Issue No. 21

June 19, 2002

Paula Kaufman, University Librarian



Although the nation suffered incalculable personal and economic losses on September 11, 2001, little has been written about the destruction of America’s cultural and historical legacy.  Heritage Preservation, a non-profit advocate for the proper care of our cultural heritage, has just published Cataclysm and Challenge, a 26-page report offering the first comprehensive study of what was lost -- both in Lower Manhattan and at the Pentagon -- on that day.  The report also highlights findings obtained from a survey -- conducted in the months immediately following 9/11-- of 122 museums, libraries, archives and other collecting institutions in Lower Manhattan.  It reveals significant lessons that may help protect our nation’s cultural heritage from future disasters.

Among the Heritage Preservation survey’s findings:

Based on survey findings and extensive follow-up interviews conducted by Heritage Preservation, Cataclysm and Challenge offers specific recommendations concerning emergency planning for collecting institutions.  Key among these are calls for increased staff training and for current collections inventories.  The report also calls for more effective communications between the emergency management and cultural heritage fields.  It urges museums, libraries and archives to begin a dialogue with local emergency officials before disaster strikes.  The Heritage Emergency National Task Force will address this issue in the next year.  Read the story and the report at



At the end of this month, The Association of American University Presses will hold its annual meeting in St. Petersburg, FL.  Despite the success of some presses with terrorism- or Islam-related titles after September 11, the forecast for university presses remains uncertain, according to AAUP Executive Director Peter Givler.  Final results for the fiscal year are not yet known as most presses operate on a June-to-June fiscal year, but heavy returns hurt a number of presses.  Next year also figures to be a painful one for presses affiliated with public institutions, which, like state university libraries, will begin to feel the effects of cutbacks in state funding.  "The general sales level, despite the lift given some lists by current events, is down, and there's a lot of concern," Givler told Publishers Weekly.  (LJ Academic News Wire 6/13/02)  Editor’s note: I’ll be participating in one of the sessions and attending part of the meeting and will report in upcoming issues any items of interest to the readership.



Elsevier’s ScienceDirect has announced the launch of a new pay-per-view option for guests that will allow users without ScienceDirect accounts to access the full-text of articles contained in the database.  Guest users of ScienceDirect (i.e. users not associated with an institution that subscribes to ScienceDirect) will be able to browse all of the ScienceDirect journals, read abstracts, and then choose to purchase selected full-text articles by credit card and download them in HTML and PDF format.  Additionally, guest users of ScienceDirect can set up free table of contents email alerts and create personal journals.  "By offering pay-per-view for guests, availability of our content gets a new dimension and we trust that we now make accessibility of our content even more flexible," said Frank Vrancken Peeters, managing director of ScienceDirect.  Details about ScienceDirect licensing options and content appear at  ScienceDirect now offers access to more than 2 million full-text articles, from over1500 journals published by Elsevier Science, and access to journals from around 120 publishers through CrossRef.  (LJ Academic News Wire 6/13/02)




Eighty-seven percent of museums and at least 99% of libraries in the U.S. use at least some technology, with the most pervasive being PCs, the Web and e-mail, standard office software, and computerized collection catalogues.  These statistics come from a recent survey conducted by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) of 700 public and academic libraries, State Library Administrative Agencies (SLAAs) and museums.  "This baseline study provides our first snapshot of the state of technology use and digitization by the nation's libraries and museums," says IMLS director Dr. Robert Martin.  "It depicts pockets of digitization activity and planning that are making collections much more widely accessible.  It is clear that emerging technologies are connecting more people to the services and information museums and libraries provide."  As might be expected, the smaller museums had less technology available to them, with 20% reporting no funding for technology.  Meanwhile, the leading digitizers are the SLAAs, with more than 78% reporting digitizing activities over the past year. Thirty-two percent of museums, 34% of academic libraries and 25% of public libraries are involved in materials digitization.  The IMLS will use the survey results to encourage best practices in digitization activities, including policy development, use of digital registries and collaboration.  (IMLS press release 28 May 2002)



The California Digital Library has launched its eScholarship Repository ( ) -- an online collection built through a partnership with the Berkeley Electronic Press.  The Repository's initial focus will be on working papers authored or sponsored by University of California faculty in the humanities and social sciences departments, but CDL anticipates that the collection will expand quickly to include additional content from other academic institutions and scholars.  The system allows users to sign up for a service that alerts them to new content in their designated areas of interest, and the Repository enables researchers to track the evolution of a particular paper by maintaining links and citations for previous or later versions of any posted material.  The Repository comprises an important component of CDL's eScholarship program, which facilitates and supports innovation in scholarly communication.  More information about the eScholarship program can be found at  (InfoToday Jun 2002)



