neglect--Race, Crime, and Punishment in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Trende, S. P. "Why Modest Proposals Offer the Best Solution for Combating Racial Profiling." Duke Law Journal 50 (October, 2000): 331-380.

United States: Punishment and Prejudice: The Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2000.

Uviller, H. Richard. The Tilted Playing Field: Is Criminal Justice Unfair? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.

Valentine, Victoria. "Youth, Crime, Adult Time." Emerge 10 (October, 1998): 48-50+

Verdugo, N. "Crimes and Punishment: Blacks in the Army's Criminal Justice System." Military Psychology 10 (1998): 107-125.

Vogel, M.E., ed. Crime, Inequality, and the State. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Walker, Samuel, Cassia Spohn and  Miriam DeLone. The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. Belmont, CA : Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2000.

Weitzer, R. and S. A. Tuch. "Race, Class, and Perceptions of Discrimination by the Police." Crime & Delinquency 45 (October, 1999): 494-507.

Williams, M. R. and J. E. Holcomb.  "Racial Disparity and Death Sentences in Ohio." Journal of Criminal Justice 29 (May-June, 2001): 207-218.

Yates, J.  "Racial Incarceration Disparity among States." Social Science Quarterly 78 (December, 1997): 1001-1010.


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