It's the most massive archiving project ever.  After all, the World Wide Web is the largest "document" ever written, with more than 4 billion public pages and an additional 550 billion connected documents in the so-called "deep" Web.  Ninety-five percent of Web pages are publicly accessible, making it fifty times as large as the Library of Congress. Yet it's constantly changing, with more than 7 million new pages added daily.  Old pages are continuously disappearing.  The average life span of a Web page is only 44 days and nearly half of the Web sites found in 1998 could not be found the following year.  The Web itself may be ubiquitous, but its content is fleeting.  What's here today is an "Error 404 Site Not Found" message tomorrow.  If today's Web is not preserved, it will certainly disappear.  Important parts of our past cultural heritage have already been lost because they weren't archived in time.  In addition to the cultural issues, consider the technical problems of preserving many different storage media.  And what about the economic issues?  Whose responsibility is collecting and preserving the Web?  Who has the resources to do so?  Who will pay?  There are thorny legal problems, too.  New intellectual property laws concerning digital documents have been optimized to develop a digital economy, thus the rights of intellectual property holders are emphasized.  How will this affect archivists?  While we debate these questions and search for answers, irretrievable cultural treasures are daily vanishing, in the click of a mouse.  (From the book "Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving," co-published by the Council on Library and Information Resources and the Library of Congress, April 2002.)



When New Zealand's Auckland City Art Gallery recently claimed trademark status for its digitized collection of indigenous Maori cultural materials, tribal elders raised property rights questions about the ownership and management of such cultural and intellectual materials.  Under its Toi-Iho trademark the Auckland Gallery asserts the authenticity of creative works that have a Maori lineage, and tribal elders are expressing concern that the digitized versions of their cultural heritage be managed within an ethos of ownership, respect, and active engagement of the Maori people.  The New Zealand initiative of the Toi-Iho trademark is expected to prove more effective than traditional copyright law in assuring protection for the cultural and intellectual property rights of the indigenous community.  Unlike copyright, which expires after a defined term and is assigned to individuals, the Toi-Iho trademark can successfully address the collective nature and enduring guardianship required by indigenous communities for the care, development and preservation of their cultural and intellectual property.  Placing the digitization of Maori materials under the Toi-Iho trademark, coupled with management procedures that will involve the indigenous community in the planning and maintenance of the process at every step should mark the New Zealand project for emulation by other similar DL projects.  (D-Lib Magazine, May 2002)



A series of short articles in University Affairs explores open-access scholarly publishing. Featured is the new online History of Intellectual Culture, which has been launched by faculty at the University of Calgary and which carries the logos of both the University of Calgary Press and the University of Calgary.  The journal may be viewed at and the articles may be read at



While the market for e-books lags behind the optimistic predictions made during the last few years, librarians are offering users free online access to the content of e-books. In fact, libraries are one of the few places where there is real demand for electronic books.  But all is not robust in this landscape either.  Although hundreds of smaller publishers with fewer popular titles have entered into arrangements for libraries to “lend” their books electronically, the major trade publishers have thus far refused to participate.  Fear of widespread copying without control is at the heart of their stance.  Several aggregators are making electronic books available to libraries, but often limit use to one person at a time, using the model of a traditional print library and failing to take advantage of the full power of new information technologies.  To look at some e-books go to or explore the links on the UIUC English Library’s web site  To read more about the differing perspectives of publishers and librarians on this issue see the New York Times at



Gale Publishing has announced an ambitious plan to publish a digital edition of THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.  Gale officials say they believe the project to be the most ambitious single digitization project ever undertaken, encompassing more than 20 million pages from nearly 150,000 English-language titles published between 1701 and 1800.  Working in cooperation with the British Library, a variety of other major research libraries and the English Short Title Catalogue committee, Gale will scan more than 12,000 reels of microfilm.  Searching will be supported by hit-term highlighting and downloadable MARC records.  Additional metadata, including the full text of title and content pages, as well as direct access to all illustrations will also be available.  "This library is fundamental to the creation and understanding of the modern Western world," said Mark Holland, publisher in Gale's United Kingdom office.  "However, just as important is the rich functionality of the database.  It will permit new research and teaching opportunities to a greatly expanded community of students, teachers, and historians worldwide."  The digital edition will be available by June 2003.  (LJ Academic News Wire 6/13/02) 


Adobe Systems Incorporated has announced Adobe Content Server 3.0, an end-to-end software solution that enables the secure distribution of Adobe Portable Document Format-based (PDF) eBooks.  New Content Server 3.0 functionality makes it possible for libraries to lend and distribute Adobe PDF-based e-books to patrons.  Content providers and businesses may also use Content Server 3.0 to offer digital subscriptions of Adobe PDF content to consumers or employees.

With 3.0, libraries will be able to deliver existing Adobe PDF e-books and other digital materials to patrons.  The e-books are automatically checked in and out, and may be integrated with a library's existing catalog system.  Through the library's Web interface, patrons use a simple process to check out and receive e-books, but do not need to be connected to the Internet to read them.  Libraries also can set usage rules so e-books expire after a certain amount of time or on a specified date.  When the lending license expires, the eBook is automatically disabled on the patron's computer and returned to the library catalog.